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Equinoxes, et sur la Nutation de l'Axe de la Terre dans le Système Newtonien,” 4to. Paris, 1749; and, in 1752, he published a treatise, containing much original matter, under the title, “ An Essay towards a New Theory of the Motion of the Fluids," [Essai d'une nouvelle Théorie du Mouvement des Fluides] 4to. Paris, 1752. In the same year he published, “ Elements of Music," upon the principles of Rameau ; an excellent abridgment of that author's doctrines. About the same time appeared, in the Memoirs of the Academy of Berlin, “ Researches concerning the Integral Calculus.” Other pieces, published at various times in the Memoirs of the Academies of Paris and Berlin, were afterwards collected under the title of “ Opuscules Mathématiques,” published at Paris in nine volumes 4to. in 1773, or “ Memoirs on various Subjects of Geometry, Mechanics, Optics, and Astronomy," from the year 1761 to 1773. D'Alembert also wrote “ Researches on several important Points of the System of the World." [Recherches sur différens Points importans du Système du Monde] 3 vols. 4to, Paris, 1754, 1756. These numerous and original productions, in various branches of mathematical science, entitle D'Alembert to rank among the most celebrated mathematicians of the age. He has had the merit of adding a new calculus, or method of performing mathematical investigations and resolutions, to those of the last age, and new branches of the science of motion to those discovered by Galileo, Huygens, and Newton.

• With the character of an eminent mathematician, D'Alembert united that of a polite scholar. Genius, judgment, and elegant taste are happily displayed in his miscellaneous works, and he is justly regarded in France as one of the first writers of that nation. He is generally understood to have been the first projector of that vast undertaking, to which the world has been much indebted for the diffusion of knowledge, “ The Encyclopædia.” This work was begun in 1750 by D'Alembert, Voltaire, Diderot, and many other learned men. The work is enriched by many valuable articles in mathematics, history, and polite literature, from the pen of D’A. lembert : and it may be remarked, to the credit of his judgment, that his style is always suited to his subject, and that he never assumes the language of poetry in sc tific discussions. To him the public is indebted for the excellent preliminary discourse of the Encyclopædia ; and the vestibule of this superb édifice will remain a lasting monument of his genius and good sense : it is an elegant dissertation, in which are united strength and harmony, learning and taste, just thinking and fine writing. The general table which he gives of human knowledge, discovers a comprehensive, well-informed, and methodical mind; and the judgments, which he passes upon writers who have contributed to the improvement of science, are worthy of an enlightened and impartial philosopher. D'Alembert displayed his fine talents in many other literary productions. His “ Translation of select Parts of Tacitus,” [Traduction de divers Morceaux de Tacite) in 2 vols. 12mo, afford an elegant specimen of his learning. His “ Memoirs of Christina, Queen of Sweden,” is a masterly piece of biographical writing. In this work the au



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Aikin and Enfield - General Biograply, Vel. 1. thor shows that he understood the natural rights of mankind, and that he had the courage to assert them. His “ Essay on the Al. liance between the Learned and the Great,” gravely, but keenly, satirises the mean servility of the former, and the insoient tyranny of the latter. A lady of high rank, hearing the author accused of having exaggerated the despotism of the great, and the submission which they require from those who are honoured with their patron. age, said smartly, “ If he had consulted me, I could have told him still more of the matter.” These pieces, together with other essays on subjects of polite literature ; “ Eloges," on Bernouilli, Terrasson, Montesquieu, Mallet, and Dumarsais; and “ Elements of Philosophy,” were about the year 1760 collected into five volumes, and published under the title of "Melanges de Litérature, d'Histoire, it de Philosophie,” 5 vols. 12mo. [Literary, Historical, and Philo. sophical Miscellanies.]

In 1765, D'Alembert published a piece “ On the Destraction of the Jesuits,” [De la Destruction des Jésuites] in 12mo, Paris, 2765, in which he treats with nearly equal severity the Jesuits and their adversaries. He gives a large collection of epigrams occasioned hy the fall of this body, with some of his own. This work treats the disciples of Ignatius Loyola with so much insulting contempt, that it may not improperly be said of the author, “Non ridet, sed

irridet.” [He deals in derision rather than ridicule.] D'Alembert - excelled in panegyric no less than satire. Upon his election, in 1772, to the office of secretary to the French academy, he continued the “ History of the Academy,” published by Messrs. Pelieson and D'Olivet, by w'ting in the form of éloges, or panegyrics, “ An History of those Members of the French Academy who died between the Years 1700 and 1771,” [Histoire des Membres de l'Académie l'rançoise, morts depuis 1700 jusqu'en 1771] 6 vols. 12mo, Paris, 1787. This collection, notwithstanding some inequalities of style, is justly admired; it abounds with lively portraits, amusing anec. dotes, ingenious parallels, and fine reflections.

• While D'Alembert confined himself chiefly to mathematical studies, he remained in comparative obscurity; and his uncommon talents as a man of genius and wit were known only to a small circle of friends. As soon, however, as he embarked in the great design of publishing an Encyclopædia, he attracted a large share of public attention ; and, with some obloquy, on account of the freedom of several articles of the work, obtained, as he proceeded, high reputation for the knowledge and talents which, in common with his colleagues, he discovered. His company was now sought by the great, and his literary merit was thought sufficient to entitle him to royal patronage. Through the interest of the minister, count D'Argenson, the king, in 1756, granted him a pension of twelve hundred livres. In 1762, the empress of Russia invited him to undertake the education of her son, the grand.Juke, accompanying the invitation with an offer of a salary of an hundred thousand livres, and other considerable privileges. This flattering proposal, D'Alembert's attachment to his friends and his country, and his fondness for literary leisure, would not permit him to accept,


Though it was urged a second time, by a letter written by the empress's own hand, he still persisted in his refusal. The next year another, perhaps more enticing though less lucrativc, offer was made him hy the king of Prussia. That illustrious philosopher, and patron of philosophers, invited D'Alembert to meet him at Wesel after the peace of 1963, and, on the first interview, affectionately embraced him. The king's first question was, “ Do the mathematics furnish any method of calculating political probabilities ?" To which the geometrician replied, “ That he was not acquainted with any method of this kind, but that if any such existed, it could be of no use to a hero, who could conquer against all probability." The king, who would, doubtless, be gratified by such a compliment, and who was alreadly well acquainted with the talents of D'Alembert, made him an oifer of the presidency of the academy of Berlin, vacant by the death of Maupertuis. The ferment which had lately been excited in France by some articles in the Encyclopædia, especially that of Geneva, and the odium which had particularly fallen upon himself, might have furnished a good reason for seeking a peaceful asylum in the court of a philosophical prince. D'Alembert, however, chose to decline the offer; and the king, far from being displeased at the refusal, maintained a friendly correspondence with him as long as he lived. The letters which passed between them will be found in “ The Posthumous Works of the King of Prussia.” This correspondence, together with that which he carried on with Voltaire and other philosophers ; the constant intercourse which he had with illustrious persons at home, and with learned forcigners; his influence in the academy of sciences, and, above all, in the French academy, of which, after the death of Duclos in 1772, he was secretary, were circumstances which concurred to give importance to the character which D'Alembert, during the latter part of his life, sustained in the republic of letters. And, though his enemies called him the Mazarin of licerature, candour requires us to believe, that he owed his influence less to artful management and supple address, than to the esteem which his talents and virtues inspired. His aversion to superstition and priest-craft carried him, it is true, into the region of infidelity; and his enmity to the Jesuits and the clergy produced in him a degree of hostility against the religion of his country, which sometimes obliged even the philosopher Frederic to read him a lesson of moderation. The eccentricity of his opinions did not, however, destroy the virtues of his heart. A love of truth, and a zeal for the progress oź science and freedom, formed the basis of his character; strict probity, a noble disinterestedness, and an habitual desire of obliging, were its distinguishing features. Many young people, who discovered talents for science and learning, found in' him a patron and guide. To worthy men, even in adversity and persecution, he was a firm and courageous friend. To those who had shown him kindness, he never ceased to be grateful. Gratitude induced him to dedicate two of his works to two ininisters, when they were in disgrace, the count D'Argenson, to whom he liad owed his pension, and the marquis D'Argenson, who had given him many proofs of respect and esteem. When, in early life, mad. de Tencin,

informed government,

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informed of his singular talents, came to him, and fondly caressing him, discovered to him the secret of his birth, “ What do you tell me, madam ?” he cried out : " Ah, you are but a step-mother ; it is the glazier's wife who is my mother !” Through life he retained for his nurse the affectionate sensibility of a grateful son. He remained in her house near thirty years, and did not leave it, till, in 1765, after a long illness, his physician represented to him the neces. sity of removing to a more airy lodging. His health being recruited, he continued to ocenpy his honourable station among philosophers till the 29th of October 1783, when, in the sixty-sixth year of his age, he expired; leaving behird him the reputation of amiable virtues, and eminent talents. Perhaps no character has ever appeared, which has more completely excmplified the union of strong mathematical genius with an elegant tasie for polite literature. Elove de 7. le Rond d'Alembert par M. Condorcet, dans l'Histoire de l'Acad. Iranç. 1783. Nouv. Dict. Hist. Supplem. to Hutton's Mathem. Dict.-L.'

It will be observed that, in this memoir, Dr. Enfield has but slightly touched on the infidelity which marks some of the writings of D'Alembert ; particularly in that copious fountain of French scepticism, the Encyclopedie:- but it should be remembered that such was not the general tenor of D'Alembert's publications, and that his religious or anti-religious tenets but little interest the investigator of his mathematical and other philosophical labours, or the reader of his compositions on subjects of general literature.-- A few particulars of this distinguised man occur in our last Appendix, p. 508-512. in mentioning a posthumous publication of some of his epistolary and miscellaneous productions.

Before we close our account of this volume, we cannot but express our wish that it had been begun on a scale somewhat less extensive. Many names occur even in this well-selected collection, of which perhaps few readers would regret the omission. These must tend to swell the limits of the work to a wide extent. The present volume, though a thick quarto, closely printed, goes no farther in the alphabetical order than PAR.- Who the gentleman is who fills the place of Dr. Enfield, we are not informed: but we understand that he is a very proper successor of that worthy and well-qualified man.

We think that each volume should be accompanied by a table of the names which are celebrated in it.


G. 2

Art. II. The Royal Tribes of Wales. By Philip Yorke, Esq.

of Erthig. 4to. pp. 200. and 12 Plates. il. 1s. Boards. White.

The inhabitants of conquered countries

are partial to their antiquities; and however happy they may be under a new

government, they have a propensity to lament the loss of that pristine grandeur, which, when they were in full possession of it, they perhaps unwillingly contributed to support. We are animals of habitude in some things, and of variety in others. It is difficult to relinquish old customs and comforts under a new government; and, under an old government, we are languishing for variety

The work before us seems to possess a local interest: we say local, because harsh and barbarous national appellations are repelling to all except the natives of the country, who are acquainted with its history and worth.

In general, writers on the antiquities of the region which gave them birth, and on the feats of its heroes, are insensibly impel. led to overload description with panegyric, in endeavouring to excite wonder and respect in the minds of their readers : but no weak partiality and enthusiasm for the author's country, and its antient inhabitants, appear in this work; which is written with the abilities of a scholar, and with the candour of a gentleman, Mr. Yorke temperately relates what is praiseworthy and what is blameable; and he appears to see the ridi. cule of some characters and customs, as well as the merit of others. We are inclined, indeed, to regard this genealogical account of the descendants of the first inhabitants of our island, as the most accurate, temperate, and judicious, that our literature can boast; and we would advise our readers, who may likewise be Mr. Yorke's readers, not to be dismayed by the genealogical dryness of the Grst 30 or 40 pages ; because the subsequent part of the work is enlivened by anecdotes and historical information, which will interest not merely the natives of Wales, but the inhabitants of England who are in any way connected with that principality.

It is difficult to detach passages for citation from a work so well digested. Mr. Yorke complains of the want of dates in the historical MSS. of Welsh history : but a chain of facts from the poctical remains of the Bards may be formed with tolerable accuracy. Welsh antiquaries boast that the Bards neyer dealt in fiction, like the poets of other countries: “a Bard (say they) and a Genealogist were synonimous terms." This may perhaps account for the omission of dates; which it is so difficult to hitch into verse. We have no dates in Homer and Virgil.

From the time of Gruffudd ab Cynan, in the 12th century, chronology is pretty well preserved. In 1135, we are told,

• Gruffudd ab Llywelyn, in concert with Owain and Cadwaladr, the sons of Gruffudd ab Cynan, made a successful irruption on South Wales, and returned with a large booty; no light object in the war. fara of that period.

• This

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