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Art. 42. Strictures on the proposed Union between Great Britain and
Ireland; with Occasional Remarks. By Nicholas Gay, Esq.
F. R. S.-Qui Mores Hominum multorum vidit & Urbes.-8vo.
Is. 6d. Stockdale. 1799.

This writer, who is friendly to an Union, recommends the measure by arguments of such an odd cast, that if they do not convince they will certainly divert the reader. We here find, in the small space of 38 pages, not only arguments for an Union, but also a sketch of Wales, Liverpool, Birmingham, the North of Ireland, &c. &c. &c. interspersed with a variety of observations on whiskey, Irish cars, English carts, waggons, hard roads, good inns, ditches, churches, oratorios, &c. &c. Every one will admit that here is enough for money!-In this discursive way, however, the author shews his good intentions towards his native land of Ireland, by offering many remarks tending to the improvement of that country, which deserve attention.

Art. 43. The Power of Parliament considered, in a Letter to a
Member of Parliament. 8vo. pp. 32. No Price, nor Book-
seller mentioned. London. 1799.

This animated but unknown writer discusses the question so much
agitated on the other side of the water, "How far the power of
Parliament is competent to the transfer of its authority?" This im-
portant point, on which the proposed Union so materially hinges,
is here decided in the negative; and we must acknowlege, though
confessedly well-wishers towards the great and adventurous measure,
that the present investigation is conducted with most respectable
ability. The author's motto, from JUNIUS, is very apposite to the
design of his Letter: "The power of King, Lords, and Commons,
is not an arbitrary power. They are the trustees, not the owners
of the estate. The fee-simple is in us. They cannot alienate, they

cannot waste."

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Art. 44. Constitutional Objections to the Government of Ireland by a
separate Legislature, in a Letter to John Hamilton, Esq. occa-
sioned by his Remarks on a Memoir on the projected Union.
By Theobald M'Kenna, Esq. 8vo. pp. 85. Dublin. 1799.
Mr. McKenna is one of those writers who recommend a legisla
sive incorporation of the two countries, chiefly by shewing that
the present constitution of Ireland is that of complete subserviency
to Great Britain; that pretended Independent Ireland is but a pro-
vince of the British empire, as Spain and Achaia were provinces of


By Henry Maddock, jum?? 219st of Lincoln's 1/6 Debrett


Rome; that this subserviency of Ireland cannot favourably affect the public; that the Parliament of Ireland cannot pretend to be a popular delegation; that the Irish Houses of Parliament cannot wisely and beneficially legislate for their country, because they are partial and biassed; that the only token of independent or paramount power, which they possess, is the droit de potence, or the right of gibbeting the people; that they possess no affectionate solicitude for their constituents; that the result of their legislative labours is but to have created or cherished a state of society in Ireland marked by an eternal struggle between the rich and pour, not unlike the wars waged between the Indian Tribes and the back settlements of America;' that, in the agency of the Irish Parliament, a competent cause may be assigned for the ill-condition of its subjects; that the Irish Parliaments have an interest distinct from that of the nation, as the French nobility had an interest distinct from that of the people; that they form the centre of a system, which, like the late Court of France, goads and irritates the people, and which can never cease to draw down on Ireland a repetition of the disasters which she has witnessed;-in a word, that the Irish government is an oligarchy adverse to the body of the people.

We acknowlege that this tone of argument, designed to recommend an Union, appears to us highly injudicious; because it seems difficult to conceive that it does not immediately tend to palliate or justify the past, and to stimulate to new, rebellions. How much more prudent is that reasoning, which, throwing a veil over the follies or the vices of the Irish legislature, (if indeed that legislature be stained by vices and by folly,) confines itself to recommend this favourite measure by proving that it tends to add new strength to the empire, and new sources of industry and wealth to the Irish people. On these topics, however, Mr. M'Kenna scarcely touches. He ́delights to soa: in the high regions of political metaphysics; and to indulge in profound speculation on the operations of abstract principles; or, if he condescends to notice matters of fact, it is but to accumulate those which may illustrate most strongly the degraded, slavish, miserable, and oppressed state of his country, and may heap disgrace and odium on its legislature. Is it prudent in gentlemen, who argue for committing the interests of Ireland exclusively to a British government, (for such in substance will be the effect of an Union,) to persuade Ireland that a Parliament, admitted by their own argument to have been the instrument of that government, has been the bane and scourge of the

We beg pardon of Mr. M'Kenna for these observations ;-if they appear to be severe, we can plead in excuse that his work fell under our notice immediately after we had perused what we conceive to be a much more able composition on the same subject-the speech of Mr. Sylvester Douglas; (see p. 167 of this Review,) and by which, possibly, we may have been led to regard the remarks of Mr. McKenna with a less favourable eye than we should have otherwise done.



Art. 45. The Hygrology, or Chemico-Physiological Doctrine of the
Fluids of the Human Body: Translated from the Latin of J. J.



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Plenck, of Vienna, Professor of Chernisty, &c. By Robert
Hooper, of Pembroke College, Oxford, M. D. F. L. S. F.L.M. S.
and Honorary Member of several Societies. Svo. pp. 270. 55.
Boards. Boosey. 1797.

On this work of the celebrated Plenck, the translator remarks that

The analysis of the Human Fluids, according to the laws of modern chemistry, has been, for some time, a desideratum in medicine; but until the present publication, no writer has exhibited a complete view of the subject.

The great experience of the learned author, from his situation as Public Professor of Chemistry, and the luminous order and perspicuity which is seen in every part of the following Treatise, cannot but render it extensively useful in a chemical and physiological point of view.

No writer ever possessed, in an higher degree, the spirit of analysis: rich in matter, and concise in description, he every where unfolds to his readers, with perspicuity and order, the nature and qualities of the subject on which he treats.

The subsequent work is principally designed as a compendium, or text book, to the more claborate labours of modern chemists, who have, in part only, examined the properties of some particular fluids of the body; but it is to be hoped, that it may further excite physi cians, to elucidate the nature and office of the animal fluids, by this mode of analysis, and lead to à clearer conception of the Animal Economy.

It will also serve as an useful introduction to the general pathofogy the respectable professor promises; which is likely to prove of great utility in the practice of medicine.'

From the examination into which M. Plenck has here entered, respecting the various fluids of the human body, we shall select that which he has advanced on the Nervous Fluid.

The NERVOUS FLUID. An extremely subtile liquid, contained in the very minute canals which form the medulla of the cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla oblongata, medulla spinalis, and nerves.

The SECRETING ORGAN is composed of the extremities of the arteries which form the vascular cortex of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and medulla spinalis.

But the medulla spinalis is internally vascular, and externally medullary; that the spinal nerves may not have to pass through the cortical substance.

The nervous liquid appears to exhale from the extremities of the nerves. The lassitude and debility of muscles from too great exercise, and the dulness of the sensorial organs from excessive use, would seem to prove this.

It has no SMELL nor TASTE; for the cerebrine medulla is insipid and inodorous. Nor has it any COLOUR, for the cerebrum and Herves are white.

It is of so subtile a CONSISTENCE, as never to have been detected. Its MOBILITY is STUPENDOUs, for in less than a moment, with the consent of the mind, it is conveyed from the. cerebrum to the muscles, like the electric matter.

Whether the nervous fluid be carried, from the organ of sense in the sensorial nerves to the cerebrum, and from thence in the motory perves to the muscles, cannot be positively affirmed, but may be proved.

The CONSTITUENT PRINCIPLES of this liquid are perfectly unknown, as they cannot be rendered visible by art, or proved by exR periment.

REV. OCT. 1799.

periment. Upon making a ligature upon a nerve, the motion of the fluid is interrupted, which proves that something corporeal flows through it. It is therefore a weak argument, to deny its existence. because we cannot see it; for who has seen the matter of heat, oxygene, azote, and other elementary bodies, the existence of which no physician in the present day doubts?

The electric matter, whose action on the nerves is very great, does not appear to constitute the nervous fluid: for nerves exhibit no signs of spontaneous electricity: nor can it be the magnetic matter, as the experiment of Gavian with the magnet demonstrates nor is it oxygene, nor hydrogene, nor azote; for the first very much irritates the nerves, and the other two suspend their action.

I am of opinion that the nervous liquid is an element sui generist which exists and is produced in the nerves only; hence, like other. elements, it is a thing unknown, and only to be known by its effects. The pulpous softness of some nerves, and their lax situation does not allow them and the brain, to act on the body and the soul only by oscillation. Lastly, a tense chord although ligated, oscillates.

Use of the NERVOUS FLUID. It appears to be an intermedi. ate substance between the body and the soul, by means of which the latter thinks, perceives, and moves the muscles subservient to the will. Hence the body acts upon the soul, and the soul upon the body.

Lastly, it appears to differ from the vital principle; for parts live, and are irritable which want nerves, as bones, tendons, plants, and insects.'

On this subject, we shall only remark that much is here affirmed concerning that which is of so subtile a consistence, as never to

have been detected.'

The translator proposes, on a future occasion, to give some ob servations on the Chemical Analysis of the Human Fluids, in a distinct Treatise.


Art. 46. Observations on Mr.Simmons's Detection, &c. &c. with a Defence of the Cæsarian Operation, &c. &c. Illustrated by numerous Engravings. By John Hull, M. D. &c. Part I. 8vo. pp. 87. 25. Bickerstaff.

We have long entered our protest against the acrimony with which this dispute has been carried on; and it is become requisite, for the credit of both parties, that it should now be concluded. The pre-, sent publication seems to be the hasty effusion of a mind severely galled by Mr. Simmons's last pamphlet, [see Rev. Sept. Art. vin.] and contains nothing new regarding the subject in dispute.

The question is now decided against the operation : let it then rest in peace. We wish that it were in our power to accelerate that oblivion of the personal severities attending its discussion, to which time will undoubtedly consign them.


Art. 47. A Treatise on Bilious Diseases and Indigestion; with the Effects of Quassy and Natron in these Disorders. By John Gibson, M. D. Surgeon in the Royal Navy. 8vo. 23. Murray and

Co. 1799.

We cannot commend this performance for clearness of arrangement,

With properties peculiar to itself."


for precision of language, nor for novelty of information. It contains a heavy detail of practice which is familiar to every intelligent physi cian; if we except the large doses of fossile alkali recommended by

1 the author.

We were amused by the superb manner in which an old acquaintance is introduced by Dr. G. (p. 7, &c.) as the Salt of many Virtues. The reader needs not fly to the ingenious Doctor to procure this noble medicine, which is only the ci-devant Sal Polychrest, the late Kali Vitriolatum, and the present Suiphat of Potash; "Your son that was, your boy that is, your child that shall be*." A more important deficiency in chemical knowlege appears at p. 41, where Dr. Gibson recommends Dr. Griffiths's mixture of sulphat of iron myrrh, and potash, as the best form' for administering chalybeates: in this formula, it is evident that the sulphat of iron must be decom posed, and the iron be precipitated by the potash; the Salt of many Virtues, indeed, is thus substituted for the chalybeate, but this is clearly a quid pro quo, not in the author's contemplation.-We do not mean, by this remark, to discourage the use of Dr. Griffiths's formula; we only object to its being recommended as the best mode of giving iron; the metal given in substance, in form of rust, or of oxyds otherwise obtained, may each deserve a preference, according to particular cir


It is no objection to a medical work, that the author may have been anticipated in some of his observations: but we have a right to expect that the principal part of it shall be original. In this respect, we think, Dr. Gibson has laid himself open to remark, since the greater part of his treatise consists of extracts: but we must do him the justice to add that most of them are attributed to their respective



Art. 48. Practical Observations on the Cure of Wounds and Ulcers on the Legs, without Rest; illustrated with Cases. By Thomas Whately, Member of the Corporation of Surgeons of London. 8vo. pp. 352. 78. Boards. Cadell jun. and Davies. 1799. Mr. Whately conceives that the difficulty of curing wounds and ulcers, of the inferior extremities, is owing to their dependent situaThis, he thinks, may be overcome by the pressure of bandages, which will afford sufficient support to the vessels, to answer the purpose effected by placing the limbs in the horizontal position. In this plan, he has been in a considerable degree anticipated by the publications of Mr. Bayntun; yet the present work is not superseded by what has hitherto appeared on the subject. The scope of observ ation which the author has taken, and the explanatory details into which he has entered, though they may not afford much instruction to experienced practitioners, will be gratifying and useful to students. Mr. Whately recommends the pressure to be made by the application of flannel rollers round the limb, over a very simple dressing, as of spermaceti ointment; applying compresses, so as to fill up any inequalities of the part, and to make the whole cylindrical.

The cases occupy a considerable part of the volume, and are illustrated by a coloured plate, very neatly executed, exhibiting various * Merchant of Venice.

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