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been made to establish infidelity, in the most extensive sense of the word, on philosophical principles, and to divest the human mind of the salutary and comfortable influence of religion, this discourse (as far as it goes), may be of some use ; especially with the rising genesation ; since it is concise, and writren with great plain ness. Our readers will not be displeased with the following extract, which contains a complete refutation of the atheistical hypothesis :

• Let as examine this subject ; it is worth examining ; for if we follow it through all its cases, the result will be, that the existence of a superior cause, or that which man calls God, will be discoverable by philosophical principles.

• In the first place, admitting matter to have properties, as we see it has, the question still remains, how came matter by those pro. perties ? To this they will answer, that matter possessed those properties eternally. This is not solution, but assertion; and to deny it is equally as impossible of proof as to assert it. It is then neces. sary to go further, and therefore I say,—if there exist a circumstance that is not a property of matter, and without which the universe, or to speak iir a limitest degree, the solar system, composed of planets and a sun, could not exist a moment ; all the arguments of Atheism, drawn from properties of matter, and applied to account for the universe, will be overthrown, and the existence of a superior cause, or that which man callo God, becomes discoverable, as is before said, by natural philosophy:

II now to shew that such a circumstance exists, and what it is.

• The universe is composed of matter, and, as a system, is sustained: hy motion. Motion is not a property of matter, and without this motion the solar system could not exist. Were motion a property of matter, that undiscovered and undiscoverable thmg, called perpetual motion, would establish itself. It is because motion is not a property of matter, that perpetual motion is an impossibility in the hand of every being, but that of the Creator of motion. When the pretenders to Atheisis can produce perpetual motion, and not till then, they may expect to be credited.'

Mo-y. Art. 49. Observations on the Statute of the 31st Geo. II. Chap. 29. .concerning the rissize of Bread ; with occasional References to the 3d Geo. III. Chap. 11. the 13th Geo. III. Chap. 62. and to the late Statute for regulating the Assize of Bread in the City of London. By the Rev. Luke Heslop, Archdeacon of Bucks. Svo. , 15. 6d. Shepperson and Reynolds. The object of these observations is thus stated by Mr. Heslop:

• During the lase dearness of bread, the poor in the country complained that the profats of the bakers were too great ; the bakers shewed the magistrates who interposed their authority, that they sold their bread considerably under the price in the table of the statute provided for its regulation. In the City of London also the Magistratéinbeing convinced that the price of bread set by the statute from the price of wheat was to0 dear, formed a table in 1792 for setting an assize from the price of flour, by which table the price of bread was seduced, and no opposition, as I am informed, made to

the regulation. It was therefore admitted by the trade both in Lon_don and in the country, that the price of bread set by the table in the statute was too dear; but how much it was too 'dear, or what were the profits of the persons who manufactured four, (whether mealmen or bakers,) was necessary to be known. For the statute does not mention what quantity of wheat is allowed for four peck loaves, or for the sack of flour from which it directs that twenty peck loaves shall be made. It was therefore necessary to investigate the quantity allowed, and also what quantity is a sufficient allowance.'

By the preseut investigation, the following important facts are ascertained :--that six bushels of wheat will produce something more than a sack of four: that the price of a sack of four is nevertheless equal to the price of 7, bushels of wheat, and that the mealınan aç. cordingly is paid ! bushel, or rather more, for manufacturing six bushels. Hence it follows that the dearer wheat is, the more the ex pence of manufacturing it into flour is increased; the mealnan’s profit rising in proportion as the poor are distressed.

The opinion of Mr. Pownali (published by him in a pamphlet, ja 2773, shortly after having introduced the bill for making standard wheaten bread,) was, that 21 per cent. on one return was a fair and just profit, considering the number of returns that are made in a year. According to recent information, the mealman makes sometimes 12, and scarcely ever less than eight returns, in the year. Mr. H. how. ever is willing to admit 5 per cent. on each return; which, considering the value of the apparatus, and the expences in manufacturing flour, may not be too great an allowance. By many experiments, and by information from persons in the trade, it appears that a sack of four will make 21, peck loaves; though, according to the statute, and in the assi e tables, the price of the peck loaf is settled on the supposition that it contains one-twentieth part of a sack.

As simple and clear principles on which we might set the assize of bread, Mr. Heslop proposes that, To the price of 6 bushels of wheat be added 5 per cent. which should be the price of the sack of flour: to which add 115. 81the allowance for baking 20 peck loaves according to the London table, and this sum divided by 20 should determine the price of the peck loaf. It might perhaps be still nearer the truth, if, to the price of the sack. of four found as above, 123. 3d. were added, and the sum divided by 21.

There is scarcely a more necessary duty of police than that of regulating the price of breaci, according to the real cost of materials and labour. The principal difficulty (which certainly ought to be surmounted) appears to be, the establishing on equitable principles the price of manufacturing wheat into four,

The want of correct information seems to have occasioned the de. fects in the statutes hitherto made concerning the Assize of Bread. This information is supplied by the public-spirited labours of Mr. Heslop.

Particulars respecting the diflerent qualities of fiqur, and many other circumstances comected with the subject, are likewise exo plained in this useful publication.. I 2



Art. 50. Biographical Anecdotes of the Founders of the late Irish Re

bellion ; including Memoirs of the most conspicuous persons concerned in that foul and most sanguinary Conspiracy. "Inpartially written by a candid Observer. Svo. 28. 6d. Stewart, &c. 1799.

From fair appearances observable in this writer's details, we may not unreasonably infer that the particulars which he has collected are Trot unworthy of credit; and that the general representations of the characters here sketched are as just and candid as can be expected from the resentful pen of a zealous loyalist. The pamphlet has evi. dently been written with great rapidity; and, in consequence of the author's hurry, the language is incorrect. It seems, indeed, that he has not allowed himself time to revise his manuscript, nor even the 'proof sheets from the press. Among other instances, we may notice what he his inadvertently said in regard to Mr. Tone, viz. while 'confined in his cell after condemnation, he cut his throat with a razor, under which wound he languished a few days and expired.' P. 10.Whereas, at only the distance of p. 13. he mentions that famous rebel as having been executed in the Irish metropolis, for high treason.'

The principal persons, who are the subjects of these memoirs, aré Lord Edward Fitzgerald,

James Napper Tandy, Esq. Theobald Wolf Tone, Esq.

Archd. Hamilton Rowan, Esq.
Arthur O'Connor, Esq.

Dr. Esmond,
Rev. William Jackson,

Mr. Oliver Bond,
Sir Edward William Crosbie, Bart. i Thomas Addis Emmet, Esq.
Beauchamp Bagnal Harvey, Esq. John Sweetman, Esq. &c. &c,
Henry and John Shcares, Esqrs.
Art. 51. Sketches of Irish Political Characters of the preacnt Day;

showing the Parts they respect Lidly take in the Question of Union;
what Places they hold, their Characters as Speakers, &c. &c. 8vo.
63. Boards. Davison, Lombard-street. 1799.

The great question of an union of the two sister islands will doubtless form an era in the history of both kingdoms; and all publications of credit, relative to it, will therefore excite the curiosity of almost every description of readers. With respect to the inhabitants of Ireland in particular, the names of those who have exerted their abilities, and given their votes on this important occasion, will, as the author of the present Sketches observes, be sedulously enquired after by posterity :' we may add, and by the present generation.

This work is naturally divided into three parts,-1. The members of the Irish House of Lords ; 2. The distinguished members of the Irish House of Commons; 3. Lawyers, and other distinguished characters, out of parliament.

among these, we observe every name that has figured, on this grand occasion, in the public papers and pamphlets of the times ; and readers, who interest themselves in such subjects, will find their curi. osity considerably gratified by the memoirs and anecdotes here communicated to them. The compiler appears, from his style and man. ner, to be a writer of. no' mean talents. Probably he is some young Dublin Barrister : but it would have given additional satisfaction to his readers, if he had thought it proper to acquaint them with his

name named;

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name*. -Without, however, guessing who the person is of whom we
are now speaking, we may venture a slight glance at his character as
a writer, in the words (with some restriction) which he him.
self lots in speaking of the celebrated Mr. Curran.— His mind is
amply stored with a variety of useful and entertaining knowlege: his
matter is drawn from an abundant source, and is always [generally,
may be a more proper word) nappily selected.'
Art. 52. Sulstance of the Bishop of Rochester's Speech in the House of

Prers, July 5, 1799, in the Debate on the Second Reading of the
Bill to prohibit the trading in Slaves on the Coast of Africa, within
certain Limits. 8vo. Robson.

The utter abomination in which the Right Rev. orator holds the
African slave-trade does lionour to his character, as a Man and as a
CHRISTIAN. He appears to be thoroughly master of the subject,
whether viewed in a commercial, a political, or a religious light; and
his observations are strictly argumentative, and convincing. As to
the unsuccessful bill which gave rise to this interesting debate, it it
sufficiently known
Art. 53. The Confessions of the celebrated Countess of Lichtenau, late

Mrs. Rietz, now confined in the Fortress of Gloglau, as a State
Prisoner. Drawn from original Papers, ind translated from the
German. Svo. 25. sewed. West. 1799.

In the Appendix to our vol. xxvii, (1798,) P 501. we gave an ac-
count, from the original, of this piece of Court Secret History. Pre-
fixed to this translation, is the portrait of the Countess :--if it be a
just likeness, she never could have besn a beauty : but doubtless she
had attractions suited to the meridian of Berlin,
Art. 54. An Account of the providential Preservation of Elizabeth

Woodcock, who survived a Continen ent under the Snow, of nearly
Eight Days and Nights, in the Month of February 1799. In
Two Parts. By Thomas Verney Okus, Surgeon.' 12mu.

This pamphlet contains a circumstantial detail of the singular accident which befel this poor woman, and of the consequences of her long exposure to cold and want, which she experienced after hier deliverance from the snow-drift. The story is well told, and is truly affecting

The newspapers have informed us that the unliappy sufferer has at last fallen a sacrifice to this extraordinary disaster, after having lin. 'gered a long time.

Fer? Art. 55. Dialogue between Dr. Johnson and Mrs. Knowles. 8vo.

6d. Arch. 1599. Few of our readers, we are persuadel, are unacquainted with the subject of this well-known dialogue, in which Johnson's bigotry received so complete a set-down, from the good sense of the la:ly above

The author cannot be considered as totally in unconcerned speco tator in respect of political attachment; and he will doubtless be ranked with the Anti-Unionists ; yet he cannot justly be te rined a vio. lent party-man.


nanedl; who appears to be one of those respectable people who, in ill-founded contempt, have been called Quakers. The editor's reason for the present republication of the dialogue may be given in his own words:

• Mír. Boswell, for reasons best known to himself (but which are guessed at by others), refused to admit into his book, Mie. Knowles's account of her Theological Dialogue with Dr. John500, although he had previously applied to her for it, and had frankly acknowledged to the truth of the particulars therein, which he afterwards thought proper to suppress. She therefore permitted her own account to be publishcú in the Gentleman's Magazine for June 1791, p. 500.

Mr. Boswell then in his second edition, by a marginal note, and surely by no means in a liberal style, disavows any recollecuion of matter different from his own statement. In the third edition, his note is continuer, which it is hoped will be deemed a suilicient inducement and apology for offering now to the public the above mentioned Dialogue, as a Supplement to the new edition of Mr. Bos. well's book.

• Mrs. Piozzi and Sir John Hawkins may perhaps be sometimes charged with inaccuracy ; but there are several persons who figure in Mr. Boswell's book, who are much dissatisfied with his representations and colloquial arrangements.'

Art. 56. A Warning against Schism: preached in the Parish Church

of St. Mary, Shrewsbury, before Two Friendly Societies, May 29,
1799. By J. B. Blakeway, M. A. Minister of the said Parish.
4to. is.' Longman.

Without deviating from the principles of liberality, this preacher zealously pleads for our established church; and he sets forth its excellence, and endeavours to counteract the efforts of those who would seduce men, especially the rising generation, from its communion, into the bye-paths of schism or dissent.

So numerous are the evils, both to societies and individuals, springing from religious divisions, that they ought not on slight pretences to be embodied, --if we may so express ourseives. Liberty of conscience ought most sacredly to be maintained : but prudence, and a love to good order, should not be neglected in the exercise of it. Schism may be said to consist in making frivolous rents and ruptures in the Christian church. Every light and trifling objection to the constituted order of things will not perhaps justify a schism, and the erection of an bosiile church. To be "given to change" is a had propensity. Making divisions is in itself an evil; and it can only be justified by the assurance of producing a great good. Separatiste may not have sufficiently considered this: but, if we calmly reason with them, they may see their mistake. Let 16: the right of separazion be ever denied: but let the established church endeavour to produce uniformity, by a conduct springing from moderation and good sense. Let her compel dissenters to come in, only by the gentle yet powerful weapons of the Gospel. Mr. B. recommends no other. His text is į Peter, y, 8.

Mo-y Art.

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