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· The son of God was before man, before the world, and before all' things. He is greater than all men, than prophets, patriarchs, and kings; than angels, the inhabitants of heaven, and than all other beings, except the Supreme God himself. He is said to be in God, with

God, and one with God, from the union of mind and will which he had with God : so also the disciples, being of one heart and one soul, are said to be one as God and Christ are. He was equal or like to God.-God, the author of all things, did not intend that any his creatures should be unemployed; his Son, who is next to himself, by the appointment of the Father, created all things in heaven and earth. - He was inferior to and the servant of the Creator, and Lond of all things, who is his God and Father as well as our's:---He came not of himself, but God sent him ;-the words he spake were not his own, but God's; and what he received from God, he declared unto men : the works and miracles which he did were not done by his own power, but by the direction and assistance of God. He was the Son and Word of God, but in the fulness of time took fiesh, was seen, and felt, and appeared as a man among us; but was greater, being Gull with us.'

Concerning the word GOD, the author remarks that, in its true, proper, and original sense, it is used relatively to the Supreme Being alone ;- in a lower sense and a few places, it is applied to the Son of God, who is very often called our Lord, and in some instances God, and our God, as having the power of God committed to him in the govern, ment of the world:--but he has not the same independent sovereignty as the self-existent God.' The famous text, Phil. ii. 5, 6, 7, is crio tically considered, and translated thus, . Let the same disposition be in you as 'was also in Christ Jesus, who, though he was in the likença of God, did not think it to be eagerly sought to appear as God, but debased himself,' &c.

The last three chapters relate to the Holy Ghost, which phrase Mr. Barker considers not as denoting the Divine influence, agency, and operation, variously employed: but, after having produced the Scripture language on the subject, he adds in the abstract, The Holy Ghost is the Spirit of God, sent by him, to do his will on carth, and to assist his servants ;-of the Father, who promised to give him, of the Son Christ our Lord, by the gift and appointment of the Father,--and of both of them jointly, as the Promiser and Conveyer. He is a real separate person, distinct from the Father and the Son, not a mere quality of the 'mind of God. This is mentioned in general, and less expressly when he is spoken of as sent to execute the business of God with his servants--more plainly when he is spoken of as a comforting Spirit, sent by the Father or the Son, not to speak his own words, but those appointed to hiin, and as appearing visibly—and very expressly when he is distinguished in person and office both from the Father and the Son.-',

We can only farther say that this author is known as a learned, well-intentioned, respectable man ;-he seeks after truth himself, and wishes to assist others in the same pursuit.

Hi. Art. 40. Two Sermons. By the Hon. and Right Res. William Knox, Lord Bishop of Kallaloe. 8vo.

13. 6d.


&c. · 1799.


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The first of these sermons was preached before the Lord Lieute. nant of Ireland 29th Nov. 1798, being the day appointed for a General Thanksgiving, and it is published by his excellency's command. The Right Rev. preacher offers many pertinent and judicious observations. He speaks of Britain as a nation which, alone and noassisted, fung herself into the Thermopyle of Europe *.' Yet, while he compliments our bravery, he does not forget to exhort us to humble onrselves before Goi, and to turn from our wicked ways. (Text 2 Chron. vii. 14.) He contrasts French with British Freedom, and attributes the preservation of our constitution to a vigorous government, and to a virtuous aristocracy. In commenting on the rebellion and disorders of Ireland, he laments the system which tended to wed the people to their ignorance, and is an advocate for giving them that degree of learning which may enable them to understani the arguments of loyalty, as well as the suggestions of treason.

The 2d sermon was preached in the chapel of Trinity College,
Dublin, April 7, 1799. "The text Prov. xxiv. 21. Here the students
are warned against an hasty adoption of opinions onsanctioned by the
authority of time, and against the snares and seductions of treason
and infidelity. The Bishop disclaims the wish to suppress free in-
quiry and rational discussion. It is not says he) free and impar.
tial inquiry that we deprecate, but hasty and arrogant pre-judgınent.'

These discourses evince an enlightened and liberal mind, arid are
Composed in a manly and nervous style of eloquence.
Art. 41. Serious Considerations on the Signatures of Testimonials for

Holy Orders. 8vo. 1$. Cadell jun. and Davies. 1799.
As too much care cannot be exercised in admitting to Holy
Orders, these scrious and learned hints may have use, in promptivg
the clergy to be cautious and conscientious in affixing their signa-
tures to the Testimonials for candidates for ordination,

DO space Art. 42. A Picture of Christian Pbilosophy. By Robert Fellowes,

A.B. Oxon. Second Edition, with Corrections and considerable
Additions. 8vor pp. 264. ss. Boards. White. 1799.

We congratulate Mr. Fellowes on the favourable reception which
his truly Christian tract has experienced from the public ; and we hail
this second edition as a consoling mark of a taste for genuine Christi-
anity among our countrymen. The friends of revealed truth, and of
human happiness, will never regret the purchase of this volume, and
the time which they employ in perusing it. It is the production of
an intrepid champion of the faith delivered to the saints, neither
warped by fashionable prejudices, nor biased by a party spirit : in
short, it is a work which men of all sects and distinctions, in religious
tenets, may read to their edification; and we hope that this enlarged
edition will be accompanied with the divine blessing ; and chat, while
Christianity seems in danger of being crucified between scepticism on
one hand and mysticism on the other, her furious persecutors may be
discomfited by the arms of uuth, and their angry spirit be laid for ever.

The first edition was noticed in our 26th vol. N. S. p. 452. Tooke. Ait. 43. Sermons.;. to which are subjoined suitable Hymns ; by Edmund Butcher. 8vo. pp. 456. 75. 6d. Boards. Johnson. 1798. * The allusion is classically elegant, and strictly just... 4


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Twenty-one sermons constitute this volume: which are wholly employed on subjects of real and practical moment. The preacher ap. pears to understand the nature of Christianity too well to perplex his audience by unintelligible or unmeaning niceties, and frivolous distinctions. He knows that its great purport is to recover men to righteousness, piety, and virtue, and to establish and improve them in its spirit and practice. Such therefore is the intention of the volume, and so important an end it is likely to effect, if perused with sober thought and attention. The style is plain and impressive ; oca casionally, perhaps, too much laboured, and in some instances rather deficient. The hymns which are added would no doubt prove benes ficial, when sung after the discourses to which they are appropriate, as fitted farther to impress on the memory and the heart those truths: which had been just before inculcated; and to a service of a like kind they may contribute, when perused after the discourse to which each is distinctly allotted.

Art. 44. Discourses to Academic Youth: by Edward Pearson, B.D.

Rector of Rempstone, Nottinghamshire; and late Tutor of Sidney,
Sussex College, Cambridge. 8vo. Pp. 275. 35. sewed. Lee
and Hurst. 1798.
These sermons were preached before the University of Cambridge.
The author's design is excellent ; to guard young men against
those dangers, with respect to moral practice, and religious

ciples, to which an academic life is more peculiarly exposed :' with a
similar intention they are now made public, for more general benefit.
The first five refer to moral practice, the last eight to religious
principles. We have in other instances * expressed (as it appeared
to us) a just approbation of Mr. Pearson's publications, and we feci
the same sentiments respecting the present. The sermons are sen-
sible, rational, and calculated to advance the purpose intended, if
perused with that attention which they require. We do not say
that the writer's sentiments in every instance completely harmonize
with ours, but that is not necessary.

In one of the notes, he pleads for the established morle of wor. ship, and recommends to the student'the works of some authors, whence, he apprehends, they may obtain a just sense of the inportance of uniformity in worship.'. The list is concluded by Das. beny's Guide to the Church; to which is added ;-' It will, of course, be understood, that, by my general recommendation of these works, I do not profess' my approbation of cvery particular contained in them.' To whatever denoinination of Christians, however, his judgment may most incline, Mr. P.'s warın sentiments of liberality and benevolence are avowed and unequivocal. Such, indeed, is the principle

which runs through the whole volume.- We see (says he) the

necessity, if we would be the true disciples of Jesus Christ, of follow-
ing him in that part of his character, by which no other founder of
a religion has been distinguished, the going about doing good.'

M. Rev. rol. lxxvi. p. 453,-voix lxxviiip. 97.


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Art. 45. Debates of the House of Lords, on the Evidence delivered

in the Trial of Warren Hastings, Esq. Proceedings of the East
India Company in consequence of his Acquittal ; and Testimo.
nials of the British and Native Inhabitants of India, relative to his
Character and Conduct whilst he was Governor-General of Fort
William in Bengal. 4to. Pp. 823. Debrett. 1797.

Of the materials which constitute this volume, the preface alone is recommended by novelty; if that may be called new which appeared so long ago as 1797. Mr. Hastings, in his usual impressive style, thus states his motives for the compilation: ,,. The virtues of candor and benevolence are gentle and unobtrusive, and, although the portion of the far greater part of mankind, rarely operate to the benefit of those who are the public objects of them. The severity of censure is an active principle, and when under the guidance of malice or prejudice, though but the breath of an individual give it utterance; it will sometimes overpower, or at least out. last, the still voice of applauding thousands. Something like this he has already experienced, and to guard against the future effects of such a cause, it was natural for him to wish to place, either in the hands of the public, ar in such other as would insure it a conveyance ro posterity, some memorial, which might serve at the same time for a protection to his future fame, and a justification of his acquittal : for, exalted as that court is by which it was pronounced, its justice way be, and has been arraigned.'The expedient which appeared to Mr. Hastings the least obnoxious to any improper constructions was, to adopt such authentic publications as had already made their appearance for other purposes, though directly tending to the end proposed; and of such the following articles consist, with the addition: of a few others of the same kind, which have since, and but very lately, been produced."

To the numerous and respectable friends of Mr. Hastings, this volume must prove an acceptable present, and for them chiefly it is in, tended. Subsequent and more alarming occurrences on the same scene have called the public attention from the events of his adminia stration : but his name still lives in the recollection of the natives of India ; and while his virtues are applauded by many, his talents cona tinue the admiration of all. Had he been at liberty to have formed his plans without the perpetual counteraction of his colleagues ; had he attended more to the improvement, and less to the aggrandise ment, of the country committed to his charge; and had his meaus been uniformly as unexceptionable as his ends; his government would: have challenged a high degree of comparative approbation. That it does soʻnow is the opinion of most ; and we hope that few ,will be found who will venture still to attach criminality to a character thus investigated, thus judged, and thus acquitted. Art. 46. Journal of a Tour through the North of England and Paris

of Scotland, with Remarks on the present State of the Established Church of Scotland, and the different Secessions therefrom. To. gether with Reflections on some Party.Distinctions in England.


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Designed to promote Brotherly Love and Forbearance among
Christians of all Denominations. Also some Remarks on the
Propriety of what is called Lay and Itinerant Preaching. By
Rowland Hill, A. M. late of St. John's College, Cambridge, and
Minister of Surry Chapel. · 8vo. 23. 60, stitched. Chapman, &c.

This is a curious performance. The pious, yet lively author gives
an account of the circumstances which attended his preaching, at
the many places where he stopped for that purpose, in the course of
his late peregrination ;--and while we perused his details, we were
continually reminded of the style of the journals of his famous prea
decessors, Whitfield and Wesley: Mr: Hill seems to possess a con.
siderable portion of the HONESTY of the first of those great founders
of Methodism, together with the acuteness and ingenuity of the sea
cond. We have, indeed, been much informed as well as amused by
the perusal of this yery peculiar production,
Art. 47. A Philosophicnl and Practical Treatise on Horses, and on

the Moral Duties of Man towards the Brute Creation. * By John Lawrence. Vol. II. 8vo.' pp. 587. 8s. Boards. Longman.

In this additional volume *, Mr. Lawrence treats particularly of the management of horses, under the heads of the economy of the stable, purchase and sale, veterinary medicine, &c. He writes with spirit, good sense, and humanity; and we can recommend nis work to the notice of our readers. The following note may be us:ful to such of them as may wish to try the new method of shoeing, prescribed by the Veterinary College:

• Certain of my own particular friends having complained, that they could not by any means induce their blacksmiths to change their old erroneous method, I advised them to send with their horses the following written notice:

“ Mr. A. B. desires his horses may be always shod, and their feet treated, as follows: Nothing to be cut from the soal, binders, or frog, but loose rotten scales. No shoes to be fitted on red-hot. Shoes to be made of good iron, with a flat surface for the horee to stand on; web not so wide as formerly, and weakest at heel, that the frog may rest on the ground. No moie opening of heels, on any pretence.

Fer! Art. 48. A Discourse delivered by Thomas Paine, at the Society of the Theophilanthropists, at Paris, 1798. 8vo.

8vo. 4d. Rickman. A refutation of atheism is the object of this short discourse ; which, if it contains nothing very new nor brilliant, has the merit of being, for the most part, unobjectionable. Many writers before this extraordinary polemic, have deduced the Being and Attributes of God from the works of the visible creation, and have erected on this rock the eternal foundations of Natural Religion. We have various publications of this kind in our language, which have been of singular use in resisting the torrent of infidelity. Among us, therefore, the necessity of Mr. P.'s discourse is superseded by more elaborate performances. In France, however, where the boldest attempts have * For an account of the first, see M. Rev. vol. xxiii. N. S. p. 321. Rev. Sept. 1799.




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