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Captain Lewis Sayre Van Duzer, U. S. N.
Mr. Herbert Treadwell Wade.
Dr. Albert Warren Ferris; Dr. FrederHORSE, FOSSIL.
ick R. Bailey ; Dr. David Gilbert Yates. Dr. William Diller Matthew.
Professor John Merle Coulter.
Professor Joseph Sweetman Ames. HORSESHOEING.
Dr. Albert Warren Ferris.
Dr. David Gilbert Yates.
Dr. David Gilbert Yates.
Major Clyde S. Ford.
Professor Charles F. Marvin.
Dr. Samuel G. Ayres.
Professor Irving F. Wood.
Professor Edward Bradford Titchener. Mr. Frederick Remsen Hutton.
Dr. Albert Warren Ferris.
Dr. David Gilbert Yates.
Dr. Horatio S. Krans.
Mr. Olaf 0. L. Vico.
Professor Martin A. Roganoff.
General A. W. Greely.
Mr. Moses Nelson Baker.
Mr. Herbert Treadwell Wade.
Mr. Cyrus C. Adams; Professor Dana HUME, DAVID.
Carleton Munro; Dr. George Kriehn; Professor Evander Bradley McGilvary.
Dr. James Wilford Garner; General HUMIDITY.
A. W. Greely; Mr. Joseph J. Král; Professor Charles F. Marvin.
Mr. Irwin Scofield Guernsey.
Professor John Lawrence Gerig.
Professor William Henry Carpenter. Professor John Lawrence Gerig.
Professor Daniel K. Dodge.
Mr. Harry E. V. Palmblad.
Professor C. N. Little; Professor C. H. Professor Robert M. Brown; Mr. Jo
Shattuck; Mr. Allen Leon Churchill.
Dr. Albert Warren Ferris.
Professor William Herbert Hobbs. Mr. George Gladden.
Professor David Hale Newland.
Professor Alvin Saunders Johnson. HUSBAND AND WIFE.
Mr. William Buck Guthrie.
Professor Harlan H. Barrows.
Mr. Allen Leon Churchill.
Professor Alvin Saunders Johnson.
Dr. George Kriehn.
Mr. Reginald Gordon.
Professor Edward Bradford Titchener,
Mr. William W. Bishop.
Mr. Russell Sturgis. *
AWAII, BLUE LAWS OF. See BLUE tinental deserts within thousands of miles, and
the winds which reach the islands have to pass HAWAIIAN (hä-wi'an) IS- over a broad expanse of water of a uniform and LANDS, or HAWAII, hä-wi'e moderately warm temperature. The average (formerly SANDWICH ISLANDS; po- temperatures of the lowlands of Hawaii are 70°
litically, the TERRITORY OF HAWAII). F. for January and 78° F. for July, and the A chain of islands in the Pacific Ocean, belong- extreme maximum and minimum temperatures ing to the United States, forming geographically recorded are, respectively, 89° F. and 54° F. and ethnologically the extreme northeastern On the mountain peaks, of course, frosts occur, group of Polynesia. They are situated between and snow sometimes remains throughout the latitudes 18° 54' and 22° 15' N., and between year. The mean temperature is about 10 degrees longitudes 154° 50' and 160° 30' W., about 2200 cooler than in any other land in the same latimiles southwest of San Francisco, and 4893 tude. The winds show the same equability; the miles from Hongkong. The chain consists of prevailing winds for 10 months in the year are eight inhabited and several small uninhabited the northeast trades. Alternate diurnal land islands, arranged nearly all in single file extend- and sea breezes occur, especially on the southing for about 400 miles from southeast to north- west coasts and around Hilo Bay on the northwest. The inhabited islands with their areas east coast of Hawaii; warm southwest gales are are, beginning at the southeast: Hawaii, 4015 also common in winter. Storms are rare, and square miles; Maui, 728; Kahulaui, 69; Molokai, hurricanes unknown. With respect to humidity 261; Lanai, 135; Oahu, 600; Kauai, 544; and and rainfall, however, the climate is extremely Niihau, 97. Total area, 6449 square miles. varied, each narrow locality having its own
Topography and Geology. The islands are peculiar climate, depending on its position with of purely volcanic origin, being really the sum- regard to the winds and mountains. Most of mits of enormous volcanic cones raised from the
the rain is brought by the northeast trade winds bottom of the ocean, which falls rapidly to a and, owing to the great elevation of the islands, depth of 18,000 feet not far from the shores.
it is almost all precipitated on the northeast The islands are all mountainous, but only one, sides, which have accordingly the most varied Hawaii, is actively volcanic, having two of the vegetation, while the leeward or southwest sides largest craters in the world, Mauna Loa and
are much drier and, especially in Hawaii Island, Kilauea (qq.v.). Hawaii is the most recent in almost arid. Just above Hilo Bay, where the order of formation; it is much less eroded than cold winds from the mountains meet the warm the others, and though it contains the highest and moist trade winds, there is an annual rainpeak of the group-Mauna Kea (q.v.), 13,805 fall of 100 to 200, and even 250, inches, one of feet—its elevations are all rounded and easily as- the heaviest in the world; but at Honolulu the cended. The other islands, especially Kauai, rainfall is only about 32 inches a year. Though which is considered the oldest, are deeply eroded the sky is as a rule clear and sunny when it is into picturesque crags and deep ravines and not actually raining, the humidity is considergorges. The coasts are to a large extent steep able, turning to almost oppressive sultriness durand rocky, consisting in some places of preci. ing the period of winter southwest winds. In pices 100 to 500 feet high and extending for general, the climate is very healthful and agreeseveral miles. There are some sandy beaches, able to Europeans, but is not ideal for cases of however, and in many places the coasts are lined pulmonary tuberculosis. with coral reefs; between the mountains and the The rivers of Hawaii are nearly all small coasts extend fertile plains and valleys, which mountain torrents, and, as might be foreseen are the scene of agricultural activity.
from the foregoing, they are largely confined Climate and Hydrography. The climate is to the north and east sides of the island. in general characterized by a remarkable equa- Flora and Fauna. The indigenous flora and bility of temperature; it is never too warm and fauna of Hawaii are interesting, as they partake never cold, except on the mountain summits, and of the characters both of the Asiatic and Austra
within the narrow limits there are no lian, as well as of the American, flora. There sudden changes. This is due to the fact that are about 130 species of ferns and 900 species of there are neither large ice fields nor hot con- flowering plants, of which 600 are peculiar to the islands. Some of the characteristic plants are 1900 to 599.7 in 1910, and the average improved a peculiar Pandanus, or screw pine, several tree acres per farm decreased from 129.6 in 1900 to ferns, and among the forest trees the Koa (Aca- 70.6 in 1910. The value of farm property, includcia koa). Forests still cover large areas of the ing land, buildings, implements and machinery, uplands, but have greatly decreased. Where domestic animals, poultry and bees, increased vegetation is found it generally grows luxuri- from $74,084,988 in 1900 to $96,363,229 in 1910. antly, but large areas, especially in Hawaii, are The average value of land per acre was $30.16 in covered with naked lava fields.
1910, compared with $21.64 in 1900. In 1910 There are very few indigenous mammals in 87.7 per cent of all the farms were under 50 Hawaii, and no reptiles, except a single species acres in size. of lizard. The birds are interesting, including Of the 4320 farms in 1910, 753 were operated many peculiar and highly specialized species, by white farmers, 463 by Hawaiian, 2138 by notably in the family Drepanididæ, which differ Japanese, 876 by Chinese, 83 by other Asiatics, characteristically from those of the rest of and 7 by negroes.
The white farmers showed Polynesia. The land mollusks have also reached an increase in the decade of 47.9 per cent, while a remarkable development, almost every valley Hawaiian farmers decreased. The number of having its own peculiar species, some of which Japanese farmers increased 302.6 per cent in the are allied to those of Mexico and California. decade. In 1910, 834 farmers out of a total of
Agriculture. Of the twenty islands compos- 4320 owned farms; 129 were part owners; 214 ing the Hawaiian group, only eight-Hawaii, were share tenants; 2894 were cash tenants; and Maui, Oahu, Kauai, Molokai, Lanai, Niihau, and 249 were managers. The proportion of owners Kahulaui—are inhabited. The most important and part owners showed a great falling off in islands—Hawaii, Maui, and Oahu-contain large the decade 1900–10, the former being in 1910 areas of fertile land. The climatic conditions less than two-thirds and the latter less than on these three islands are favorable for agricul- one-half of the number shown in 1900. tural activity. Up to the middle of the nine- The total value of crops in the islands in teenth century land was held by feudal tenure. 1909 was $28,536,000. Of this total, over nineIn 1848, however, a division was made by which tenths was contributed by sugar cane.
The only about one-third of the inhabited area
other crop with a value of product of over apart for the crown, another third for the $1,000,000 was rice; the fruits and nuts, vegegovernment, and the remaining third for the tables, and the coffee produced in 1909 were each powerful chiefs. The common people were given valued at over $200,000. No other crop had a titles for the house lots which they held and for value amounting to $100,000. The acreage of small pieces of land which they cultivated for sugar cane in 1909 was 186,230 and the number themselves. The chiefs gradually lost posses- of farms growing sugar cane was 1028, compared sion of the land awarded to them and it fell to with 184 in 1899. The production of cane in a large extent into the hands of foreigners. 1909 was 4,240,000 tons, compared with 2,239,000 When, in 1893, the monarchy ceased to exist, in 1899. The value of the sugar crop was the lands belonging to the crown were declared $26,306,000, compared with $18,763,000 in 1899. to be public lands, and, with other government The production and value of sugar since 1909 lands, became the property of the United States has been as follows: 1910, 518,127 short tons; government when the islands were annexed in 1911, 566,821 short tons; 1912, 595,258 short 1898. In 1910 Congress passed measures amend tons; 1913, 543,220 short tons, and this was ing the organic act of the Territory and pro- valued at about $37,000,000. The yield of cane viding for the consolidation of the administration sugar per acre is the greatest in the world. of public lands in one department. It also made About half the acreage planted to cane is irri. provision for the transfer of land for forestry or gated. The development of the sugar industry other public purposes.
on a large scale dates from 1875, when the The chief industries of the islands are related Reciprocity Treaty, passed in that year, estabto agriculture, but conditions have been 'such, lished practically free trade between the islands owing to lack of knowledge of practical agri- and the United States. The greater number of culture, distance from the world's markets, sugar farms are on the islands of Hawaii, Oahu, tariffs, and other causes, that only a few prod- Maui, and Kauai, at the bases of mountains. ucts have been produced on a sufficient scale Rice is the second crop in value. It is conto export in considerable quantities. In recent sumed chiefly on the islands and is raised on the years, however, scientific study has been made lowlands, chiefly by Chinese, in terraces flooded by the United States Department of Agriculture, with water. There is little additional land and marked progress in the knowledge of pos- available for this crop, but there is much room sible crops and methods of cultivation has re- for improvement in the method of cultivation. sulted. This is especially true of the sugar Some improvements have been made chiefly as industry, in which scientific cultivation has re- the result of the work of the Federal experiment sulted in enormous crops.
station. The acreage planted to rice in 1909 Between 1900 and 1910 the population of the was 9425 and the amount produced was 41,827,islands increased by 37,908, or 24.6 per cent, 900 pounds, valued at $1,068,293. The yield is while the number of farms increased by 2047, about 212 tons per acre per annum (two crops). or 90.1 per cent. The total number of farms A small quantity of rice is exported to the in 1910 was 4320, while in 1900 there were United States. This in 1913 a mounted to 3,529,2273. Out of an approximate area which in- 667 pounds, valued at $185,938. cludes both land and water area of 4,127,360 The growing of coffee was at one time carried acres, there were in farms, in 1910, 2,590,600 on to a large extent in the islands. Its cultivaacres, compared with 2,609,613 acres in 1900-a tion began as early as 1817 and was at one time decrease in acreage in the decade of 19,013. The conducted largely by Americans. Owing to comimproved land in farms, however, increased from petition with other countries and the consequent 294,545 in 1900 to 305,053 acres in 1910. The lowering of prices, coffee growing has now fallen average acres per farm decreased from 1148.1 in largely into the hands of the Japanese. The out