« ForrigeFortsæt »
put varies from year to year and is never large. ber of mineral species is quite large and corIn 1909, 3727 acres were planted to coffee, and responds to those of similar volcanic areas, the the product was 9,834,026 pounds, valued at greater number of them are merely mineralogical $213,085. It is almost entirely consumed in the specimens, rather than available for commercial islands.
purposes. It must not be understood, however, The growing of pineapples has become of that the mineral wealth of Hawaii is wholly ingreat and increasing importance, and a significant. On the contrary, there is an approduct of this industry is the preparat of parent field for considerable development. Among the juice of pineapples put up in bottles. This the minerals noticed are sulphur, pyrite, comproduct has found a ready sale in the United mon salt, sal ammoniac, limonite, quartz, chrysoStates. The output of canned pineapples in lite, garnet, labradorite, feldspar, soda alum, creased from 1200 cases of two dozen cans each copperas, Glauber salt, nitre, and calcite. The in 1900 to 510,000 cases in 1909. In 1910 there Hawaiian volcanoes have been natural laborawere invested in the industry more than $2,000,- tories, working on an almost unprecedented 000, and about 6000 acres were under cultiva- scale, with a strong decomposing agency of tion. In 1913 the canned pineapple exported acid steam, high temperature, rainfall, and perto the United States was valued at $4,054,711. haps sea infiltration, so that secondary decomThe tobacco and cotton industries are being de- position products are numerous and common. veloped and give promise of being important. . Many of the minerals identified have no ecoSome of the tobacco is of a high grade, especially nomic significance, while others occur too sparsely for wrappers. In 1912 there were four planta- to be properly utilized. As in other volcanic tions under tobacco, and the output in that localities and island resorts much frequented year was 104,000 pounds, valued at $49,500. by travelers and health seekers, there is a conDuring the same year a cigar factory was estab- siderable trade in specimens and curiosities of lished and the manufacture of cigars was begun. the two extreme types of products, the volcanic The principal varieties of cotton grown are the and the marine. These consist of minerals and Sea Island, Caravonica, and Egyptian. The pro
fantastic lava formations from the craters and duction has been small, in 1909 amounting to
coral and shells from the shores and sea. only 5500 pounds. In addition to pineapples Sulphur is found in large quantities in the other fruits are grown. The most important of craters and upper slopes of the volcanoes. Very these are bananas, papaya, limes, oranges, and large deposits of gypsum, some of it almost breadfruit. The total value of the fruits ex- pure, exist in the islands. Mineral paints, ported to the United States in the calendar year especially red ochre and yellow ochre, are abun1913 was $4,268,020. Grapes and orchard fruits dant. There is an abundance of building stone are produced in small quantities. One of the in the islands, but the climatic conditions and most promising of the newer industries is the mode of life do not call for large stone construcgrowing of Bermuda onions. A superior quality tion. Large pockets of kaolin have been found, of sisal hemp is produced, and rubber trees have and it is believed that there are workable quanbeen planted with some success.
tities of this mineral in the islands. An inLive Stock and Dairy Products. The live. dustry of local importance is the gathering of stock industry is important, but most of the sea salt from accumulations formed by the meat is consumed in the Territory. In recent natural concentration and evaporation of sea years there has been a reduction in the number water Pearls have been found, but a producof cattle, but a corresponding increase in weight tive industry of commercial importance remains and a reduction in the maturing age from about to be established. four years to about three years or less. On Manufactures. Manufacturing industries account of disease and the overstocking of which have not been called into being by the ranges the number of sheep has also fallen off. agricultural products of the islands exist for the The Oriental population consumes large quanti- production or repair of articles of local conties of pork. The quality of the live stock has sumption. In 1909 there were 500 manufacturbeen greatly improved by the importation of ing establishments, which gave employment to fine breeds. The total value of the milk, cream, an average of 7572 persons during the year and and butter sold in 1909 was $215,481. The paid out $2,795,000 in salaries and wages. Of poultry of all kinds in 1910 numbered 95,667. the persons employed, 5904 were wage earners.
Forest Reserves. The United States Gov- The products turned out by these establishments ernment has set aside a considerable area of were valued at $47,404,000, and materials costpublic land for forest reserves. Thei were, in ing $25,629,000 were consumed. Thus, the value 1913, 30 reserves covering 689,261 acres. With added by manufacture was $21,775,000, which the addition of reserves covering a little over represents the net wealth created by manufac100,000 acres the forest-reserve system of the turing operations during the year. The table on Territory will be practically completed. Tree page 4 gives the most important data relating planting is conducted on a large scale. In the to the manufacturing industries of the Terricalendar year 1912, 1,303,698 trees were planted, tory in 1909 in comparison with 1899. (The compared with 1,134,940 for the preceding year. industrial census of 1904 did not include the
Irrigation. A large proportion of the sugar Hawaiian Islands.) farms require irrigation to produce satisfactory From this table it will be noted that the inresults. Water is obtained by pumping from dustries of Hawaii as a whole showed a marked artificial wells and by conducting surface water development during the decade. This was due through tunnels and ditches.
in part to the impetus given to manufacturing Mineral Resources. There are no large de- industries by annexation to the United States. posits of important minerals. It is not to be During this period the number of establishments anticipated that useful mineral products will increased 125.2 per cent and the average numever be of great importance relatively in the ber of wage earners increased 61.5 per cent, Hawaiian Islands, as they are limited both in while the value of products increased 103 per kind and in quantity. Although the actual num- cent and the value added by manufacture 96.1 per cent. It will be noted that the manufacture As noted below, the wage earners in all the of sugar is by far the most important industry. industries of the Territory numbered 5904. Of Cane sugar alone is produced, although experi. these, 5401 were males and 503 females. The ments in growing sugar beets indicate that this wage earners under 16 years of age numbered 62. industry may secure a foothold. Although the Honolulu is the only large city in the island, sugar industry greatly preponderates, it also and, in 1909, 22.6 per cent of the total value of exerts a powerful effect on other industries. products was made in that city and 41.2 per Exclusive of sugar, the value of the manufac- cent of the average number of wage earners tures increased from $4,099,000 in 1899 to were employed there. From 1899 to 1909 there $11,454,000 in 1909, or 179.4 per cent. Nearly was a more rapid increase in Honolulu than in all the sugar manufactured is exported to the the districts outside. The relatively large numUnited States. The cleaning and polishing of ber of establishments in Honolulu is due, howrice is the industry second in importance. With ever, to the fact that in this city are found the exception of some of the larger mills in and many of the poi shops, bakeries, tin shops, and near Honolulu, this industry is carried on by less important industries.
Chinese and Japanese. Practically all rice milled Transportation. The Territory is peculiarly in the islands is consumed locally, being in great dependent for its progress upon the development demand among the Chinese and Japanese, who of transportation facilities. It is isolated in constitute about one-half of the population. As the mid-Pacific and is subdivided into a numnoted in the paragraph on Agriculture, the ber of islands that are both mountainous and canning and preserving of pineapples has become possess comparatively few good natural harbors. an industry of great importance in recent years. Transportation includes interisland traffic, traffic Since 1895, when this industry was first known, between the Territory and the United States and it has shown a steady growth. It was not im- Mexico, and transpacific traffic, making Hawaii portant enough, however, in 1899 to be shown a point of call. Interisland traffic is conducted separately in the census figures.
chiefly by the Interisland Navigation Company,
which has a fleet of about 20 steamers. Dur- preceding fiscal year. The decrease was entirely ing 1913 this company carried 84,493 passengers in exports to continental United States, and was and approximately 429,134 tons of freight. In due to low prices and a shortage in the sugar 1913–14 the company constructed a modern pon- crop on account of drought. This more than toon floating dry dock.
offset the large increases in imports both from Traffic is carried extensively between continental United States and from foreign Hawaii and the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of countries and in exports to foreign countries. the United States an Me co. The bulk of the The imports amounted to $36,002,940, an intraffic with the Atlantic coast is carried by the crease of $7,308,618 over those of the preceding American-Hawaiian Steamship Company, which year. Those from continental United States entered the Hawaiian trade in 1901 and has amounted to $29,129,409, an increase of $6,033,grown rapidly. The bulk of the trade with the 531, and those from foreign countries amounted Pacific coast is handled by the Matson Naviga- to $6,873,531, an increase of $1,275,087. From tion Company and has also developed rapidly. 1907 to 1913 the imports from continental The Oceanic Steamship Company in 1913 oper
United States more than doubled. The exports ated one passenger and one freight steamer be in the fiscal year 1913 amounted to $43,471,940, tween Honolulu and San Francisco on a four- a decrease of $11,977,498. Those to continental week schedule. The Associated Oil Company United States amounted to $42,713,294, a deoperated several steamers and sailing vessels crease of $12,362,871, while those to foreign from Hawaii to the Pacific coast. In addition countries amounted to $758,646, an increase of to this service there are several steamship lines $385,373. The imports from the United States whose vessels call regularly at Honolulu on their for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1914, voyages between San Francisco and the Philip- amounted to $25,571,569. Of these the most impines. These include the Pacific Mail Steamship portant were manufactures ready for consumpCompany, the Toyo Kisen Kaisha, a Japanese tion, which amounted in value to $15,552,992. company, and the Canadian-Australian Royal The other imports of most importance were Mail Line.
chiefly foodstuffs. The exports to the United The most important steam railroad in the States for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1914, islands is a line on the island of Oahu. It had amounted to $40,628,200. Of this, sugar, raw in 1913 about 113 miles of road, extends along and refined, was valued at $33,187,920. Fruits the coast from Honolulu to the north end of and nuts were valued at $4,780,583; canned pinethe island, and has a branch with subbranches apples, $4,536,919. The exports of Hawaii to between the two ranges of mountains which con- foreign countries in
the fiscal year
1914 stitute this island. It connects with more than amounted to $902,985, and the imports from 100 miles of private railroads on sugar planta- foreign countries amounted to $6,282,558. The tions. On the island of Hawaii, the Hilo Rail- largest value of imports was from Japan, $2,road Company operates the principal road. This 516,463; from British India, $950,304; from is the only standard-gauge road in the Territory Germany, $696,197; from Chile, $332,310; from and its line about 90 miles in length. The Australia and Tasmania, $569,287. The largest only street railway in the Territory is in Hono- value of exports was to the Philippine Islands, lulu and is an unusually well-equipped and $517,978. well-conducted line.
Finance. The net receipts for the fiscal year For several years the United States govern- 1913 amounted to $4,247,701, and the net disment has been making extensive improvements bursements to $4,208,389. The net receipts exin the harbors, notably at Pearl Harbor, which ceeded the net disbursements by $39,311. The now constitutes a naval station. Here a dry net cash balance at the close of the year was dock was in process of construction in 1913. $660,720, compared with $621,409 at the close When the proposed improvements are completed of the fiscal year 1912. The principal receipts it will be one of the most important naval sta- are from property taxes and land sales and tions in possession of the government. The har. harbor, wharf, and pilot revenues. The most bor of Honolulu, although the main port of the important disbursements are for interest on the Territory, is small and requires constant enlarge- bonded debt, general expenses, the support of ment. The Federal government since the an- Territorial institutions, government, and the nexation of the islands has carried on improve- maintenance of public health. The bonded debt ments here. A breakwater was in process of of the Territory at the beginning of the fiscal construction on the island of Hawaii at Hilo in year was $5,454,000, which was increased dur1912, and other harbor improvements in the ing the year by the issue of $1,500,000 of 4 per Territory were under construction in 1913. cent public-improvement bonds, and decreased
The Territory has been connected by cable by a payment of $110,000, leaving the total with both shores of the Pacific for many years. bonded indebtedness at the end of the year $6,Hawaii was one of the first countries to install 844,000. This was 3.9 per cent of the assessed the wireless system, and in 1914 several services value of property. The limit of the aggregate of this nature were in extensive use for inter- indebtedness is fixed by the organic act as 7 island communication. Wireless communication per cent of such assessed value, and the limit of with California has also been carried on success- the amount that may be incurred in any one year fully, and on the island of Oahu are two power- was fixed at 1 per cent. The bonds issued have ful stations used by the Marconi Telegraph Com- been for public improvements, public-school pany for its transpacific wireless service. Each buildings, improvements on roads, etc. of the five largest islands has an extensive tele- Population and Immigration. The populaphone system. There were, in 1913, 6488 tele- tion of the islands is extremely heterogeneous phone stations and 5714 miles of wire.
and has changed greatly in character as a result Commerce Imports and exports for the of the immigration of different races. There is fiscal year ending June 30, 1913, exclusive of no definite knowledge as to the population in specie, aggregated $80,991,456. This was a de- early times. In 1778 Captain Cook placed the crease of $4,446,120 from the amount in the number at 400,000, but this is considered gener
ally to be about a fourth too large. The native sition of the islands by the United States, the population has decreased rapidly from the time laws for the exclusion of Chinese laborers have of the first acquaintance of Europeans with the been in effect, and this source of labor has been islands. While the cause of this decline has closed. The large influx of Japanese labor was never been fully understood, prominent among also ended by the agreement between the governthe reasons is the introduction of foreign diseases ments of the United States and Japan, made in to which natives are peculiarly susceptible. The 1906, as a result of agitation over Japanese birth rate of the islands is also small. These labor in California. The Japanese government conditions indicate that the practical extinction agreed to permit the emigration only of laborers of the race is only a matter of time. While the having passports. In recent years the sugar Hawaiians have been indisposed to intermingle planters have to a large extent substituted freely with other races, there is a small num- Filipinos for Japanese and Chinese labor. Durber of "part Hawaiians." Marriages between ing 1913 there were introduced 5747 Filipinos, the natives and Chinese are quite common, and from 1909 to 1913, 13,715 Filipinos. The but the Japanese have shown aversion percentage of non-Asiatic labor employed on the to mixed marriages. The population of the sugar plantations increased from 12.30 from the islands at each census from 1832 to 1910 in- organization of the Territorial government to clusive has been as follows: 1832, 130,313; 37.15 in 1913. 1836, 108,579; 1850, 84,165; 1853, 73,138; 1860, Immigration is divided into two classes, un69,800; 1866, 62,959; 1872, 56,897; 1878, 57, assisted and assisted. The assisted immigra985; 1884, 80,578; 1890, 89,990; 1896, 109,020; tion includes that induced to come to the Terri1900, 154,001; 1910, 191,909. The population tory by the Department of Immigration and on June 30, 1913, was estimated at 217,744, an Labor and by the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' increase of 25,835, or 13.46 per cent, since 1910. Association. Unassisted immigration includes The large increase in the population in recent that of Americans from the mainland of the years is the result of the immigration of foreign United States. The problem of securing labor in laborers. In 1910 the pure Caucasian element the islands is a serious one, and efforts have in the population numbered 44,048, constituting been made as noted above to obtain laborers 23 per cent, or a little over one-fifth. In the from European countries, especially from Portu, decade 1900–10 the number of Caucasians in- gal and Spain, from Russia, Manchuria, and creased 15,229, or 52.8 per cent, the percentage Siberia. During the five years ending 1912, 5306 of increase for this race being practically the laborers from these countries were induced to same as in the preceding decade. The increase come to Hawaii. During 1912, however, the of the Japanese in the decade 1900–10 was introduction of Russians from Manchuria was 18,564, or 30.4 per cent. In the same period discontinued. the Chinese decreased 4093, or 15.9 per cent. The population of the several islands in 1910 The following table shows the distribution of was as follows: Oahu, 81,993; Hawaii, 55,382; the population in 1900 and 1910.
1920, 255,912; Maui, 28,623; Kauai, 23,744; Molokai, 1791; Lanai, 131; Niihau, 208; Kahulaui,2.
Banks. There were, in 1913, 17 banks in operation in the Territory. One of these was a
savings bank, two were commercial banks, and Hawaiians.
26,041 the others both commercial and savings. There Part Hawaiians.
were four national banks. The aggregate de26,252
44,050 * 25,762
posits on Dec. 31, 1912, amounted to $17,026,297. Japanese.
79,674 The commercial deposits amounted to $11,641,3,237
901, and the savings deposits to $5,384,395. Total. 154,001 191,909 The deposits in the savings banks numbered
18,787, which is nearly 10 per cent of the popu* Includes 22,303 Portuguese, 1990 Spanish, and 4890
lation, the Japanese having the largest percent. Porto Ricans.
age of the population depositing in savings
banks, 41.52. The only races which showed a decrease in the
Ethnology. The indigenous inhabitants of the three years from 1910 to 1913 are the pure Hawaiian Islands are, in physique, good repreHawaiians through an excess of deaths, and the sentatives of the Polynesian race, rather tall, Chinese through the excess of departures. The and often quite good-looking. In head form they largest increase during these three years was have a tendency towards brachycephaly. In lanin the number of Filipinos, they having been in- guage the Hawaiians are most nearly related to troduced by the Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ As- the Marquesans and Tahitians. The narratives sociation; the Spanish, introduced by the Terri- of settlement of Polynesian folk upon these torial government; other Caucasians, chiefly northern islands are ample proof of three miAmericans, who came in large numbers, many gration streams. The earliest was that of a of them in the military forces of the United fleet of proto-Samoans direct from Samoa. This States; and part Hawaiians, Portuguese, and was succeeded by a Tongafiti migration by way Japanese, mainly through an excess of births. of the Marquesas. The last migration, that which The Territory in 1913 introduced 2413 Spanish established the social system of the Hawaiians and 228 Portuguese. There were also intro- as existing when they were discovered, was from duced 65 Russians. From 1907 to 1913 the Tahiti; this was not merely a wandering, but inTerritorial authorities introduced 7695 Spanish, tercourse between Tahiti and Hawaii was main5196 Portuguese, and 2121 Russians, a total of tained for several generations. In mental ability 15,012, of whom 5399 were men, 3644 women, and artistic genius the Hawaiians rank high and 5969 children. Early attempts were made among their kindred, as their advanced governin the history of the industrial development of mental institutions, their assimilation of foreign the islands to introduce Polynesians, but these culture, their industrial and artistic manufacdid not result satisfactorily. Since the acqui- tures (kapa printing, straw plaiting, feather
weaving, etc.), and their development of a litera- and girls respectively are committed by the ture amply demonstrate. It was upon one of juvenile courts, and the local jails. In 1913 the peculiarities of the Hawaiian family system, plans were completed for new buildings for the the punulua, best comprehended as a survival of prison. For a discussion of the care and aid polyandry, that Morgan (1871-77) based his given to lepers, see the section Public Health and second stage in his scale of evolution of the fam- Sanitation. ily, the “punuluan family.” From the older cul- Public Health and Sanitation. The matter ture the Kahuna beliefs, the hulahula dances, of public health in the Territory is of peculiar etc., have survived.
importance and has called for more attention Religion. With a population representing so than almost any other on the part of the govmany races, there is naturally a variety of re- ernment in recent years. The powers of the ligions. The great activity of the early mission- Board of Health have been greatly extended by aries succeeded in bringing the native popula- the Legislature. Most of the work is done tion within the fold of the Christian Church. through the Territorial Department of Public However, the Christian faith is ofttimes lightly Health, but more or less is done also by the local held, and their old-time pagan practices are governments. There is close cooperation between sometimes secretly indulged in. The native Prot- the Territorial health officers and those of the estant following is nearly twice that of the United States Public Health Service. The most Roman Catholic, the Mormons among them num- important institutions are those having to do bering about 4000. The Portuguese are mainly with leprosy. New methods have been adopted Roman Catholic, but most of the other European in dealing with this disease in recent years. and American elements represented are Protes- There were in 1913 four institutions—the leper tant. The Chinese and Japanese hold generally settlement on the island of Molokai and the leper to their Oriental faith.
hospital and the homes for nonleprous boys and Education. Schools were established in Ha- girls respectively of leprous parents at Honolulu. waii as one of the earliest results of missionary At the close of 1913 there were 726 lepers in effort. The first constitution, adopted in 1840, the islands. Of these 444 were males and 282 provided for schools in districts wherever 15 or females; 606 were Hawaiians and part Hawaimore children suitable to attend school lived ians, 47 Portuguese, 38 Chinese, 13 Japanese, 5 close together. Enactments have been made in Germans, 3 Americans, and 14 scattered among recent years which have greatly increased the other races. For a further discussion of this efficiency of the administration of schools, par- disease in its connection with Hawaii, see LEPticularly by the Legislature of 1911. Universal BOSY. The natives of the islands are peculiarly education is free and compulsory. Every child susceptible to tuberculosis, and the campaign between the ages of 6 and 17 is obliged to at against this disease has been carried on with tend either a public or a private school. The success, particularly on the islands of Oahu and general character of the educational system has Hawaii. continued to be American as a result of founda- War has been waged against rats as a result tions laid by American missionaries. As a result of bubonic plague. From 1910 to 1913 no case of legislation passed in 1911, the public schools of this plague occurred in Honolulu, but, owing were placed largely on an automatic adequate to the prevalence of this disease in the Orient, financial basis. During 1913 there was expended it is necessary to take preventive measures. Dur. for the maintenance of public schools $677,799, ing 1913 there were seven cases of bubonic plague compared with $630,334 during 1912 and $479,- in Hamakua and one in south Hilo. In these 351 in 1911. Of the expenditure in 1913, $634, districts in the year mentioned 137,581 rats 434 was contributed by the Territory out of and mongooses were killed, of which 20 were current revenues. Of this $569,334 was for found to be infected with plague. teachers' salaries and $46,319 for other expenses, Government. The form of government is terincluding school supplies, furniture, books for ritorial and is carried on by the provisions of school libraries, etc. The cost and maintenance an Act of Congress passed in 1900. This Act of the public schools was $26.44 per pupil in organized the islands into a Territory of the 1913, as compared with $26.53 in 1912. The United States. There is a Territorial RepresentLegislature of 1911 provided for new buildings, ative in Congress. chiefly out of loan funds, while that of 1913 Executive.-The executive power of the Terri. provided for other buildings, chiefly out of cur- tory is lodged in a governor, holding office for rent revenues.
four years, who is appointed by the President. The number of all schools in the islands in He must be at least 35 years of age and be a citi1913 was 212. Of these 161 were public schools zen of the Territory. The other executive officer and 51 were private schools. The teachers in all is the Secretary, who is also appointed by the schools numbered 986, and public schools 674. President for the same term as the Governor. Of the teachers, 238 were males and 748 females. With the consent of the Senate the Governor There is a normal school at Honolulu, and in appoints an attorney-general, treasurer, com1907 the Legislature established a College of missioner of public lands, commissioner of agriAgriculture and Mechanic Arts at Honolulu. In culture and forestry, superintendent of public 1913 permanent quarters for this college were instruction, superintendent of public works, aucompleted. There is a high school in Honolulu ditor, a high sheriff, and members of the various and a seminary on the island of Maui. There is boards and commissions which carry on the also an industrial school at Waialee on the is. routine of the government. land of Oahu, which was founded in 1902. Oahu Legislative.—The Legislature consists of the College, founded in 1852, offers advanced courses Senate and House of Representatives. The Sen. of study. It is well equipped with buildings and ate is composed of 15 members and the House apparatus and has a considerable endowment. of 30. There are four senatorial districts, in
Charities and Corrections. The correctional which two, three, four, and six Senators respecinstitutions of the Territory include the prison tively are elected, viz., seven at one biennial at Honolulu, two reform schools, to which boys election and eight at the next; and six repre