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princes, mediatised princes, employés of the crown, archbishops, bishops, the president of the Protestant worship, and councillors of state named by the king. The second chamber is composed of deputies elected by the landed proprietors, by the universities, by the ecclesiastical bodies, and by the towns. Louis the First, CharlesAugustus, is king. He succeeded his father, Maximilian Joseph, 13th of October, 1825, and resides at Munich. The army consists of 53,900 men. The contingent 35,600, and forms the 7th Corps ď Armée. Bavaria has four votes in the Consilium Plenum, and contributes 2,000 forins to the diet. Its revenues amount to 20,000,000 of rix dollars, its debt is 32,000,000.

4. The KINGDOM OF SAXONY, which is divided into five departments, thus :

Sq. miles,

Inhabitants. 1. The Department of Meissen

78

350,000 2. The Department of Upper Lusa (Oberteausitz). 39

200,000 3. The Department of Leipsick

250,000 4. The Department of Misnie (Erzgebirge)

530,000 5. The Department of Voigtlande

105,000

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47 83 25

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Government, a constitutional monarchy, based upon the ancient States, and represented, lst. By prelates, princes, counts, and lords. 2nd. By the knights. 3rd. By the deputies of eighty-five towns. Anthony the First is the king, began to reign the 5th of May, 1827, and associated to the government, as co-regent, his nephew the Duke Frederick Augustus, on the 13th of September, 1830. They reside at Dresden.

is composed of 12,869 men. The contingent 12,000, which forms the 9th Corps d'Armée. Saxony has four votes in the General Council, and contributes 2,000 forins to the diet. Its revenue 6,000,000, its debt 211 millions of rix dollars.

The army

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Hanover is governed by a constitution, granted the 7th of December, 1819, divided into two chambers. William the Fourth, our gracious sovereign, is the king, and Prince Frederick Adolphus, Duke of Cam

Landdrostei. The Landdrost is the civil governor of the district or province; bis attributes are similar to those of the French prefects. His powers are extensive, and almost unlimited in all matters of local administration.

bridge, his viceroy, residing at Hanover. The troops of the line amount to 12,940 men. The landwehr to nearly 18,000. Its contingent is 13,054 men, which forms part of the 10th Corps d'Armée. Hanover has four votes in the General Council, and contributes 2,000 Aorins to the diet. Its revenues amount to 3,200,000 rix dollars, its debt to 10,000,000.

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Wurtemberg is governed by the fundamental law of the 25th of September, 1819, and constitutionally, by two chambers. William Frederick Charles, born 27th of September, 1781, succeeded his father, Frederick, 30th of October, 1816, and resides at Stutgardt. Its peace establishment consists of 4,906 troops, its war of 16,824, contingent 13,955, which make a part of the 8th Corps d'Armée. Wurtemberg has four votes in the General Council, and pays to the diet the sum of 2,000 forins. Revenue 6,300,000 rix dollars, debt 18,000,000.

7. The GRAND Duchy OF BADEN. Thus divided :

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Baden is governed by the fundamental law of the 22nd of August, 1818, and constitutionally by two chambers. Charles Leopold Frederic, born 29th August, 1799, is the Grand Duke, and succeeded his brother Louis, 30th of March, 1830, and resides at Carlsrushe. Its army 10,979 men, contingent 10,000, constituting a part of the 8th Corps d'Armée. Baden has three votes in the General Council, and pays 2,000 forins to the diet. Revenue 6,200,000 rix dollars, debt 9,000,000.

8. The ELECTORATE OF HESSE is divided into

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Total

2021

613,000

Hesse is governed by the fundamental law of the 5th January, 1831, and constitutionally by one chamber, under the electoral prince, Frederic William, declared co-regent 30th September, 1831, and charged with the full direction of the government. Army 9,359 men, contingent 5,679, making a part of the 9th Corps d'Armée. Electoral Hesse has three votes in the General Council, and furnishes 2,000 florins to the diet. Revenue 300,000 rix dollars, debt nil.

9. The GRAND Duchy of Hesse is thus divided :

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The Grand Duchy of Hesse is governed by the fundamental law of the 17th December, 1820, and constitutionally by two chambers. Louis II., born the 26th of December, 1777, is the Grand Duke, and replaced his father the 6th of April, 1830, and resides at Darmstadt. The army 8,421 men. The contingent 6,195, forming a part of the 8th Corps d'Armée. The Grand Ducal Hesse has three votes, and contributes 1,500 forins to the diet. Revenue 3,800,000 rix dollars, debt 9,000,000 crowns.

10. The DUCHIES OF HOLSTEIN AND LAUENBOURG, comprising

Sq. miles.

Inhabitants. 1. The Duchy of Holstein

153

417,000 2. The Duchy of Lauenbourg

16

37,000

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The duchies of Holstein and Lauenbourg are governed by the ancient States. Frederick VI., born the 28th of January, 1768, succeeded his father, Christian VII. (King of Denmark,) the 13th of March, 1808. He resides at Copenhagen. The army is composed of 5,400 men, the contingent 3,600 men, making part of the 10th Corps d'Armée. The duchies of Holstein and Lauenbourg have three votes in the Consilium Plenum, or General Council, and pay the diet the sum of 2,000 florins. Revenue 190,000 rix dollars, debt nil.

11. The Grand Duchy OF LUXEMBOURG, comprehending the districts of Luxembourg, Diekirch, and Neuf-Chateau, comprises a total of one hundred and eight square miles, and 298,650 inhabitants. The Grand Duchy participates in the constitution of Holland. William I., born the 24th of April, 1772, assumed the sovereignty of it the 6th of December, 1815; he resides at the Hague. The contingent is 2,556 men, making a part of the 9th Corps d'Armée. Luxembourg has three votes in the General Council, and pays 1,500 florins to the diet.

12. The GRAND Duchy OF SAXE-Weimar, EISENACH, contains

Sq. miles, Inhabitants. 1. The Duchy of Weimar

46

155,000 2. The Duchy of Eisenach

75,000

21

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This Grand Duchy is governed by the fundamental law of the 5th of May, 1816, and by on echamber. Charles Frederick, born the 2nd of February, 1783, succeeded his father, Charles Augustus, the 14th of June, 1828. His residence is at Weimar. The army 2,380 men. The contingent 2,010, making part of the 9th Corps d'Armée. It has one vote in the General Council, and its

quota

of 400 florins to the diet. Revenue. 1,000,000, debt 4,000,000 of rix dollars, without reckoning that of the domains.

pays

13. The GRAND DUCHY OF SAXE COBOURG Gotha, is thus divided

Sq. miles. 1. The Principality of Cobourg

39,000 2. The Principality of Gotha

24

88,000 3. The Principality of Lichtenberg

29,000

Inbabitants.

16

9

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This Grand Duchy is governed by a constitution, granted at Cobourg the 8th of August, 1821. Ernest, born the 2nd of January, 1784, succeeded his father the 9th of December, 1806. Residing at Cobourg. Army 2,500 men, contingent 1,366, forming part of the 9th Corps d'Armée. One vote in the General Council, without contributing to the expenses of the diet. Revenue 700,000 rix dollars, debt 1,800,000 rix dollars.

14. Duchy op SAXE ALTENBOURG is divided into two provinces, that of the West and East, making a total of twenty-three square miles, and of 109,500 inhabitants. Frederic, born the 29th of April, 1765, succeeded his father, the Duke Ernest Frederic Charles, the 22nd of September, 1780. Residing at Altenbourg. The army 2,000 men, contingent 982 men, making a part of the 9th Corps d'Armée. One vote in the General Council, without contributing to the diet. Revenue 460,000 rix dollars, debt 600,000 rix dollars.

15. The DucHY OF Saxe-MEININGEN-HILDBOURGHAUSEN, comprising a total of forty-two square miles, and 136,000 inhabitants, governed by states, installed the 25th of August, 1829, and composed of eight knights, eight citizens, and eight peasants. Bernhard-ErichFreund, born 27th December, 1800, succeeded his father, George, the 24th of December, 1803. Residing at Meiningen. Army 1,800 men, contingent 1,150 men, forming a part of the 9th Corps d'Armée. The duke has one vote in the General Council, without contributing to the diet. Revenue 380,000 rix dollars, debt 812,000 rix dollars.

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This Duchy is governed by the fundamental law of the 6th of April, 1826, with states, and two chambers. Augustus-Louis-WilliamMaximilian-Frederic, born the 25th of April, 1806, became sovereign the 28th September, 1830. He resides at Brunswick. Army 3,500 men, contingent 2,096 men, making part of the 10th Corps d'Armée. Has two votes in the General Council, and contributes 1,000 forins to the diet. Revenue 650,000, debt 360,000 rix dollars.

17. Duchy of Nassau, comprising eighty-two square miles, and 248,000 inhabitants, is governed by the fundamental law of the 2nd of September, 1814, and that of the 4th of November, 1815, with states and two chambers. William-George-Augustus-Henry-Belgicus, born the 14th of June, 1792, succeeded his father, FredericWilliam, the 9th of January, 1816; residing at Wiesbade. Army 4,200 men, contingent 3,028 men, making part of the 9th Corps d'Armée. Has two votes in the General Council, and pays 1,000 florins to the diet. Revenue 1,200,000, debt nearly 4,000,000 rix dollars.

18. The GRAND Duchy op MECKLENBOURG SCHWERIN is thus divided

Sq. miles.

Inhabitants. 1. The Duchy of Schwerin

127

235,000 2. The Principality of Schwerin

8

22,000 3. The Duchy of Gustrow

85

150,000 4. The District of Rostock

5

24,000 5. The Duchy of Wiesmar

3

15,000

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This Grand Duchy, with the Grand Duchy of Strelitz, form together but one chamber, and are governed by the ancient states. Frederic-François, born the 10th of December, 1756, succeeded his uncle the Duke Frederic, the 24th of April, 1785. He resides at Schwerin. Army 3,846 men, contingent 3,580, a part of the 10th Corps d'Armée. Has two votes in the General Council, and contributes to the diet 1,333; florins. Revenue 2,000,000, debt 8,000,000 rix dollars.

19. The GRAND Duchy of MECKLENBOURG Strelitz is divided into the Lordship of Stargarde and the Duchy of Ratzebourg, containing thirty-eight square miles, and 79,343 inhabitants. George-Frederick-Charles-Joseph, born on the 12th of August, 1779, succeeded

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