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grade becoming too common, and forty-five admirals are quite sufficient for the dignity of the service, and more than sufficient for its demands.
Admirals by brevet.-Although forty-five admirals, receiving the full-pay of admirals, are quite as many as are required, still it does not always follow that among these forty-five we can find men who are competent for active service; and as it is of the most vital importance that our fleets should be entrusted to active and talented officers, we propose that there shall be one hundred and fifty-five admirals by brevet, taken from the list of post-captains, from which the Admiralty may select those whom they consider the most efficient, in case they cannot find them on the list of admirals. Admirals by brevet, when appointed to command as admirals, to be on precisely the same footing as other admirals, but with one exception, that they cannot be appointed as admiral of a sea-port, that privilege being reserved wholly for the admirals.
There are two reasons which require that there should be admirals by brevet; the first is, in justice to those officers at the head of the post-captains' list, who would wish to obtain their rank before they die, of which, if the list of admirals was reduced to forty-five, they would stand but a poor chance; and the other is of the greatest importance. There always has been a great difficulty in the naval service, arising from post-captains obtaining the rank of admiral by seniority alone. This difficulty was apparent at the time when Nelson so distinguished himself as commodore. The Admiralty appreciated his valour, and wished to employ him as admiral, but to so do they were compelled to make a numerous batch of admirals out of those who were senior to him on the list, merely that they might be able to give him a command.
Now if this plan be acted upon, the difficulty will be removed. We propose that one hundred and forty brevet admirals shall be made from the head of the list of post-captains, out of which there can be little doubt but we can find the officers we require; but as it may so happen that the Admiralty may require the services of an officer, who is not so high on the list, or may, on account of his services, wish to pay him that compliment, we propose that fifteen vacancies are left to be filled up at the selection of the Admiralty, without regard to seniority. As this will be a new feature in the service, it should be carefully guarded by regulations, so as to prevent abuse, such as a certain length of servitude as post-captain, having received medals or orders, having been one of a whole who have received the thanks of the nation, &c.; in short, it must be given for services alone. But these regulations should be made by the king in council.
Holding the rank of brevet admiral not to prevent the officer from taking the command of a ship as post-captain, where he may hoist his pennant as commodore, receiving but the pay according to the rating of the ship, unless he commands the squadron, and has been especially selected for that purpose.
Post-Captains.—We have already shown that the number of postcaptains required for our service during war, does not exceed two hundred. We do not, therefore, reduce the list too much in pro
posing three hundred, especially as there are one hundred post-captains by brevet.
Post-Captains by brevet.—We have continued the brevet through the list, from a desire of economy, and also because it will enable the Admiralty to reward officers with their rank with little extra expense to the nation. Post-captains by brevet to be appointed either to a post-ship or a sloop, receiving their pay when employed, according to the rate of the vessel.
Commanders.—The commanders' list is at present the most disproportioned of the whole, to the wants of the service. We have shown that one hundred and thirty-four commanders are about the number required for our service during war, and we have now, with retired commanders, one thousand and thirty-four on the list. We propose, therefore, two hundred, which, as there are two hundred commanders by brevet, will be more than sufficient for the service, and quite as many as the nation can afford to pay.
Commanders by brevet.-Commanders by brevet to be appointed to the command of sloops and brigs as commanders, or to act, if their services are required, as first lieutenants to post ships.
Lieutenants. The number of lieutenants required for the service during war is, as we have shown, about 1,402, and we have therefore reduced the list to 1,500, not that that number would really be sufficient, were it not that we propose 2,500 lieutenants by brevet.
Lieutenants by brevet. This is the most important point in the proposed alteration; important not only as an act of justice, but as ensuring a supply of good officers.
In the first place, what can be more absurd than that a nation should incur the heavy expense of the pay and provisions of lads for six years, during which they are learning the duties of their profession, and then, as soon as they are rendered capable and efficient officers, of not securing their services, but turning them adrift?
In the second place, what can be more inequitable than to induce a young man to abandon all his other prospects, and having unfitted him for any thing else, to tell him that you no longer require him, and that he may go to the devil and starve ?
It may be said, that the half pay of 401. per annum is not sufficient; we reply, that it is quite as much as the nation can afford; and as no young man is now permitted to enter the service unless his friends can allow 401. or 501. per annum, with their assistance, it will enable him to shift until he obtains a higher grade. But the pay is of little importance;
the boon of a brevet commission would be gladly received, even without pay. At present these young men are positively nothing. Give them their rank, let them have their commission as an officer, and then they are something, and moreover their services are secured to their country.
We propose that there should be little or no difference in the full and half-pay of these officers, as the expense of their provisions when employed must be taken into consideration—that they should wear the half epaulette, or strap-only be amenable to a court-martial, and that the captain be justified in entrusting them with the charge of a watch, if their services are required. Nevertheless, they are to perform the
duties of mates, when ordered to join in the capacity of brevet lieuteDants, and remain with the midshipmen as before ; they are, however, to have this advantage
That they may be appointed to a ship as lieutenants, and during the time they are so employed, will mess with the gun-room officers, and receive all the pay, and enter into all the rights, of a full lieutenant, wearing for the time the uniform,
Midshipmen who have passed their examination, and are strongly recommended to be eligible immediately to the rank, and without they have misconducted themselves, to be entitled to it after they have passed, and can show two years subsequent servitude. Once having received the brevet commission, to be under the same control as other officers, relative to employment in foreign service, and leave of ab
We have now laid our plan before our readers; we acknowledge that it requires much canvassing, and that there are many points to be considered which we have not entered upon; but as no plan is at first perfect, it is better to give but the general outline, for if deserving of attention it will not be lost sight of, and the defect may be remedied. There is one point upon which we have not touched, the length of time necessary to serve in each grade. This must remain to be regulated. We must, however, observe, that the list being so reduced, the promotions should be suffered to take place from brevet to brevet. We mean to say, that a brevet commander may be promoted to the rank of a brevet post-captain, without it being necessary that he should have worked his way up to the full commanders' list; otherwise there would be little or no promotion. At the same time, a portion of each brevet list should be reserved, to be filled up by seniority from the list below, as vacancies may occur.
But it is unnecessary to enter into all these details at present. We have done our duty-we have pointed out the defects in the present system, and proposed a remedy. We have pointed out the injustice of the service, and shown a way of indemnification, and at the same time, we have had in view what is equally important—that economy and retrenchment which the exigencies of the nation so imperatively demand. If this plan, with or without modification, should be adopted in the navy, we trust that it will be but a precursor to a similar arrangement in the army, where the disproportion between the demand and the supply is even more ludicrous. We have only two hundred and eight admirals, but we have about five hundred and twelve field marshals and generals, and staff officers without number ; to that extent, indeed, that if our present army were divided among them, their respective commands would remind us of the army of one drummer, one fifer, and one private, commanded by the great general Chrononhotonthologus in the play, who dismisses them with,
· Begone, brave army-and don't kick up a row."
THE SAGE'S ADVICE.
BY MRS. ABDY.
“An ancient philosopher once told a maiden who sought bis counsels, as to what she should do in the world, “to live, love, and hope ; and that by so doing shu would be fulfilling the end of ber being."
Live, but beware of living for thyself,
Live not for earth's low vanities, nor aim
Or the still frailer laurel-wreaths of fame;
Live for the poor and destitute, explore
The haunts of ignorance, of want, and strife,
And give them the more precious bread of life;
Love, but love wisely, not too well, reflect
That slights and falsehood thy young dreams may chill,
The idol of thy heart is human still ;
Bear with thy partner's faults, nor such reveal
Even to the kindest and the fondest friend,
Nor vainly strive his errors to amend,
Consult his feelings, and with watchful care,
His worldly interests guard from fraud and hurt,
And ever thy best influence exert
Hope, and hope warmly—hope success may crown
Thy schemes to help thy brethren on the earth,
The purest hopes are not of mortal birth;
Thus living, to assist and serve thy race,
Thus loving, with a pure and holy truth,
Maiden, serene and blest shall be thy youth,-
BY THE AUTHOR OF “PETER SIMPLE," &c. I think some people shook me by the hand, and others shouted as I walked in the open air, but I recollect no more. I afterwards was informed that I had been reprieved, that I had been sent for, and a long exhortation delivered to me, for it was considered that my
life must have been one of error, or I should have applied to my friends, and have given my name. My not answering was attributed to shame and confusion-my glassy eye had not been noticed--
my tottering step when led in by the gaolers attributed to other causes ; and the magistrates shook their heads as I was led out of their presence. The gaoler had asked me several times where I intended to go. At last, I had told him to seek my father, and darting away from him, I had run like a madman down the street. Of course he had no longer any power over me ; but he muttered, as I fled from him, “ I've a notion he'll soon be locked up again, poor fellow ! it's turned his brain for certain.” As I passed along, my unsteady step naturally attracted the attention of the passers by; but they attributed it to intoxication. Thus was I allowed to wander away in a state of madness, and before night I was far from the town. What passed, and whither I had bent my steps, I cannot tell. All I know is, that after running like a maniac, seizing every body by the arm that I met, staring at them with wild and flashing eyes; and sometimes in a solemn voice, at others in a loud, threatening tone, startling them with the interrogatory, “ Are you my father?" and then darting away, or sobbing like a child, as the humour took me, I had crossed the country, and three days afterwards I was picked up at the door of a house in the town of Reading, exhausted with fatigue and exposure, and nearly dead. When I recovered I found myself in bed, my head shaved, my arm bound up, after repeated bleedings, and a female figure sitting by me.
“ God in heaven! where am I?” exclaimed I faintly.
“ Thou hast called often upon thy earthly father during the time of thy illness, friend," replied a soft voice. “ It rejoiceth me much to hear thee call upon thy Father which is in heaven. Be comforted, thou art in the hands of those who will be mindful of thee.
Return thy thanks in one short prayer for thy return to reason, and then sink again into repose, for thou must need it much."
I opened my eyes wide, and perceived that a young person in a Quaker's dress was sitting by the bed working with her needle; an open Prayer Book was on a little table before her. I perceived also a cup, and parched with thirst, I merely said, “ Give me to drink.” She arose, and put a teaspoon to my lips; but I raised my hand, took the cup from her, and emptied it. O how delightful was that draught! I sank down on my pillow, for even that slight exertion had overpowered me, and muttering, “ God, I thank thee !" I was
Continued from vol. xiii. p. 335. Sept. 1835.-VOL. XIV.—NO. LIII.