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10 were murders, 7 males and 3 females. 26 were suicides, 23 males and 3 females. 171 were accidents, 129 males and 42 females. Of the murders, 7 were by gunshots, 2 by cutting and one by drowning. Of the suicides, 12 were by gunshots, 2 by hanging, 3 by drowning, 6 by carbolic acid, 2 by strychnia, and 2 by railroad trains. Of the accidental deaths by violence, 45 were by steam railroads, 2 by trolley lines, 5 by gunshots, 11 by burns and scalds, 28 by drowning, 7 by lightning, 12 by horses and vehicles, 9 by sun stroke, 17 by falls, 6 by asphyxiation and suffocation, 2 by carbolic acid and the remainder by vari
Marriage from a Medical Viewpoint.
Charles Green Cumston of Boston, Mass., divides the discussion of marriage into two questions, first, health in the immediate physical relationship, and, second, the health of husband and wife from the standpoint of heredity. Tuberculosis, neuroses, gonococcic infection, chlorosis, dyspepsia, and sexual perversions are troubles in which improvement may or may not result from married life. Precocious marriage is not desirable because the excessive sexual relation is not beneficial to the husband and wife, not yet developed and confirmed in physical health. It predisposes to medullary disease. In tuberculous subjects in whom the disease is advancing rapidly marriage is contraindicated, but in slow and chronic cases it may be of benefit by the regulation of life and the congenial atmosphere obtained. Pregnancy is always to be avoided on account of the drain on the mother's system. Marriage of neurotics has more influence than the case of any other affection. In neurasthenia, melancholia, and mental disturbances due to fatigue improvement may be expected from marriage. Latent hysLatent hysteria is not a contraindication to marriage. Gonorrhea is a source of the
greatest injury to the wife.-Medical Record, August 22, 1908.
Soap Bubble Fountain.
New York, August 22.-One of the most novel and fascinating sights among all the fascinations of the Franco-British exhibition is the soap bubble fountain in the British Hall of Textile and Chemical Industries.
The fountain consists of a double basin surmounted by a graceful figure; concealed under the base is an electric motor, air blast and pump; the first drives the two latter, which force soapy water through a pipe conncected with eighty-seven different outlets, each one of which emits thousands and thousands of bubbles, which in everchanging hues fall like a kaleidoscopic cascade round the base.
In the day time it is a marvelous sight, but at night, when innumerable electric lights beneath the bubbles are turned on, it is the most dazzling scene possible, and, borrowing an expression from the "Arabian Nights," one might most aptly speak of it as the "fountain of a thousand jewels," so sparkling, so radiant is the effect.
The dog is man's most faithful friend. A man may lie, but a dog won't; a man may get drunk, a man may slander his neighbor, a man may embezzle and defraud, a man may borrow money, a man may steal money, a man may go into politics, a man may knife his best friend, a man may run down people with a automobile, a man may gamble himself to ruin, a man may waste his substance in riotous living, a man may go to heaven-but a dog won't. Can these things be truthfully spoken of the other friends man has about him? There is a strong affinity between man and the dog; it must be the affinity of contrast. Yet any man will resent being called a dog. Possibly the dog would resent being called a man if he understood-I do
not know. I only know that the maxim works but one way; and if we should say "Man is the dog's most faithful friend," there would be many to cavil, saying that it was mighty rough o nthe dog.-Success Magazine.
Rabies Kill Score-Indiana Deaths
Twenty people have died in Indiana of rabies, commonly known as hydrophobia, since the year 1901. These figures are shown in the annual reports
of the State Board of Health. though the board has no figures on the number of people bitten by rabid dogs, a conservative estimate, it is believed, shows that at least 100 people have been bitten by dogs or other animals suffering from rabies. Many of these people had the wounds cauterized and never suffered any evil consequences. The large majority, however, were finally rendered immune by means of the Pasteur treatment as administered in Chicago, Ann Arbor or Indianapolis.
It can hardly be said that rabies, as affecting human beings, has been increasing in Indiana until the present year. During the year 1901 no people died in Indiana from the disease. The next year two people met death, and in 1903 five people succumbed to the disease. In 1904 only two people died of rabies, while in 1905 the deaths numbered three. Five people died of the disease in 1906 and three in the year 1907.
In 1903 a 5-year-old boy, who had been bitten by a seemingly harmless cur in a park in Milwaukee, came to Indianapolis to visit friends on Park avenue. He was accompanied by his mother. A short time after he came to Indianapolis the lad became ill. He grew delirious and soon sank into a state of coma, in which he died. The boy was treated by Dr. A. M. Cole, who decided that the disease was undoubtedly rabies. Several other phySeveral other physicians who saw the case agreed with Dr. Cole as to the diagnosis.
It is a fact that many of the people
bitten this year were bitten by cats. In Russia great trouble is encountered because of the disease. The wolves become infected with it and go from the forests into the cities and towns, where they attack every living thing in sight. In many places "polecats. become infected with the disease and help to spread it about the country. Horses suffering from rabies sometimes not only bite, but fight and kick until they kill. In Germany little trouble is experienced with rabies, as most of the dogs are muzzled. During the year 1903 there were no deaths from rabies in England. Up to that time. the deaths had averaged thirty a year. A bite through the clothing is less dangerous than a bite on the face or hands, as the clothing serves, to a certain extent, as a protection, absorbing the germ-infected saliva of the animal.
The average incubation period in man for the disease is from six weeks to two months, although cases have developed in two weeks' time and as late as six months or a year. The records of the State Board of Health are not indexed in such a way that the names of parties who die of rabies can be obtained. This is due to lack of sufficient funds, the board not being able to hire the necessary help.
Dr. J. N. Hurty, secretary of the State Board of Health, says that in Mexico the Government maintains a Pasteur Institute at the public expense. Similar institutes are maintained, also, in many of the state capitals. "The Mexican," said Dr. Hurty, "evidently believes that human life is more precious than a small appropriation.' The Indianapolis Star.
A Husband, Wife and Six Children Ill of Typhoid Fever.
Petersburg, Ind., July 15.-The famiiy of Ellis Gray, consisting of husband, wife and six children, who yesterday were thought to have been poisoned by drinking impure milk, are now all seriously ill of typhoid fever. Two physicians are almost in constant
attendance. A coincidence in connection with the family illness is that all the members were taken sick within a short time of one another, and all have the same disease.
The above clipping from the Indianapolis News of July 15, represents a too frequent type of the occurrence of typhoid conveyed by milk. The editor of this journal recalls such an instance in his practice, the father, mother and three children all having typhoid in a period of six weeks from milk taken from a dairy farm, the owners of which had typhoid fever. The family all drank milk freely; the father is a veterinary surgeon; the house was isolated on an elevated knoll; the well was free of contagion; there were no other cases in the region. Flies were not breeding.
Such notices should be a warning to physicians and health officers, indicating the danger of a foul milk supply.
One Fatal Personage; The Dunce. Carlyle says, speaking of his translation into English of "Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship and Travels," that whosoever imports into his own country any true delineation, a rationally spoken word on any subject, has done. well. For in our under world there is but one altogether fatal personage; the dunce; he that speaks irrationally; that sees not, and yet thinks that he sees."
Formaldehyd in Milk; Its Detection and Its Harmfulness.
HAGERSTOWN, MD., Aug. 19, 1908. To the Editor: 1. Will you give reliable tests for formaldehyd in milk and state the sources of possible error in making the tests? 2. Is the presence of formaldehyd in milk considered injurious to infants and children, and what symptoms does it produce?
A. C. MAISCH.
ANSWER.-1. The most reliable test for the detection of formaldehyd in milk is that based on the color which is formed when concentrated sulphuric
acid (Hehner's test) or hydrochloric acid (Leach's test) containing a trace of iron is added to milk containing formaldehyd.
Hehner's Test: To a few cubic centimeters of concentrated sulphuric acid, to which a trace of some ferric salt has been added, add the milk to be tested so as to form a distinct layer on top of the acid and allow to stand. If formaldehyd be present, even one part to a million of milk, a violet coloration will take place at the junction of the two liquids.
Leach's Method: Dilute the milk with an equal volume of water and add for each cubic centimeter of the diluted milk 1 c.c. of concentrated hydrochloric acid containing 1 c.c. of 10 per cent. ferric chlorid solution, to each 500 c.c. of acid. The mixture is heated in a casserole over the bare flame to 80 or
90 degrees C., rotating to break the curd which forms. If formaldehyd be present, a violet color will appear.
2. The presence of formaldehyd in milk is generally considered injurious to infants and children. On the other hand, some experimental observers have concluded that in the small quantities used in preserving milk (from 1 to 50,000 to 1 to 20,000) formaldehyd prevents the development of the more. common bacteria without interfering with the digestibility of the milk. full review of this subject may be found in Bulletin No. 41 of the Hygienic Laboratory, U. S. Public Health and Marine-Hospital Service, from which we quote: "It may be said, finally, however, that the medical and scientific opinion is decidedly against the use of preservatives in milk, not only on account of possible injuries, especially to young children, resulting from the continued use of such preservatives in small amounts, but also for the reason that the use of such substances, if permitted, would ultimately tend to carelessness and uncleanliness in the handling of milk."
The principal objection made to the use of formaldehyd in milk is that it
impairs the digestibility of the milk and tends to injure the digestive organs. It renders the milk less easily coagulable by rennin.. Immediate symptoms which could be attributed with certainty to the presence of formaldehyd in the milk do not appear to have been observed.
-Journal A. M. A.
Resuscitation After Drowning.
SUPERIOR, NEB., Aug. 6, 1908. To the Editor: I would like to see a discussion of the following points:
1. What is the longest authentic time that a body has lain under water and been resuscitated after removal?
2. If, on recovering a body from the water there is no heart beat perceptible to auscultation, will treatment avail anything, and if it should, is it not positive proof that the heart had not stopped?
3. How long should efforts at resuscitation be continued in hopeful cases? J. G. WALKER.
ANSWER. The effect of immersion in water depends on whether the person remains conscious and attempts to breathe or whether syncope occurs and breathing stops. In the first case death occurs in 1 to 5 minutes after water has entered the lungs. The power to remain under water without breathing varies considerably and is somewhat improved by practice. According to Draper ("Legal Medicine"), the longest time on record is that of Professor Enochs, namely, 4 minutes 461⁄2 seconds. Draper also cites a report to the United States Life Saving Service of the resuscitation of Stanley S. Holmes, 51⁄2 years old, after an immersion of 25 minutes. The resuscitation produced signs of life at the end of 45 minutes. Draper states that this is the longest time on record. In this case it is probable that syncope occurred and respiration ceased so that no water entered the lungs.
2. If in a case of drowning the heart has actually stopped beating, it is safe to say that the patient is dead and be
yond resuscitation, but it must be remembered that the heart beat may be so feeble and indistinct as to be imperceptible even to the most expert auscultator. Hence, one is liable to think that the person is actually dead when such is not the case.
3. From the above it will be seen that apparently hopeless cases may be hopeful ones, therefore efforts of resuscitation after drowning should be persevered in for several hours unless signs of death are positive. Cases are on record in which persons have been restored only after efforts had been continued for over four hours. -Journal A. M. A.
Dr. Marshall's Story of Perry's Memorable Expedition to Japan.
SCOTTSBURG, Ind., August 6.-Dr. Nathan M. Marshall, of Knoxville, Tenn., now visiting his daughter, Mrs. S. B. Wells, of this city, is perhaps the only survivor of the Perry expedition to Japan in 1853. A few years ago a friend of the doctor wrote to him, telling of reading the obituary of the supposed last member of the expedition, in a Southern newspaper. If there are any other survivors he would be glad to hear of them.
Dr. Marshall was a hospital steward on the U. S. S. Vandalia, a sailing vessel, which left Philadelphia March 4, 1853, bound for Japan. He says stops were made at Rio de Janeiro, Java and Singapore. The last-named place was then a rough country, the sea being much infested with pirates and freebooters. On two occasions the Vandalia was attacked, once after night, but when the visitors discovered the noses of several 32 and 68-pounders protruding from the sides of the vessel they left without further ado. In the second encounter they showed fight, but were soon scurrying from their boat up the hills, with big round shot helping them on.
SAW A STRANGE PEOPLE.
The fleet had its rendezvous at the Loo Choo islands, inhabited by a
strange people, seemingly neither Japanese nor Chinese. The other ships were the steam frigates Susquehanna and Mississippi, the sloops of war Plymouth and Saratoga and the frigate Macedonia.
Commodore Perry was a fit man for the leader, inflexible and of a stern and commanding dignity, besides having the advantage of a portly figure and square shoulders, says Dr. Marshall. The first negotiations threw the Japanese into a spasm of fear, but ultimately they sent word for the "barbarians" to come on. When the exhibits carried by the different vessels were uncovered the Japanese awoke from the sleep of centuries to become a different nation. They were eager and willing to try everything, from the sewing machine to the various kinds of farming implement.
TELEGRAPH A MARVEL TO THEM.
A small steam locomotive and track excited their imagination, but the electric telegraph was a marvel. A line was established between the ships, and the Japanese stationed men to see that nothing was slipped along the wires. On the other hand, the Americans were equally amazed at the scenes on the shore. The one that managed to slip off or was sent on an errand ashore was regarded as fortunate.
One of the most remarkable superstitions of the Japanese was their belief regarding the earth. They thought it was supported on the back of a huge elephant, which, in turn, stood on the back of a turtle. Dr. Marshall could not tell what came next, but supposed the turtle must have been in the water. The Japanese had a great many spherical bells, a little like the old-fashioned cow bells, and unless one of those things was being beaten by some one all the time the knees of the elephant would shake and there would be an earthquake. One could see this performance going on at any place.
The Vandalia was laid up nine months a little below Shanghai, repairing and making ready for the home
trip. It was at this place that the Americans realized the enormity of real Oriental barbarism. The Ta Ping Wong rebellion was then at its height and the rebels held the city. Occasfonally the imperials would advance against the city in a half-hearted way. but accomplished little. A French vessel was anchored above the city and it rather sympathized with the imperials while our men were with the rebels. Sometimes the American sailors would slip in and fire their guns for them. One day the French shot down a small part of the city wall and tried to scale it. A young midshipman was the first to reach the top. No sooner was he on the wall than he was struck squarely on the head with a large knife which completely divided his head, half falling on either shoulder. The sight of this was enough to keep the outsiders from interfering again.
The guns used were mere barrels with a short piece of wood for a stock. There was a little pan by the side of the
A forked wire holding a piece of lighted punk, when lowered to the pan, served as a trigger. When fired the guns had to be inclined upward to prevent the balls from rolling out.
Finally, after a long siege the rebels slipped out of the city at night, leaving all the old men, women and children. The next morning the Imperials marched victoriously into the city and beheaded every person found there. The heads were then tied together by the cues in bunches of three or four, and raised on pike poles above the walls as a warning. On all sides were great piles of mangled bodies, some literally hacked to pieces.
The ambulance they used was a basket about two feet in diameter with handles on the sides. A wounded man was dumped into this with his feet hanging out on one side and his head on the other. It was amusing to them, said the doctor, to take a man along in this manner, and they often would be seen swinging some poor fellow along, laughing at his discomfiture.