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Medical Education in the U. S.-Statistics for the College Year 1907-8.
The tabulated statistics herewith presented are for the year ending June 30, 1908, and are based on signed reports received directly from the medical colleges or from other reliable
The total number of medical students in the United States for the year ending June 30, 1908, was 22,602, a decrease of 1,674 below 1907, and a decrease of 2,602 below 1906. Of the total number of students, 20,936 were in attendance at the regular schools, 891 at the homeopathic, 479 at the eclectic, 90 at the physiomedical, and 206 at the unclassified schools. The attendance at the regular schools shows a decrease of 1,367 below that of last year, of 2,180 below 1906, and of 3,183 below 1905. In the homeopathic schools there was a decrease of 148
below the attendance of 1907, of 194 below 1906, and of 213 below 1905. The eclectic schools show a decrease of 66 since 1907, of 165 below 1906, and of 99 below 1905. The physiomedical colleges had 90 this year as compared with 97 in 1907, 110 in 1906, and 114 in 1905.
The total number of graduates for the year ending on June 30, 1908, was 4,741, a decrease of 239 below 1907, of 623 below 1906, and of 859 below 1905. The number graduated from the regular schools was 4,370, or 221 less than in 1907, and 471 less than in 1906. From the homeopathic colleges there were 215 graduates, or 10 less than in 1907, and 71 less than in 1906. The eclectic colleges graduated 116, or 7 less than last year and 70 less than in 1906. The physiomedical schools had 12 graduates this year, as compared with 11 last year and 22 in 1906.
During the past year there were 835 women studying medicine, or 3.7 per cent. of all medical students. There were 185 women, graduates this year. Of all the women matriculants, 186 were in attendance at the three medical colleges for women.
During the past year seven colleges have been suspended and seven lost their identity through mergers. Three new colleges were formed by the merging of others, however, and two new colleges were established, making a net decrease of nine colleges since last year, the total now being 152. The regular schools number 123, a decrease of eight since last year. The homeopathic schools number 16, a decrease of 1. The eclectic colleges have 8, the same number as last year, and the physiomedical colleges have decreased by one, there being now only 2, while there are now 3 nondescript schools which offer to teach all systems of medicine.
The length of the terms of the same colleges fluctuates somewhat from year to year, but on the whole there has been a lengthening of college terms. This has reference to
weeks of actual work, exclusive of holidays. Only 2 colleges this year report sessions shorter than twenty-seven weeks, as compared with 6 in 1907 and 14 in 1906.
Of the 144 colleges that had graduates 96, or 66.7 per cent., are located in cities of 100,000 or greater population, and these colleges had 3,650, or 77.2 per cent. of all graduates of 1908, while the 48 schools located in cities of less than 100,000 had 1,091, or 22.8 per cent. of all graduates. In cities of less than 50,000 there are 31 medical colleges, which had 595 graduates in 1908, while 8 colleges having 144 graduates in 1908 are located in cities having less than 10,000 population.
Only two states contributed over 2,000 students each this year, these being New York with 2,116 and Pennsylvania with 2,104. Illinois, which last year contributed 2,126, contributed only 1,749 this year. The next States in the order of the number of students contributed are Missouri, 919; Ohio, 912; Texas, 874 and Massachusetts. 860. Three states had less than 20 each, these being Wyoming, 6; Nevada, 8, and New Mexico, 11.
The average proportion of graduates to matriculants each year for all colleges is 20.4 per cent., instead of 25, which shows that only about 4 out of every 5 students who matriculate continue until they graduate. In this number which do not graduate may be included those who go into other lines of activity, those who take special special courses and those deceased.
The chief sources of information regarding medical colleges of the United States prior to 1890 are the invaluable reports issued under the direction of Dr. John Rauch, who was then secretary of the Illinois State Board of Health. The United States Bureau of Education's reports since 1890 have contained fairly complete lists of medical schools together with much important data. Reports of the New York Education Department likewise furnish much valuable information.
ginning with and since the college session of 1900-1901, A. M. A. Jour. has been publishing complete statistics, to which, since 1905, have been added the special researches of the Council on Medical Education.
Eighteen months ago Louisville had. five regular medical colleges the Hospital College of Medicine, the Kentucky School of Medicine, the Kentucky University Medical Department, the Louisville Medical College and the University of Louisville Medical Department. A year ago the Kentucky University Medical Department merged into the University of Louisville and a little later the Louisville Medical College and the Hospital College of Medicine merged under name of the Louisville and Hospital Medical College. Thus there remained three colleges which have since merged, retaining the name of the University of Louisville Medical Department. In an effort to have the college thus formed become the Medical Department of the Kentucky State University, a conference was held July 17 in Lexington with the trustees of the Kentucky State University. At this conference objection was made to having a medical department in any city other than the seat of the university. This is the same difficulty which came up with the universities of California, Kansas, Maine, Nebraska, North Carolina and Indiana in establishing their medical departments, as well as in the establishment of a medical department of Cornell University in New York City. In California, Kansas, Maine, Nebraska and North Carolina the
problem was solved by offering the first two years of the medical course at the seat of the university and the clinical years in the largest city in each state. Cornell University adopted the plan of giving the work of the first two years both at Ithaca and at New York City, but all the clinical work was to be taken at the latter place. Indiana Universiy followed the Cornell plan and the student may take the first
two years either at Bloomington or Indianapolis, but his clinical years must be taken at Indianapolis. In all these mergers, the results of which have been reported favorably, the advantage of having the clinical work at the largest city in the state seems to have more than offset the disadvantage of having a part or all of the medical work in a city other than the seat of the university.
Indiana Medical Colleges.
Indiana, population 2,710,898, has two medical colleges, the Indiana University School of Medicine, and the Physio-Medical College of Indiana. Both are located at Indianapolis, a city of 219.154 people, except that the work of the first two years of the Indiana University School of Medicine is offered at Bloomington, population 5,000 the seat of the University.
BLOOMINGTON AND INDIANAPOLIS.
Indiana University School of Medieine. Organized in 1890, but gave only a premedical course until 1905, when all the subjects of the first two years were offered. In 1907, by union with the State College of Physicians and Surgeons, the complete course in medicine was offered. In 1908 the Indiana Medical College, which formed in 1907 by the merger of the Medical College of Indiana (organized in 1869), the Central College of Physicians and Surgeons (organized in 1879) and the Fort Wayne College of Medicine (organized in 1879) merged into it. The faculty consists of 99 professors and 76 lecturers, associates and assistants, a total of 175. In 1910, besides a four-year high school education, one year of collegiate work will be required for admission. The work of the first two years may be taken either at Bloomington or at Indianapolis. The clinical work is all done at Indianapolis. The Secretary Bloomington is Dr. B. D. Myers; at Indianapolis, Dr. Edmund D. Clark, Newton-Claypool Bldg. The total registration for 1907-8 was 308; graduates,
73. The next session begins September 22, 1908, and ends June 23, 1909.
Physiov Medical College of Indiana. Fourteenth Street and College Avenue. Organized in 1873. The first class graduated in 1874. The Dean is Dr. C. T. Bedford. The total registration, for 1907-8 was 24; graduates, 5. The next session begins September 8, 1908, and ends May 4, 1909.-Journal A. M. A.
[The above is correct in the main. First, the three colleges comprising the Purdue School of Medicine merged in 1805 instead of 1907, as stated above, graduating two classes at Lafayette. Second, Purdue University is not recognized as bringing about the union of the three regular schools of Indiana.]
Ancon Hospital, Panama.
A letter from Dr. Nelson D. Brayton, in the Government Medical service on the Isthmus, under date of August 10, encloses a report of the laboratory work in his section of the hospital.
This section (F.) has 270 beds. There were 729 different patients admitted in July. Dr. Brayton is at present doing laboratory work.
There were 762 examinations of stools made by the Doctor with ova of uncinaria in 109; ova of Trichocephalus dispar, 37; ova of ascaris, 37; ova of Bilharzia, 2; Amoeba coli, 28; ciliated monads, 26; Amoeba dysenterica, 7; pus, blood and epithelium, 76.
There were 41 examinations of sputum with 32 negative. There were 831 examinations of urine, with albumin 461; casts, 175.
There were 738 blood examinations, with estivo-autumnal organisms in 358, White and tertian in 73; mixed, 2. blood counts 25; differential, 5. Spinal puncture and examinations, 2.
Of opthalmo-tuberculin reactions, there were 100. The H. K. Mulford tuberculin was used; there were no bad results. The writer closes his article by saying that malaria continues. to be their greatest enemy, affecting particularly the kidneys and producing
wide spread arterio-sclerosis and premature senility.
Ohio Medical Colleges Unite.
The Miami Medical College and the Medical College of Ohio have entered into an agreement with the University of Cincinnati, by the terms of which the two colleges have agreed to become the Medical Department of the University of Cincinnati. Under this agreement the new medical department is to become an integral part of the University and shall be on exactly the same basis as any other department of the University.
During the session of 1908-09 the two medical colleges will retain their autonomy, but the graduates from both colleges in 1909 shall receive their diplomas from the University.
It is further agreed that each college shall enter the University upon exactly the same footing and that all details and plans shall be so arranged as to open the session of 1909 and 1910 with but the one school, the faculty of which shall have been selected from those of the two previously existing schools, with such additions as may be deemed expedient by the Board of Directors of the University.
Pure Milk for Babes in Indianapolis. A fund has been started in Indianapolis by the Children's Aid Association for furnishing pure milk to the needy bottle-fed babies during the summer months. This has been done only after a careful investigation proving that the rate of infant mortality. in Indianapolis is higher than it should be and the standard of milk available too low.
According to the plan proposed, distributing stations in charge of trained nurses and supervised by competent. physicians will be established in as many needy districts as the commission can afford. The milk distributed will be the purest available, scientifically prepared according to the needs of the child, and delivered to the station
in iced sterile bottles. They are to be sold at a nominal price or given to those found unable to pay for them.
If any infants under a physician's care, in the districts announced are not supplied with milk of a satisfactory quality, the station will be glad to cooperate by supplying milk and the services of a visiting nurse.
Stations are now open at 1753 Yandes, South, East, Norwood and South West streets in Indianapolis.
The Contagious Disease Hospital for
The Indianapolis City Hospital has never had a brighter future than at present. Four years ago the County Society held a meeting in its interest. Mr. John H. Holliday, formerly editor of the News and always the city's highest exponent of civic righteousness, made a strong address urging that the City Hospital be taken out of politics just as the State Hospitals for Insane and the city public schools are out of politics. Such had been the hope of the medical profession for years-in fact, from the beginning of the Hospital under Dr. Woolen, forty-three years ago.
This hope, however, was for forty years little more than an irridescent dream and not the substance of things hoped for, until within the last three years when Mayor Bookwalter gave the Health Board a free hand, and did all in his power to make the City Hospital modern and efficient. A permanent superintendent has been elected; a new laundry and heating plant installed, the nurses, some forty in number, and the six house physicians decently quartered, the official residence. rebuilt and steps taken to make the building safe from fire. To these ends the Health Board has spent over $150,000, and the cost of maintenance has been increased to over one dollar a day, which is little enough for decency and humanity.
The present effort of the Board is to establish a Contagious Disease Hos
pital separate from the main building with wards for erysipelas, scarlet fever, diphtheria and other diseases requiring isolation. The smallpox hospital is on a plat of fifteen acres on the banks of Fall Creek far from residences. It is in good order and has had from two to twenty occupants each day for the year past. By the use of this isolation hospital and vaccination of all exposed in those parts of the city where smallpox was found, the disease-mild in its form-is controlled; all are recent arrivals to the city, mostly from Kentucky, and children born since the universal vaccination of eight years ago. There is no compulsary vaccination in the city. Children unvaccinated attend the schools-frequently with smallpox. mistaken for chickenpox.
A recent epidemic of scarlet fever in the City Orphans' Home, some 16 or 20 cases, has intensified the interest in a contagious disease hospital to cost $60,000, and separate from the City Hospital, but on the same grounds. This movement has been supported by the medical society, all of the newspapers and the Mayor. The City Council has not as yet issued the necessary bonds, but has left the ordinance sleeping in committee for nearly a year. In middle August the ordinance was brought up but failed to pass as it was vigorously opposed by Mr. Harry E. Royce, Chairman of the Finance Committee, whose speech of two columns against the measure was printed as a paid advertisement in the Indianapolis News at a cost to Mr. Royce or the City Council of over $75.
There is little doubt that the Council will yield and make the required appropriation, as every voice and influence in the city demands the hospital. The Board of Health, Dr Edmund Clark, chairman, Drs. Spencer, Morrison and Noble. members, have the entire confidence of the physicians and people of the city, and while they are in charge the City Hospital will be run as it shoul be or it will be closed.
No half-way measures will be toler ated by the present Board of City Health, and they have the entire city. back of them in their efforts to make the City Hospital as safe, as comfortable and as modern as the needs of a great city like Indianapolis requires. and demands.
The opposition of the Council to the Health Board is simply a renewal of the old fight to keep the hospital out of politics. The course of the Council furnishes an admirable text for opera bouffe. We may smile at its absurdities but at the same time must grieve at its tragedies of wide-spread disease and death.
In some of our central western cities the Council has been coerced into righteousness by a display of ropes and threats of violence. Happily Indianapolis citizens have never resorted to violence. The City Commercial Club has taken the matter up with the City Health Board and City Council, and there is every probability that the Council will yield and leave the management of the hospital to the Board of Health.
Sanitary Association Organization.
The Indiana Sanitary and Water Supply Association, affiliated with the State Board of Health, was organized July 18 at Indianapolis by superintendents of water works, water chemists, health officers and members of the State Board of Health. II. E. Barnard, state water commissioner, was elected president, and Frank Jordan of the Indianapolis Water Company, secretary. The purpose of the organization is to study the source of the public water supplies, their preservation, conservation and purification, and to work for advanced legislation looking to that end.
American Public Health Association at
Drs. Hurty and Wishard attended the meeting. April 25 to 28, representing the Indiana State Board of Health