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they were inexpedient. Considering the circumstances of the times, more evil than good would have been the result of the continuance of this practice. It was therefore relinquished, and the happy consequence was, that all the people gradually became free from the error of purgatory. Thenceforward the catholic doctrine prevailed in England, that the righteous after death are immediately translated to a region of peace, refreshment, and joy; while the wicked are consigned to a place of torment from whence there is no escape. And when the doctrine of purgatory had been extirpated, the English church restored the commemoration of saints departed in the liturgy, which had been omitted for many years from the same caution and pious regard to the souls of her children.

ENGLAND. And we also bless ALEXANDRIA. "Οπως αν και thy holy name, for all thy ser- ημείς μετά πάντων αγίων, των απ' vants departed this life in thy αιώνος σοι ευαρεστησάντων, γενώfaith and fear; beseeching thee μεθα μέτοχοι των αιωνίων σου αγαto give us grace so to follow θών, ών ήτοίμασας τους αγαπώσι their good examples, that with σε κύριε h. them we may be partakers of Antioch. Dignos effice ut thy heavenly kingdom. Grant omnium illorum qui a sæculo this O Father, for Jesus Christ's tibi placuerunt, memoriam asake, our only Mediator and

gamus. Patrum sanctorum et Advocate. Amen.

patriarcharum, prophetarum et CESAREA. Tlongaus iva eüpw- apostolorum, Johannis præcur

. Ποιήσαις εύρωμεν έλεον και χάριν μετά πάντων soris et Baptistæ, sancti Steτων αγίων, των απ' αιώνος σοι ευ- phani primi diaconorum, et αρεστησάντων, προπατόρων, πα- primi martyrum, et sanctæ Oeoτριαρχών, προφητών, αποστόλων, τόκου semper que virginis beate κηρύκων, ευαγγελιστών, μαρτυρών, Mariæ, et omnium sanctorum.

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Liturgia Basilii, Alexandrina. Renaudot, tom. i. p. 75. Marci,

ibid. 150.


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ομολογητών, διδασκάλων, και παντός πνεύματος δικαίου εν πίστει τετελειωμένου i.

Milan. Nobis quoque minimis et peccatoribus famulis tuis, de multitudine misericordiæ tuæ sperantibus, partem aliquam et societatem donare digneris cum tuis sanctis apostolis et martyribus .... et cum omnibus sanctis tuis : intra quorum nos consortium, non æstimator meriti sed veniæ

quæsumus largitor admittej.

Rogamus te, Domine multæ misericordiæ, qui impossibilia veluti possibilia creas, constitue nos huic ecclesiæ, statue nos per gratiam tuam inter electos illos qui scripti sunt in cælis k.

ALEXANDRIAN ORTHODOX. 'Hμίν τα τέλη της ζωής χριστιανά και ευάρεστα, και αναμάρτητα δώρησαι: και δος ημίν μερίδα και κληρον έχειν μετά πάντων των αγίων σου 1.

ROME. Nearly the same as Milan m.



The general prayers and commemorations which we have been considering, occupied very different places in the different liturgies of the primitive church. In the patriarchates or exarchates of Antioch, Cæsarea, and Constantinople, these prayers followed the consecration of the elements n. In the patriarchate of Alexandria and Æthiopia they preceded the consecration, and occurred in the middle of the thanksgiving, between Sursum corda and the hymn Tersanctus °. In the Roman patriarchate, the exarchate of Italy or Milan, and probably in Africa, the solemn prayers for the living occurred before the consecration, and for the departed after consecration, but both within the canon which followed

i Liturgia Basilii, Goar, p. 170.

j Miss. Ambros. Pamel. Liturg. tom.i. p. 303.

k Liturgia Jacobi Syr. Renaud. tom. i. p. 86.

1 Liturgia Marci Renaudot, tom. i. p. 150.

m Sacrament. Gregorii, Menard. p. 3:

n See vol. i. p. 28, 65, 77. 0 Vol. i. p. 98.


Tersanctusp. It appears from this, that the general

prayers may be placed as well before the consecration as after it. None of these liturgies, however, afford an exact parallel to the order of the English liturgy, where the living and departed are commemorated not merely before consecration, but before the canon or more solemn part of the liturgy begins. We are not, however, without an ancient (I had almost said an apostolical) example of this practice. In the ancient liturgies of Gaul and Spain, the solemn commemoration of living and departed was made in exactly the same place as it is in the English liturgy. There, after the gifts of bread and wine were laid on the table, and before the canon, the names of the living and dead, including the names of kings, bishops, clergy, benefactors, &c. and of apostles, martyrs, and the departed faithful, were recited; and then the officiating priest offered a prayer for all 9.



An exhortation or address to the people at this part of the liturgy did not generally occur in the rites of the Christian churches during the very first ages ; we cannot therefore claim for it the antiquity which belongs to most other parts of our liturgy. However, exhortations delivered to the people during the divine liturgy, at a different time from the sermon, are not without parallel in very ancient rites. In the primitive Gallican and Spanish liturgies an address to the people called Præfatio occurred very nearly at this place, immediately before the general prayers for all men, while the address in our liturgy occurs immediately after them. In this exhortation they were informed of the principal events which they were assembled to commemorate, and thus were prepared to listen with more attention and devotion". In the liturgy of Antioch, , used for a great length of time by the Syrian monophysites, there is an address from the deacon to the people, which nearly corresponds in position with our exhortation. It is placed before the salutation of peace and the beginning of the solemn thanksgivings and prayers *. It consists chiefly of praises and thanks to God, and prepares the minds of the faithful, by speaking of the body and blood of Christ then shortly to be received. What may be the antiquity of this address I know not, but many reasons induce me to think that it is more recent than the separation of the monophysites and orthodox in A. D. 451. It appears, therefore, that the position of our ex

q Ibid. p. 160. 174.

p Vol. i. p. 122. 127. 137.

, hortation is not by any means without parallel in ancient liturgies ; and in the exhortation itself we recognise the very life and soul of primitive devotion and orthodox faith.


As we have now entered on a part of the liturgy which must be regarded as peculiarly preparatory, it may be well to remark, that the preparation of the people in ancient liturgies was generally of three kinds : first, the preparation of repentance; secondly, r Vol.i. p. 160. 174.

naudot, tom. ii. p. 29. see also s Liturgia Jacobi Syr. Re- p. 75

of faith; thirdly, of charity. The English liturgy provides for the first in the confession and benediction, or absolution of penitents, which will be reviewed in the next section. The second is provided for by the repetition of the Constantinopolitan Creed. The third is accomplished by us in the exhortation to charity, which occurs in the middle of the address, which I consider in the present section. In the primitive church it was customary for the faithful to testify their charity by mutual salutations some time before the distribution of the sacrament t. In early ages, the common salutation of friendship was a kiss; even within our own age such a custom has (I apprehend) existed in some foreign countries. In the eastern churches, the men sat at one side of the church, the women at the other; so that when the kiss of peace was given, according to the apostle Paul's directions, no sort of impropriety could occur 1. In the west, whatever might have been the original custom, certainly in after-ages

t Και ο διάκονος είπάτο πασιν, est signaculum orationisασπάσασθε αλλήλους έν φιλήματι quale Sacrificium est, a quo αγίω, και ασπαζέσθωσαν οι του sine pace receditur.” Tertul. κλήρου τον επίσκοπον, οι λαϊκοί lian de Oratione, c. xiv. p. 135. άνδρες τους λαϊκούς, αι γυναίκες ed. Rigaltii. . τας γυναίκας. Const. Apost. lib. Εις το έτερον μέρος οι λαϊκοί viii. c. II. p. 398. ed. Clerici. καθεζέσθωσαν μετά πάσης ησυχίας Είθ' ούτως την ειρήνην δίδοσθαι. και ευταξίας και αι γυναίκες κεχωκαι μετά το πρεσβυτέρους δούναι ρισμένως και αυται καθεζέσθωσαν. το επισκόπο, την ειρήνην, τότε Apost. Const. lib. ii. c. 57. τους λαϊκούς την ειρήνην δίδοναι. Εί κέκλεισται η εκκλησία και πάνConcil. Laodicen. canon 19. τες υμείς ένδον, αλλά διεστάλθω Beverg. Pandect. tom. i.

Ρ. τα πράγματα, άνδρες μετά ανδρών, 46ι. 'Αλλήλους φιλήματι ασπά- και γυναίκες μετά γυναικών. Cyζόμεθα παυσάμενοι των ευχών. rill. Hierosolym. Præf. ad Cat. Justin. Martyr. Apolog. 1. ed. No. 8. p. 11. ed. Milles. See Thirlby, p. 95. Jejunantes Bingham's Antiquities, book habita oratione cum fratribus viii. chap. 5. 5. 6. subtrahunt osculum pacis, quod

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