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have been mistaken by some persons, who have confounded the vestment with the cope; but this is evidently an error ; for Alesse uniformly translates vestment by the word casula, while he distinguishes cope from it by the appellation of cappa; and in the rubric of the ritual of 1551 the distinction is evident: “ the priest shall use neither albe, vestment, or





The cope, termed by ancient writers capa, cappa, pallium, pluviale, &c. is a garment of considerable antiquity. It seems, like the casula, to have been originally derived from the ancient pænula; which, from the descriptions and figures given by Ferrarius in lib. ii. de Re Vestiaria, p. 79 and 80, appears to have been a cloak closed all round, with an aperture for the head to pass through, and a short division in the lower part of the front. To this garment was attached a hood or cowl, which in wet weather was drawn over the head. The casula is often called pænula by ancient writers, and the chief respects in which it differed from the cope were in having no cowl, and in not being divided in the front. The cope, being intended for use in the open air, retained the cowl, and in process of time was entirely opened in the front. The original identity of the cope and casula appears from the writings of Isidore Hispalensis!, and Durand m, the latter of whom says, that the cope is the same as the casula ; and Cæsarius, bishop of Arles, A. D. 520, possessed

1 Gavanti Thesaurus, p. 122.

m Durandus, lib. ii. cap. 9.

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a “casula processoria,” which is generally understood to mean a cope". The cope, as I have remarked, is a cloak reaching from the neck nearly to the feet, open in front except at the top, where it is united by a band or clasp. To the back was attached a hood or cowl, which in later times has given place to a sort of triangular ornament of the same shape, which sometimes extends over the shoulders. Figures III and IV represent bishops dressed in copes. Figure III, No. 1, is an ancient cope resembling those delineated and described by Gerbert, Liturgia Alemannica, tom. i. p. 250, 251. Figure IV, No. 1, represents a cope as used in England in the thirteenth century; No. 2. is the hood or cowl at the back. It was made of various materials and colours like the vestment, and often with fringes and rich embroidery. William the Conqueror, king of England, sent a cope to Hugh abbot of Clugny, almost entirely made of gold, and adorned with pearls and other gems"; and Walafridus Strabo informs us, that the kings of France in the ninth century were in possession of the cope of Martin bishop of Tours, A. D. 380P. The English ritual permitted the bishop to wear a cope instead of a vestment in his public ministrations, if he chose, and gave the same liberty to presbyters in celebrating the eucharist. The Injunctions of queen Elizabeth in 1564, and the canons of 1603, directed the cope to be used. The former also appointed the epistler and gospeller, or assistants at the eucharist in cathedral and collegiate churches, to wear copes; a custom which was pre

n Cyprianus Tolonens. Vita lib. i. cap. 24. §. 17. Cæsarii Arelatens. Num. 23. P Liber de Rebus Ecclesias

o See Bona, Rer. Liturgiar. ticis, cap. 31.

served in the consecration of archbishop Parker to the see of Canterbury. We are informed by Le Brun, that the Armenians and the Nestorians of Chaldæa and India use the cope and not the chasible at the celebration of the eucharist9. The assistant ministers have very anciently worn copes in the western churches on solemn occasions, especially in cathedrals, as we find the ancient Ordo Romanus, written, according to some, in the seventh century, directing them to use it when a bishop celebrates the eucharistr. I have not learned that the cope is worn by the clergy of the patriarchates of Alexandria and Antioch, but the mandyas, used by certain clergy of Constantinople and Russia”, seems very much to resemble it. Formerly the cope was used by the clergy in processions or litanies, and on solemn occasions in morning and evening prayers, and was generally worn by the bishop except in celebrating the eucharist, ordination, and some other occasions, when he used the vestment.



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The tunicle, called tunica, dalmatica, tunicella, &c. in the west, was used in the earliest ages of the Christian church. Originally it had no sleeves, and was then often called colobium. The garment used by deacons in the Greek church, and all the east, and called sticharion, seems to be the ancient colobium. It is said that wide sleeves were added to the colobium about the fourth century in the west, which

9 Le Brun, Ceremonies de la Messe, tome v. p. 80.

r Ordo Romanus apud Hit

torpii Officia, p. 7.

s See Goar, Rituale Græc. p. 113

thenceforth was often called dalmatic; and when used by subdeacons, tunicle. But the shape of the garment was the same, by whomsoever it was worn. In the middle ages, several distinctions were made relative to the use of the tunic by bishops and others; but the Greek and eastern churches do not use the sleeved tunic, and with them no such distinctions are in existence. The tunic was made of the same sort of materials, &c. as the cope and vestment; and the English ritual directs it to be used by the assistant ministers in the holy communion Figures V. and VI. represent deacons arrayed in tunicles. Fig. V, No. 1, is a tunicle, as used in England in the ninth and tenth centuries. Fig. VI, No. 1, represents the eastern sticharion or tunicle, with separate eiuavikia or sleeves added, (see Goar, p. 111.) from an ancient picture published by Du Cange.



The albe bore different names in the writings of ancient authors. Amalarius calls it camisia or alba, lib. ii. c. 18. Isidorus Hispalensis calls it poderis or camisia, lib. xix. Origin. c. 21. In the old Ordo Romanus of the seventh century it is called linea. Whether the albe and tunic were originally the same is not certain, but I think it not improbable. In the east it was early called poderis, from its reaching to the feet; and it is mentioned under that name by Eusebius and Gregory Nazianzen. The poderis was the same as the sticharion, which is

t See Bona, Rer. Liturgicar. lib. i. cap. 24. §. 18. Gavanti Thesaurus a Merati, tom. i. p.

124. Du Cange's Glossary, &c. Gerbertus, Liturgia Alemannica, tom. i. p. 243.

spoken of by Athanasius, Sozomen, and Gregory Nazianzen. The albe of the western church is spoken of by the fourth council of Carthage ; by that of Narbonne, A. D. 589; and by various ancient writers referred to above u. It was made of white linen, and generally bound with a girdle of the same; but the sticharion of the Greeks is not girded. The albe is directed by the English ritual to be used by the bishop, presbyters, and deacons in celebrating the eucharist. The first, however, is allowed to use a surplice instead of it in his public ministrations. Fig. VII, No. 2, represents the albe.



The scarf is not mentioned in the rubric of the English ritual; but as it is often used in the church

; during the performance of divine service, I think it merits consideration in this place. The scarf is worn by bishops, with the rochette, and generally by dignitaries and prebendaries in cathedrals, and by chaplains. The origin of this custom is obscure, and I have not seen the subject noticed in any place. The scarf is not worn because the person is a doctor, by whom, in universities, a scarf is used; for many persons who are not doctors wear it. And therefore it seems to me more natural to refer this custom to the ancient practice of the church, according to which presbyters and bishops wear a scarf or stole in the administration of the sacraments, and on some other occasions. The stole or orarium has

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u See Gavanti Thesaurus, turgicar. lib. i. c. 24. §. 3. Du tom. i. p. 143. Bona, Rer. Li- Cange, Glossary.

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