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The administration of baptism was succeeded by various rites in the primitive church. In Gaul, Spain, and Milan, the priest washed the feet of the newly baptizedb; but this ceremony has long become obsolete in all parts of the Christian church. At this time also the newly baptized received a taste of milk and honey", and were clothed in white garmentsd. But the former of these rites has long been extinct in almost all parts of the church, and the English church has not deemed it expedient to continue the latter. Formerly also, confirmation followed immediately after baptismo. And in the eastern churches, where presbyters are permitted to confirm, the same custom prevails to the present days. But as the discipline of the western churches has not so far relaxed as to concede to presbyters the power of administering confirmation ordinarily, it became necessary that when they administered baptism, confirmation should be deferred to some future time, when the bishop was present.

b See Bingham's Antiquities, book xii. ch.4. sect. 10. Compare Miss. Goth. p. 231; Miss. Gall. Vet. p. 364; Mabillon, Liturg. Gallican. This rite was abolished in Spain by the council of Eliberis.

c Tertullian de Corona Mili. tis, c. iii. p. 102, speaks of this as one of the ancient traditions of the church. It is also mentioned by Clement of Alexandria, and Jerome, &c. See Bingham, book xii. ch. 4. §. 6.

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The conclusion of the office of baptism resembles that described in the Apostolical Constitutions, where the newly baptized are directed to repeat the Lord's Prayer and another concluding prayerh. An order also, somewhat similar to ours, is observable in the monuments of the ancient Gallican church.

Seeing now, dearly beloved Laudes et gratias Domino brethren, that this child is re- referamus, fratres dilectissimi, generate, and grafted into the quod augere dignatus est ecbody of Christ's church, let us clesiæ suæ congregationem per give thanks unto Almighty caros nostros, qui modo bapGod for these benefits; and tizati sunt. Petamus ergo de with one accord make our Domini misericordia ut baptisprayers unto him, that this mum sanctum, quod accepechild may

lead the rest of his runt, illibatum, inviolatum, et life according to this begin- immaculatum perferant ante ning

tribunal Christi. Our Father which art in heaven, hallowed, &c.

We yield thee hearty thanks, Domine Deus omnipotens, most merciful Father, that it famulos tuos, quos jussisti rehath pleased thee to regenerate nasci ex aqua et Spiritu Sancthis infant with thy Holy Spirit, to; conserva in eis baptismum to receive him for thine own sanctum quod acceperunt, et child by adoption, and to in- in nominis tui sanctificationem corporate him into thy holy perficere dignare, ut proficiat church. And humbly we be- in illos gratia tua semiper, et seech thee to grant, that he quod te ante donante suscepebeing dead unto sin, and living runt, vitæ suæ integritate cusunto righteousness, and being todianti.

h Apost. Const. lib. vii. c. 44, 45.

i Miss. Bobiense ante annos 1100. scriptum. Muratori Lit. Rom. Vet. tom. ii. p. 852.

This may also be compared with the prayer in the ritual of the monophysites of An

tioch. “ Deus qui redemptionem per Christum tuum tribuisti nobis, et dedisti huic famulo tuo, qui baptizatus est, regenerationem per Spirituun tuum Sanctum. Tu Domine, hominum amator, adjuva et


eum in Nancutate,



buried with Christ in his death, may crucify the old man, and utterly abolish the whole body of sin ; and that as he is made partaker of the death of thy Son, he may also be partaker of his resurrection ; so that finally, with the residue of thy holy church, he may be an inheritor of thine everlasting kingdom; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

The office of baptism is followed by an exhortation addressed to the sponsors, instructing them in their duties towards the child recently baptized. The ancient offices of the churches of Salisbury and York appointed a similar exhortation to be made on the same occasioni. What may be the antiquity of this custom I know not. Nor have I observed a

. similar order in any of the western offices, except in those of the English church, and in an ancient ritual of the church of Limoges in France, published by Martenek



The catholic church has always been accustomed to permit the private baptism of persons who are unable from sickness to receive that sacrament in public. In such cases of necessity baptism was administered with fulgentem lumine tuo, et coram Severo patriarcha Antiocheno sacro altari tuo adstantem : monophysita. Asseman. Cod. dignum effice eum beatitudine

Lit. tom. ii. p. 305. tua coelesti; quoniam glorio- j Manuale Sarisb. fol. 43. sum est nomen tuum, semper- Manuale Eboracens, ad finem que benedictum, nunc et sem- baptismi. per et in sæcula sæculorum.” k Martene, tom. i. p. 208. Ordo sacri baptismatis auctore

very few forms, and often consisted of nothing more than the affusion of water on the person baptized, with a repetition of the words of baptism. It is unnecessary for me to enter on the discussion relative to the proper ministers of baptism, which has been treated with his usual learning by Bingham, in his Scholastical History of Lay-Baptism. The church of England has not encouraged the practice of baptizing children by the hands of laymen or women, even in urgent cases.

But it cannot with reason be apprehended, that infants who depart before baptism can be administered, are without the benefits of that sacrament. Because the catholic church has always held that the wish to receive baptism is sufficient in a case of necessity; and if the church who hath the power of administering this sacrament, be prevented by the visitation of God from fulfilling her intentions, her desire and wish are sufficient to remove apprehension! It is needless to make any lengthened observations on the practice of the church of England in the administration of baptism in private. The minister is directed to perform the office, by repeating the Lord's Prayer, and any other collects of the office of public baptism which the time permits. Amongst these it would certainly seem proper that the benedictions beginning “O merciful God, grant that the old Adam,” &c. and the following prayer for the sanctification of the font of water should be used. For we observe that in the ancient offices for the baptism of the sick in the church of Constantinople, and in the sacramentary of Gelasius, there is a short form for consecrating the water m.


1 Hooker, b. viii. 60.
m Goar, Rit. Græc. p. 370.

sii Sacramentar. Mu
tom. i. p. 595, &c.

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The rules of the English church, as to supplying that portion of the rites of baptism which was omitted in a case of private baptism, are nearly the same as those which prevailed before the reformation of our offices n.

The rubric informs us, that we should “not doubt but that the child so baptized is lawfully and sufficiently baptized, and ought not to be baptized again.” This is also a rubric in the manual of the church of Salisburyo. In case the child recovers, the rubric directs him to be brought into church; and if the minister himself baptized the child, he is directed to notify it to the congregation; but if he did not, he is directed to inquire whether the sacrament was rightly performed, and in like manner to notify to the congregation the validity of that baptism. This is also prescribed in the manual of the church of Salisbury, except the two cases of notification P. After notifying to the congregation the validity of the private baptism, the priest is directed to perform the whole office of baptism, with the exception of the benediction and consecration of the water before mentioned: and the same directions occur in the manuals of Salisbury and York 9.

n Manuale Sarisb. fol. 44. Et ideo si laicus baptizaverit

0 “ Et si puer fuerit bapti- puerum antequam deferatur ad zatus secundum illam formam, ecclesiam, interroget sacerdos caveat sibi unusquisque ne ite- diligenter quid dixerit, et quid rum eundem baptizet.” Ma- fecerit: et si invenerit laicum nuale Sar. fol. 44.

discrete et debito modo bapp“Sed si hujusmodi parvuli tizasse, et formam verborum convalescant, deferantur ad ec- baptismi ut supra in suo idioclesiam, et dicantur super eos mate integre pertulisse, approexorcismi et catechismi cứm bet factum, et non rebaptizet unctionibus et omnibus aliis eum.” Man. Sarisb. fol. 44. supradictis præter immersio- Eboracens. ad finem baptismi. nem aquæ et formam baptismi, q See former part of last quæ omnino sunt omittenda- note.

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