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man may be raised up in him. tur hic illic Adam vetus, reAmen.

surgat novus : Grant that all carnal affec- Moriatur omne quod carnis tions may die in him, and that est, resurgat omne quod Spiall things belonging to the Spi. ritus ... rit may live and


in him. Amen.

Grant that he may have Quicumque hic renunpower and strength to have ciaverint Diabolo, da eis trivictory, and to triumph, against umphare de mundo. Qui te in the Devil, the world, and the hoc loco invocaverit, tu eum flesh. Amen.

cognoscas in regno . Grant that whosoever is here Quicumque hic se sibi negadedicated to thee by our office verit, te lucrifaciat : et per and ministry may also be en- ministerium nostrum, et mysdued with heavenly virtues, terium tuum consecratus tibi and everlastingly rewarded, populus, æternis ad te præmiis through thy mercy, O blessed consecretur. Per Dominum Lord God, who dost live, and nostrum Jesum Christum g. govern all things, world without end. Amen.

Almighty, everliving God, Benedico te (sc. aquam) et whose most dearly beloved Son per Jesum Christum Filium Jesus Christ, for the forgive- ejus unicum Dominum nostrum ness of our sins, did shed out . . qui te una cum sanguine of his most precious side both de latere suo produxit, et diswater and blood; and gave cipulis suis jussit ut credentes commandment to his disciples, baptizarentur in te, dicens, ite that they should go teach all docete omnes gentes, baptinations, and baptize them in zantes eos in nomine Patris, et the name of Father, the Filii, et Spiritus Sancti. Son, and the Holy Ghost;

Regard, we beseech thee, the Hæc nobis præcepta servansupplications of thy congrega- tibus, tu Deus omnipotens, cletion; sanctify this water to mens adesto, tu benignus aspithe mystical washing away of ce, tu has simplices aquas tuo sin ; and grant that this child, ore benedicito, ut præter na

& Missale Gallican. Vetus, apud Mabillon de Liturg. Gall. P. 363

now to be baptized therein, turalem emundationem,

quam may receive the fulness of thy lavandis possunt adhibere corgrace, and ever remain in the poribus, sint etiam purificandis numberof thy faithful and elect mentibus efficacesh. Adimple children; through Jesus Christ eum (puerum) gratia Spiritus our Lord. Amen.

tui Sancti ... ne sit filius carnis, sed filius thalami tui nuptialis, et hæres regni tui inamissibilis atque perennisi.



The churches of Constantinople, Antioch, and Alexandria, have from time immemorial administered the sacrament of baptism immediately after the water was consecratedi; and the English ritual has appointed the same order. According to the ancient customs of the Roman church, represented in the sacramentary of Gregory, the profession of faith occurs between the hallowing of the water and the administration of the sacrament k. We find that this custom has been long used in the Roman church; since the sacramentary of Gelasius, A. D. 494, appointed the confession of faith to be made immediately before baptism, though the renunciations were made some hours before! The English ritual appoints baptism to be administered “ in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost,” which was the form directed by our Saviour Jesus Christ, and which has ever been used


h Manuale Sarisb. fol. 41. Sacr. Gregorii, p. 72. Sacr. Gelasii, Muratori, tom. i. p. 569.

i Rituale Copt. Alexandrin. Asseman. tom. ii. p. 151.

j Goar, Rit. Græc. p. 355. Asseman. tom. ii. p. 225. 180.

k Menard. Sacr. Gregorii, p. 73.

1 Muratori, tom. i. Sacr. Ge

lasii p. 570.

by the Christian church. We find indeed from ancient rituals, that certain additions were made to these words in some churches, but the substance of the words used by the English church is found in all the Christian rituals.

ENGLAND. N. I baptize thee Gaul. Baptizo te credentem in the Name of the Father, and in nomine Patris, et Filii et of the Son, and of the Holy Spiritus Sancti ; ut habeas viGhost. Amen.

tam æternam in sæcula sæcu. CoNSTANTINOPLE. Βαπτίζεται lorum P.-Another form. Bapο δούλος του θεού ο δείνα. εις το tizo te Ill. in nomine Patris et όνομα του Πατρός, και του υιού, Filii et Spiritus Sancti in reκαι του αγίου Πνεύματος. Νύν και missionem peccatorum; ut haαεί και εις τους αιώνας των αιώνων. beas vitam æternam. Amen 9. 'Αμήν m.

ANTIOCH. Baptizatur N. in ALEXANDRIA. Ego te baptizo nomine Patris. Amen. Et FiN. in nomine Patris. Amen. lii. Amen. Et Spiritus vivi et Ego te baptizo N. in nomine Sancti in vitam sæculi sæculoFilii. Amen. Ego te baptizo

rumr. N. in nomine Spiritus Sancti. Rome. Et ego te baptizo in Amenn.

nomine Patris, et Filii et SpiARMENIA. N. Baptizatur in ritus Sanctis. nomine Patris et Filii et Spi- CHALDA. Ego baptizo te ritus Sancti. Redemptus san- N. serve Christi, in nomine guine Christi a servitute pec- Patris. Respondent. Amen. Et catorum, consequitur liberta- Filii. Respondent. Amen. Et tem adoptionis filiorum Patris Spiritus Sancti in sæcula. Recælestis, ut fiat cohæres Christi, spondent. Ament. et templum Spiritus Sancti, nunc et semper, et in sæcula sæculorum

m Goar, Rit. Græc. p. 355.

n Rituale Copt. Alexandrin. Asseman. Codex Liturg. tom. ii. p. 180.

0 Rituale Armen. Asseman. Codex Liturgic. tom. ii. p. 200.

9 Missale Gothicum, Mabillon, Lit. Gall. p. 248.

r Rituale Syrorum Asseman. Codex, tom. ii. p. 225.

s Sacr. Gregorii; p. 73.

p Missale Gallican. Vetus, Mabillon, Liturg. Gall. p. 364.

t Rituale Chaldæor. Nestorian. ac Malabaror. Asseman. Codex Liturg. tom. ii. p. 212.



We learn from Tertullian that the Christians were accustomed to sign their foreheads with the sign of the cross in all the actions of their lives u; and it may well be supposed that such a custom would be also employed in religious offices and prayers. Accordingly we find that this sign was made in some part of almost every Christian office. Omitting, however, all consideration of the use of this sign in the liturgy, and other parts of divine service, let us notice briefly the accounts which we have of the sign of the cross, as used in the rites of baptism. The sign of the cross was made on those persons who in primitive times were admitted to the class of catechumens, and it was often repeated during the course of their instruction v. The candidates for baptism in the eastern church about the fourth century were three times signed in the forehead, before the water was consecrated, and baptism administered w. In many churches also the water was consecrated with the sign of the cross, and prayer*. It is manifest from this, that in primitive times the sign of the cross was not only made on the forehead of the elect at the time of baptism, but was used very often in other ways. It does not



§. 8.

“ Ad omnem progressum

v See Bingham's Antiqui. atque promotum, ad omnem ties, book x. c. 1. §. 3. and c. 2. aditum et exitum, ad vestitum, ad calceatum, ad lavacra, ad W Dionys. Hierarch. Eccl. mensas, ad lumina, ad cubilia, ad sedilia, quæcumque nos * See Dionysius Areop. Auconversatio exercet, frontem gustin. and Chrysostom, cited crucis signaculo terimus." Ter- by Bingham, book ii. c. 10. tull. de Corona Militis, c. 3.

C. 2.

$. 3.

seem that any of the most ancient rituals appointed the sign of the cross to be made on the forehead of the person exactly at the time which the English ritual directs. The position of this consignation may therefore be regarded as originally peculiar to the churches of the British empire, though the act itself is probably not more recent than the apostolical age. The form of words with which the priest is directed to administer this rite in the English ritual is not devoid of resemblance to forms used in several ancient rituals on similar occasions.

ENGLAND. We receive this BoBio. Accipe signum cruchild into the congregation of cis tam in fronte quam in corde. Christ's flock, and do sign him Semper esto fidelis. Templum with the sign of the cross, in Dei ingredere-Cole Deum Patoken that hereafter he shall trem omnipotentem, et Jesum not be ashamed to confess the Christum filium ejus, qui venfaith of Christ crucified, and turus est judicare vivos et mormanfully to fight under his tuos, et sæculum per ignem, banner against sin, the world, cum Spiritu Sancto in sæcula and the Devil; and to continue sæculorum. Christ's faithful soldier and ser- CONSTANTINOPLE. Σημειωθήτω vant unto his life's end. Amen. ο σταυρός του μονογενούς σου υιού

SARUM. Trado tibi signacu- εν τη καρδία και τους διαλογισμούς lum Domini nostri Jesu Christi αυτού, εις το φεύγειν την ματαιό-ut in fide catholica perma- τητα του κόσμου, και πάσαν την neas, et habeas vitam æternam, πονηράν επιβουλήν του εχθρού, et vivas in sæcula sæculorum. ακολουθείν δε τους προστάγμασί Ameny.


years old, Muratori Lit. Rom. Vet. tom. ii. p. 848. Martene de Antiq. Eccl. Rit. tom. i. p. 37.

y Manuale Sarisb. fol. 37. See also Martene, tom. i. p. 194. who quotes it from a MŠ. of Jumiege in France, written A. D. 1032.

2 Missale Bobiense,

a Goar, Rituale Græc. p. 321.


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