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before they were admitted to that sacrament. Tertullian , Cyprian, Ambrose, Basil, Jerome, Cyril of Jerusalem ', and many other fathers and doctors of the church during the first four centuries, speak of this renunciation as an established and universal rite.
In the fourth century the renunciation was made with great solemnity. Cyril of Jerusalem, speaking to those who had been recently baptized, said, “ First you have entered into the vestibule of the baptistery, and, standing towards the west, you have heard, and been commanded, to stretch forth your hands, and renounce Satan, as if he were present."
This rite of turning to the west at the renunciation of Satan is also spoken of by Jerome, Gregory Nazianzen, and Ambrose ; and it was sometimes performed with insufflations and other external signs of enmity to Satan, and rejection of him and his works. To the present day these customs remain in the patriarchate of Constantinople, where the candidates for baptism turn to the west to renounce Satan, stretching forth their hands, and using an
Aquam adituri, ibidem, et luxuriæ ejus ac voluptatised et aliquanto prius in ec- bus." Ambros. de Initiatis, clesia sub antistitis manu con
• Renuncio tibi Diabolo, testamur nos renuntiare dia
et pompæ tuæ et vitiis tuis, et bolo, et pompæ et angelis mundo tuo, qui in maligno poejus.” Tertullian. de Corona, situs est.” Hieronymus, Com. c. iii. p. 102. ed. Rigalt. 1664. in Matt. xv. 26. Cyril, Catet“Sæculo renunciaveramus,
chesis Mystag. 1. cum baptizati sumus. Cypr. Εισήειτε πρώτον εις τον προEpist. ad Rogationum. «In- αύλιον του βαπτιστηρίου οίκον, και gressus es regenerationis sa- πρός τάς δυσμάς έστώτες ηκούσατε crarium, repete quod interro- και προσετάττεσθε εκτείνειν την gatus sis, recognosce quid re- χείρα, και ως παρόντι απετάττεσθε sponderis. Renunciasti Dia- Tộ Paravị. Cyril. Cateches. bolo et operibus ejus, mundo Myst. 1. p. 278. ed. Milles. VOL. II.
insufflation, as a sign of enmity against him. And the Monophysites of Antioch and Jerusalem, Alexandria and Armenia, also retain the custom of renouncing Satan with faces turned to the west w
ENGLAND. Dost thou, in the GAUL. Abrenuncias Satanæ, name of this child, renounce pompis seculi, et voluptatibus the Devil and all his works, ejus ? Respons. Abrenuncio x. the vain pomp and glory of ROME. Abrenuntias Satanæ ? the world, with all covetous Resp. Abrenuntio. Et omnidesires of the same, and the bus operibus ejus ? Resp. Abcarnal desires of the flesh, so renuntio. Et omnibus pompis that thou wilt not follow, nor ejus ? Resp. Abrenuntio y. be led by them?
'ΑποτάσAnswer. I renounce them
σομαι το Σατανά, και πάσι τοις all.
έργοις αυτού, και πάση τη λατρεία Antioch. Abrenuncio Sa. αυτού, και πάσι τοίς άγγελοις αυtanæ ego
N. et omnibus ope- του, και πάση τη πομπή αυτού. ribus ejus, et omni militiæ They repeat it thrice after the ejus, et omni cultui ejus, et priest, and then he asks them, omni pompæ ejus, et omni er- 'Απετάξασθε τω Σατανά; they rerori ejus mundano et cuilibet ply, 'Απεταξάμεθα 2. ei consentienti eumque sec
JERUSALEM. 'Αποτάσσομαί σοι tanti a
Σατανά, και πάσι τοις έργοις σου, ALEXANDRIA.
Abrenuncio και πάση τη πομπή σου, και πάση tibi Satana, et omnibus ope- τη λατρεία σου b. ribus tuis immundis, et omni. bus dæmoniis tuis nequam, et ministris tuis malis, et omni virtuti tuæ, et sordido tuo famulatui, et omnibus fraudibus tuis malignis et illecebris, et
omni militiæ tuæ, et omni potestati tui, et reliquis omnibus impietatibus tuis. Ter dicit, Abrenuncio tibi c.
THE PROFESSION OF FAITH.
The renunciation of Satan was always followed by a profession of faith in Christ, as it is now in the English ritual. However, different churches adopted different rules as to the time at which this profession was made. In the eastern churches of Constantinople, Antioch, &c. the profession was made immediately after the renunciation, as it is in the English ritual. In the Roman church, according to the sacramentary of Gelasius, the renunciation was made some time before the office of baptism, which only contained the professiond. The promise of obedience and faith in Christ was made by the catechumens and sponsors with their faces turned towards the east, as we learn from Cyril of Jerusaleme and many other writers.
Tertullian speaks of the profession of faith made at baptism, in the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, and in the churchf. Cyprian mentions the interrogation, “Dost thou believe in eternal life, and remission of sins through the holy church 8. Euse
C Asseman, Codex Liturg. salutis pignerentur, necessario
c tom. i. p. 158.
adjicitur ecclesiæ mentio: quod Sacramentar. Gelasii Mu- niam ubi tres, id est, Pater, et ratori Lit. Rom. Vet. tom. i. Filius, et Spiritus Sanctus, ibi p. 563. 570.
trium e Cyril. Hieros. Cat. Myst. 1. p. 283. ed. Milles.
g “ Sed et ipsa interrogatio f Tertullian. de Baptismo, quæ fit in baptismo, testis est c. 6. “Quum autem sub tri. veritatis. Nam cum dicimus, bus et testatio fidei et sponsio credis in vitam æternam, et
bius and many other Fathers also speak of the profession of faith made at this times; and it is especially noted in the Apostolical Constitutions, which were written in the east at the end of the third, or beginning of the fourth, century h. The profession of faith in the eastern churches has generally been made by the sponsor, or the person to be baptized, not in the form of answers to questions, but by repeating the creed after the priesti. In the western churches the immemorial custom has been, for the priest to interrogate the candidate for baptism, or his sponsor, on the principal articles of the Christian faith. The profession was made in this manner in Gaul, as we find by the ancient Gallican missal, which was used before the introduction of the Roman liturgy and offices into Francej. We also find that it was customary in Africa, by the testimony of Cyprian; and the ancient offices of the Roman church exhibit the same.
Dost thou believe in God N. Credis in Deum Patrem the Father Almighty, Maker omnipotentem, Creatorem cæli of heaven and earth ?
et terræ ? And in Jesus Christ his only
Respondeant. Credo. Son our Lord ? And that he Item Sacerdos. Credis et in was conceived by the Holy Jesum Christum Filium ejus Ghost ; born of the Virgin unicum, Dominum nostrum naMary; that he suffered under tum et passum? Pontius Pilate, was crucified, Respondeant. Credo.
remissionem peccatorum per August. Conf. lib. viii. c. 2. sanctam ecclesiam ? Intelligi- h Apost. Const. lib. vii. c. mus remissionem peccatorum 42. non nisi in ecclesia dari.” i Ibid. Cyril. Cat. MystaCypr. Epist. ad Episcop. Nu
gog. 1. p. 283. edit. Milles. mid.
Goar. Rituale Græc. p. 341. & Euseb. Epist. ad Cæsari. j Miss. Gall. Vet. Mabillon enses ap. Socrat. lib. i. c. 8. de Lit. Gal. p. 364.
dead, and buried; that he Item Sacerdos. Credis et in went down into hell, and also Spiritum Sanctum, sanctam did rise again the third day; Ecclesiam Catholicam, Sancthat he ascended into heaven, torum communionem, Remisand sitteth at the right hand sionem peccatorum, carnis Reof God the Father Almighty; surrectionem, et vitam æterand from thence shall come
nam post mortem ? again at the end of the world, Respondeant. Credo k. to judge the quick and the dead ?
And dost thou believe in the Holy Ghost; the holy Catholic Church; the Communion of Saints; the Remission of sins; the Resurrection of the flesh; and everlasting life after death?
Answer. All this I steadfastly believe.
THE CONCLUDING QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS.
The first interrogation and answer after the profession of faith do not occur, as far as I am aware, in the rituals of any of the eastern churches, but they have long been used in the west. A manuscript of the church of Rheims in France, written a thousand years ago, contains this form, as does
k Manuale Sarisburiens. fol. Vet. tom. ii. p. 851. See also 43. See also Gelasii Sacram. another sacramentary, Muratori, tom. i. p. 570. Many years old, in Martene de Anwestern rituals, however, gave tiq. Eccl. Rit. tom. i. p. 176. the questions at greater length, The candidates for baptism, including all the articles of the or their sponsors, repeat the Apostles' Creed; for example, Constantinopolitan Creed on the sacramentary of Bobio, this occasion in the eastern written before the year soo. churches. See Muratori, Liturg. Rom.