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in those of the churches of Gaul. The Gothic and ancient Gallican liturgies or missals published by Thomasius and Mabillon, prescribe an address or preface of this kind at the very commencement of the office of baptism h. It is true, that the following address does not coincide exactly in expressions with that of the English ritual, but still there is a general resemblance: and indeed we find that a very different address was used even in the Gallican church at another time or place. The collect which follows the address in the Gothic missal, bears also some resemblance to the collect which immediately follows our address, as will be seen below.

Dearly beloved, forasmuch Auctorem ac reparatorem as all men are conceived and

nostrum omnipotentem, fratres born in sin; and that our Sa- carissimi, qui ornamenta naviour Christ saith, None can turæ amissa per culpam, digenter into the kingdom of God, natus est reparare per graexcept he be regenerate and tiam ; sub reverendo mysterii born anew of water and of the præsentis officio suppliciter exHoly Ghost; I beseech you to oremus : ut aquis his virtutem call upon

God the Father, transfundat, et ad peragendum through our Lord Jesus Christ, sacratissimæ regenerationis efthat of his bounteous


he fectum præsentia trinæ majeswill grant to this child that tatis adsistat : confringat et thing which by nature he

conterat super


aquas caput cannot bave; that he


be draconis : et sub undis fecibus baptized with water and the transactione secreta chirograHoly Ghost, and received into phum pristinum evacuetur, et Christ's holy church, and be debitoribus cum Christo per made a lively member of the baptismum consepultis, ita hic

agatur mortis imitatio, ut salvatis perditis sola se sentiat in terris perditione. Per Dominum i


h Miss. Gothic. p. 247; Miss. Liturg. Gallicana. Gall. vet. p. 362. Mabillon de

i Miss. Gallican. vet. ap.

Deus qui Jordanin fontem pro animarum salute sancti. ficasti : descendat super aquas has Angelus benedictionis tuæ : ut quibus perfusi famuli tui, accipiant remissionem peccatorum ; ac renati ex aqua et Spiritu Sancto, devoti tibi serviant in æternum. Per Domi

num j.

Almighty and everlasting God, who of thy great mercy by the baptism of thy well-beloved Son Jesus Christ, in the river Jordan, didst sanctify water to the mystical washing away of sin ; we beseech thee, for thine infinite mercies, that thou wilt mercifully look upon this child, wash him and sanctify him with the Holy Ghost : that he, being delivered from thy wrath, may be received into the ark of Christ's church; and being steadfast in faith, joyful through hope, and rooted in charity, may so pass the

of this troublesome world, that finally he may come to the land of everlasting life, there to reign with thee world without end; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.


The next collect has been very anciently used in the English churches, since we find it in the manuals of Salisbury and York : in these ritual books it occurs in the office for making a catechumen; which, as I have observed, formed the first part of the baptismal service. It is also found in many ancient MSS. some of which seem to have been used nine hundred years ago


Mabillon, Lit. Gall. p. 362. k « Ex duobus MSS. libris saI have printed this formulary cramentorum insignis ecclesiæ as I found it, not thinking Turonensis ante annos octinit advisable to alter the lan

gentos (900.) exaratis.” Marguage of the original.

tene de Antiq. Eccl. Rit. tom. Miss., Gothicum, ibid. p. i. p.41. 247.

Almighty and immortal God, Deus, immortale præsidium the aid of all that need, the omnium postulantium, liberahelper of all that flee to thee tio supplicum, pax rogantium, for succour, the life of them vita credentium, resurrectio that believe, and the resurrec. mortuorum; te invoco super tion of the dead; We call upon hunc famulum tuum N. qui thee for this infant, that he, baptismi tui donum petens, coming to thy holy baptism, æternam consequi gratiam spimay receive remission of his

rituali regeneratione desiderat. sins by spiritual regeneration. Accipe eum Domine: et quia Receive him, O Lord, as thou dignatus es dicere: Petite et hast promised by thy well-be- accipietis : quærite et invenieloved Son, saying, Ask, and ye tis: pulsate et aperietur vobis, shall have; seek, and ye shall petenti præmium porrige et find; knock, and it shall be

januam pande pulsanti : ut opened unto you : So give now æternam cælestis lavacri beunto us that ask; let us that nedictionem consecutus : proseek find; open the gate unto missa tui muneris regna perus that knock; that this in- cipiat. Qui vivis et regnas fant may enjoy the everlasting cum Deo Patre, in unitate Spibenediction of thy heavenly ritus Sancti, Deus, per omnia washing, and may come to the sæcula sæculorum. Amen! eternal kingdom which thou hast promised by Christ our Lord. Amen.

The portion of St. Matthew's Gospel, which is appointed to be used immediately after the preceding prayer, is also found in the introductory office for making a catechumen, according to the rites of the English churches of Salisbury and York. How long it may have been used in this place it is hard to determine, but a manuscript ritual of the church of Beauvais in France, 800 years old, directs a gospel to be read in this placem; and in a ritual of the monastery of Remiremont, written 700 years ago ",

1 Manuale Sarisb. fol. 34. Manuale Eborac. Baptism. Pu

m Martene de Antiq. Eccl. Rit. tom. i. p. 43.

n Ibid. p. 44.




we may observe the same portion of St. Matthew's Gospel, which was used by the churches of Salisbury and York in ancient times, as it is by all the English churches at present. The priest shall say,

His dictis, dicat sacerdos, Hear the words of the Gos- Dominus vobiscum. Resp. Et pel, written by Saint Mark, in cum spiritu tuo. Sequentia the tenth chapter, at the thir- sancti evangelii secundum Matteenth verse.

theum. Resp. Gloria tibi DoThey brought young chil- mine. In illo tempore, oblati dren to Christ, that he should sunt Jesu parvuli ut manus eis touch them; and his disciples imponeret et oraret. Discirebuked those that brought puli autem ejus increpabant them. But when Jesus saw

Jesus autem ait illis, it, he was much displeased, Sinite parvulos et nolite proand said unto them, Suffer the hibere eos venire ad me: talittle children to come unto lium est enim regnum cælome, and forbid them not; for Et cum imposuisset eis of such is the kingdom of God.

manum, abiit indeo. Verily I say unto you, Whosoever shall not receive the kingdom of God as child, he shall not enter therein. And he took them up in his arms, put his hands upon them, and blessed them.

The address and collect which follow the gospel, and terminate the introduction of the baptismal office, do not occur in the ancient offices of the English church, as far as I can perceive. However, in annexing these forms to the office, the church only exercised that authority which had been delivered to her by the holy apostles ; namely, the power of adding such rites and prayers to the essential matter and form of the sacraments, as she

a little

o Manuale Sarisb. fol. 36. Man. Ebor. ut supra.

judged most suited to benefit and edify her children.



In the position of the renunciations and professions the English ritual agrees with those of the patriarchates of Constantinople and Antioch. ACcording to the ancient rites of those churches, the renunciations and professions preceded the benediction of the waterp; in the Roman and several other western rituals they followed the benediction". The English order in this place may be compared with that of the Constantinopolitan ritual, where the renunciations and professions are made at the direction of the bishop, in the course of a long exhortation which he delivers before baptism is administered r. In like manner the priest, according to the English ritual, delivers an address to the candidates for baptism, or their sponsors, in which he exhorts them to renounce the Devil, to believe God's holy word, and obediently to keep his commandments; and at the close of the exhortation the renunciations and professions are made according to his direction.

It has been customary in the Christian church, from the most remote period, for the candidates for baptism to renounce the Devil and all his works

p Goar, Rituale Græc. p. 9 Sacramentar. Gelasii Mu338. 341. 35o, &c. Apost. ratori Lit. Rom. Vet. tom. i. Const. lib. vii. c. 41, 42, 43.

p. 570. Miss. Gallican Vet. See also the oriental rites in Mabillon de Lit. Gall. p. 364. the first volume of Asseman's r Goar, Rituale Græc. p. Codex Liturgicus, at p. 158. 340, 341, 172. 237, &c.

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