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and of his Son Jesus Christ our Lord and the blessing of God Almighty, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, be amongst you and remain with you always.

Benedictio Dei Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti, et pax Domini, sit semper vobiscum.



Three of these collects have been used by the English church from the sixth century to the present time. The others I have not yet been able to trace in any very ancient formularies, though their spirit and composition are truly primitive.

Assist us mercifully, O Lord, in these our supplications and prayers, and dispose the way of thy servants towards the attainment of everlasting salvation; that among all the changes and chances of this mortal life, they may ever be defended by thy most gracious and ready help; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

O Almighty Lord, and everlasting God, vouchsafe, we beseech thee, to direct, sanctify, and govern, both our hearts and bodies, in the ways of thy laws, and in the works of thy commandments; that through

to Dr. Hickes's Letters to a Popish Priest, London, 1705, ad finem Completorii.

w Benedictiones in quotidianis diebus MS. Leofric. Exon.

fol. 332.

Adesto Domine supplicationibus nostris: et viam famulorum tuorum in salutis tuæ prosperitate dispone: ut inter omnes viæ et vitæ hujus varietates, tuo semper protegantur auxilio, per Dominum X.

Dirigere et sanctificare et regere dignare Domine Deus, quæsumus, corda et corpora nostra in lege tua, et in operibus mandatorum tuorum: ut hic et in æternum te auxiliante sani et salvi esse mereamur ;

x Sacramentarium Gelasii Muratori Lit. Rom. tom. i. p. 703. MS. Leofr. Exon. Episc. fol. 222. Missale Sarisb. fol. 30. commune.

thy most mighty protection, both now and ever, we may be preserved in body and soul; through our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. Amen.

Prevent us, O Lord, in all our doings with thy most gracious favour, and further us with thy continual help; that in all our works begun, continued, and ended in thee, we may glorify thy holy name, and finally by thy mercy obtain everlasting life; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

per Dominum nostrum Jesum, qui tecum vivit &c.y

Actiones nostras, quæsumus Domine, et aspirando præveni et adjuvando prosequere : ut cuncta nostra operatio et a te semper incipiat, et per te cœpta finiatur. Per &c. z



This rubric directs that on "Sundays and other holydays (if there be no communion) shall be said all that is appointed at the communion, until the end of the general prayer, (For the whole state of Christ's church militant here in earth,) together with one or more of these collects last before rehearsed, concluding with the blessing."

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Lestrange, in his Alliance of Divine Offices, has very justly remarked, that the practice here inculcated resembles that which was known in the middle ages under the appellation of the missa sicca, or missa nautica. The earliest notice of this practice, according to Bona, is in the writings of Petrus

y Gregorii Liber Sacramentor. Menard. p. 213. Brev. Sarisb. fol. 13. Psalt. pars hyemalis. Appendix to Hickes's Let

ters, &c. at the end of prime.

z Gregorii Liber Sacramentorum Menard. p. 41. Pamelii Liturgica Latin. tom. i. p. 370.

Cantor, who flourished A. D. 1200; and it seems to have prevailed extensively in the west for some centuries afterwards a. The missa sicca, or "dry service," as it was called, consisted of a repetition of all the preparatory and concluding parts of the liturgy, omitting the canon. No elements were laid on the table, and there was neither consecration nor communion. As the canons forbid priests to celebrate the liturgy more than once in the day, except in cases of urgent necessity; and as some covetous and wicked priests were desirous of celebrating more frequently, with the object of receiving oblations from the people; they availed themselves of the missa sicca, and thus deceived the people, who intended to offer their prayers and alms at a real commemoration of the sacrifice of Christ. This evil practice rendered it necessary for several councils to interpose their prohibitions; and thence the sicca missa, though an innocent and laudable service in itself, and though approved of by many pious and learned divines, gradually fell into disuse. Genebrardus, in his book of the Apostolical Liturgy, cap. 30, after recommending the custom, observes, that it still prevailed at Turin A. D. 1587, when it was solemnly celebrated with two assistant ministers at the funeral of a nobleman, who was buried in the evening, at which time the real liturgy could

a See Ducange's Glossary; Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. i. cap. 15. §. 6; Bingham's Antiquities, book xv. chap. 4. §. 5. Bingham seems to have suffered his judgment to be prejudiced against the missa sicca by the representations of Bona. The custom was in itself quite

harmless, though it was abused to the worst and most unprincipled ends; and under proper regulation might, with great propriety, be adopted in circumstances where it was inexpedient or impossible to celebrate the actual liturgy.

not canonically have been performed. And, according to Martene, the Carthusians still occasionally perform it. Durandus approved of the sicca missa, and in his Rationale gives directions for celebrating it. If the priest from devotion, but not from superstition, desired to perform the whole office of the liturgy, without the oblation and consecration, he is directed to put on the usual dress, and proceed with the service to the end of the offertory. He might repeat the preface, though it seemed better not to do so. The canon, or prayer of consecration, was to be omitted. Afterwards he was to repeat the Lord's Prayer, and a concluding collect and benediction b.

This certainly approaches very nearly to the office enjoined by the church of England when there is no communion. In like manner we read all the liturgy to the end of the offertory, adding the prayers for all men; then, passing over the preface and consecration, we conclude with one or more collects and a benediction.

b Durandi Rationale, lib. iv. c. 1. num. 23.




THE English ritual resembles that of the eastern church in the circumstance of combining all the offices of the church in one volume. The Euchologium, or ritual of the Greeks, now comprises the offices for morning and evening prayer, the liturgy or eucharist, baptism, litany, orders, &c. The western churches have more commonly divided these offices into at least four parts, entitled, the Breviary, the Missal or liturgical book, the Ritual, and the Pontifical. The Ritual and Pontifical correspond to that part of the English ritual which begins with the office of baptism. The Ritual, termed in the English churches of Salisbury and York, and elsewhere, Manuala, comprised all those occasional offices of the church which a presbyter could administer. The Pontifical contained those only which a bishop could performÞ.

The euchologium, or ritual of the Greek church, illustrated with notes by Goar, is well known and easily accessible, and furnishes abundant information with regard to all the rites of the catholic church in the east. The baptismal and some other

a The ritual was sometimes also called Manuale, Agenda, Institutio, Pastorale, Sacerdotale, or Sacramentale; and it sometimes received other appellations during the middle ages. See Zaccaria, Bibliotheca Ritualis, tom. i. p. 147, 154, &c. During the middle ages also we occasionally find

several distinct books containing offices, such as the Processionale, for litanies and processions, the Baptismale, or Baptism-book, &c. See Zaccaria, p. 157, &c. See also Ducange's Glossary.

b The different editions of the Pontifical are mentioned by Zaccaria, tom. i. p. 164, &c.

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