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cited and alluded to; and also because it is impossible to ascertain which of the numerous “missæ" in each sacramentary is the oldest. The form transcribed from the liturgy of Cæsarea is perhaps fifteen hundred years old, or even more ancient.

With regard to the first prayer after communion, it is impossible not to admire the excellence of its composition, but I do not think that we find the topics to which it alludes mentioned in this part of ancient liturgies; however, the expressions of which it makes use are truly orthodox and pious, and may very properly be employed on the present occasion.

SECTION XXIII.

THE HYMN GLORIA IN EXCELSIS.

We read in the holy gospel, that after the sacrament the Lord and his disciples sung an hymn before they went to the mount of Olives. Whether the apostles and the church during the most primitive ages followed this example, I am not able positively to decide. It would appear probable that the liturgy terminated with a thanksgiving during the earliest ages, and not with a hymn; yet in aftertimes there were few liturgies which did not use a psalm, anthem, or hymn, after communion. Thus in the liturgy of Constantinople the twenty-second psalm, ευλογήσω τον κύριον εν παντί καιρώ, is sung by the choirh. After the end of the Roman liturgy, the hymn of “the Three Children,” or Te Deum, is sungi Amongst the Syrian monophysites, who use the ancient liturgy of Antioch, the psalm Dominus

& Matt. xxvi. 30. Mark xiv. 26.

h Goar, Rituale Græc. p. 85.

i Bona, Rer. Lit. lib. ii. c. 20. §. 6. p. 519.

pascuit me et nihil mihi deerit, is said by the priest after the communioni. In a very ancient liturgy of the western church, which is supposed to be as old as the seventh century, and which belonged to the Irish monks of Luxovium in Gaul, the hymn Gloria in excelsis is found exactly in the position which the English liturgy assigns to it, namely, amongst the thanksgivings after communionk. This celebrated hymn owes its origin to the eastern church, where it was used in the time of Athanasius, in the beginning of the fourth century. In the churches of Constantinople, Alexandria, and the rest of the east, it has never been used in any part of the liturgy, but it is still used as it was in the time of Athanasius, as part of the morning service for every day m

Western liturgical writers have ascribed this hymn to various authors: some have given it to Telesphorus, bishop of Rome, A. D. 150; others to Symmachus, bishop of the same see, A. D. 500; others to Hilary, bishop of Poictiers in the fourth century. None of these conjectures have any sufficient foundation n. As to the Liber Pontificalis,

j Renaudot, Liturg. Orien- δέ ευλογείτε πάντα τα έργα κυρίου tal. tom. ii.

τον κύριον. δόξα εν υψίστοις Θεώ, k Mabillon Museum Itali- και επί γης ειρήνη, εν ανθρώπους cum, tom. i. p. 281. Muratori ευδοκία. υμνούμέν σε, ευλογούμεν Liturg. Rom. tom. ii. p. 780. σε, προσκυνούμέν σε, και τα εξής. O'Conor, Rer. Hibern. Scrip- This hymn is prescribed in the tores, tom. i. p. cxxx. &c. Mar- Apost. Const. lib. vii. c. 47. as tene de Antiq. Eccl. Rit. lib. i. the apogeux) éwéivý. p. 385. ed. c. 4. art. 3. p. 360.

p.
26.

Clerici. 1 Athanasius Liber de Vir- m Goar, Rituale Græc. p. ginitate, tom. ii. No.

20. p. 122.

54. 58. It is called by the ed. Benedict. IIpòs őpopov Greeks η μεγάλη δοξολογία. τον ψαλμόν τούτον λέγετε" ο θεός n Bona Rer. Liturg. lib. iii. ο θεός μου, πρός σε όρθρίζω εδί- C. 4. §. 4. ψησε σε η ψυχή μου. διάφαυμα

which ascribes it to Telesphorus, no reliance can be placed on it in a matter of such antiquity. No trace of the authorship of Hilary appears in the writings of the Fathers for four hundred years after his time; and, in fact, we know that it was used in the east before the time of Hilary and Symmachus. It appears probable, however, that Symmachus appointed this hymn to be sung on every Sunday and holyday at the beginning of the Roman liturgy, and from thence it came gradually to be used very generally in the west in a similar position. In the Roman liturgy it was only said when a litany was not repeated before the office, according to the direction of Gregory, or some other bishop'. This hymn is more than fifteen hundred years old in the eastern church, and the church of England has used it either at the beginning or end of the liturgy for above twelve hundred years.

Glory be to God Δόξα εν υψίστοις Gloria in excelsis on high, and in OeQ, kai étè yộis ei. Deo, et in terra pax earth peace, good- pývn, év úv@pótous eủ- hominibus bonæ vowill towards men. δοκία, αίνουμέν σε, εύ- luntatis. Laudamus We praise thee, we λογουμέν σε, προσ- te, benedicimus te, bless thee, we glo- KUVOūpév de, docolo adoramus te, glorirify thee, we give yoûpév ce, eu xaplotoù- ficamus te, gratias thanks to thee for μέν σοι, διά την μεγά- agimus tibi propter thy great glory, O λην σου δόξαν, κύριε magnam gloriam tuLord God, heavenly Baoileū, érovpávie Oel, am, Domine Deus, King, God the Fa- llarnp Tavtokpátwp, Rex cælestis, Deus ther Almighty. kúpie vie povoyevn In- Pater omnipotens. Ο Lord, the only- σού Χριστέ, και "Αγιον

Domine Fili uni.

nard. p. 1.

• Sacramentar. Gregorii Me- nico, sive diebus festis. A

Item dicitur Glo- Presbyteris autem minime diria in excelsis Deo, si Episcopus citur, nisi solo in Pascha.” fuerit, tantummodo die Domi

begotten Son Jesu Πνεύμα. Κύριε ο Θεός, genite Jesu Christe, Christ; O Lord God, ó åuvos roll Ocoû, ó Domine Deus, AgLamb of God, Son vios Toũ Taroos, đỉ- nus Dei, Filius Paof the Father, that pwv tås åpaprias toll tris, qui tollis pectakest

away the sins κόσμου, ελέησον ημάς, cata mundi miserere of the world, have ó aipwv rås åpaprias nobis, qui tollis pecmercy upon us. Thou ToŨ Kóg uov a póodeçal cata mundi suscipe that takest away the την δέησιν ημών, και deprecationem nossins of the world, καθήμενος εν δεξιά του tram, qui sedes ad have mercy upon us. Πατρός ελέησον ημάς, dexteram Patris miThou that takest a- "Οτι συ ει μόνος άγιος, serere nobis,

quoway the sins of the συ ει μόνος κύριος, Ιη- niam tu solus sancworld, receive our σούς Χριστός εις δόξαν tus, tu solus Domiprayer. Thou that θεού Πατρός. 'Αμήν Ρ. nus, tu solus altissisittest on the right

mus, Jesu Christe, hand of God the Fa

cum Sancto Spiritu ther, have mercy

in gloria Dei Patris. upon us. For thou

Amen 9. only art holy; thou only art the Lord ; thou only, O Christ, with the Holy Ghost, art most high in the glory of God the Father. Amen.

SECTION XXIV.

THE FINAL BENEDICTION.

There are two places in which chiefly we find the benedictions of the people to have occurred in primitive liturgies : first, before communion ; secondly, after it. The former I have already considered in section xii, in treating of the absolution. It remains now to consider the latter. In the ancient liturgies of the east we generally find the benedictions by the bishops and presbyters to have been more long and comprehensive than those of the west. In the Gallican and Spanish liturgies, however, which appear to have been imitated by the ancient English church during the time of the Saxon monarchs, blessings of considerable length are also found". Long prayers of benediction occur in

p From the Alexandrian MS. copied by Dr. Smith, Account of the Greek Church, &c. p. 295. In this MS. it is entitled, υμνός εωθινός.

q Mabillon, Museum Itali. cum, tom. i. p. 281. Muratori Liturg. Rom. tom. ii. p. 780. Miss. Sarisb. fol. lxxii. Miss. Ebor. et Herefordens.

r the Alexandrian liturgies, like our own, after thanksgivings. A benediction of the same sort occurs in the Constantinopolitan liturgy, and in that of Cæsarea : the same may be said of that of Antioch In the Roman liturgy also a benediction has been used in latter times, which Bona does not consider to be of any considerable antiquityų. The formulary which we use is more comprehensive than many benedictions that have been used in the west, and seems to be a judicious enlargement of benedictions which were used in the English church perhaps before the year 600.

The peace of God, which Benedictio Dei Patris omni. passeth all understanding, keep potentis et Filii, et Spiritus your hearts and minds in the Sancti, maneat semper vobisknowledge and love of God,

cum v.

r Mabillon de Liturgia Gallicana. Missale Gothicum, p. 189, &c. and p. 451. The MS. sacramentary of the AngloSaxon church of the ninth or tenth century, given by Leofricus to the church of Exeter, now in the Bodleian library, contains long benedictions of the same kind, as does also the ancient sacramentary of the English Benedictines, published by Schultingius, tom. iv.

VOL. II.

Biblioth. Eccl.

pars

iii,

p. 177 s Liturgia Basilii Renaudot, tom. i. p. 25. Cyrilli, p. 51.

t Liturgia Chrysost. Goar, p. 85. Basilii ibid. p. 175. Liturgia Jacobi Syr. Renaud. tom. ii. p. 42. Jacobi Græc. Asseman, Codex Liturg. tom. v. p. 62. Apost. Const. lib. viii. c. 15. p. 406. ed. Clerici.

u Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. ii. c. 20. No.4. p. 515. v Saxon Office in Appendix M

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