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in both kinds. The same custom formerly prevailed all through the western churches", but in later times the laity were in most places entirely deprived of the sacrament of Christ's blood; in order to obviate inconveniences which some persons thought might follow from an obedience to Christ's commands, and the practice of the catholic church.

It was not remembered that God could prevent his sacraments from real profanation; and that proper instruction might suffice, as it had done in primitive times, to teach the people their duty. It became necessary in after-times to defend this practice, and then it was heard for the first time that the sacrament of Christ's body or flesh was also the sacrament of his blood.

The church of England does not prohibit the laity from coming to the chancel, or bema, and receiving at the rails of the holy table. In different churches different rules have been adopted, as to the place of lay-communion. According to the eastern canons, the people may not approach the tables. The same rule was made by the fourth council of Toledo in Spaint. In the church of Gaul, as now in England, the laity, both men and women, were allowed to approach the holy table, and receive the sacrament in their hands u.

It was the custom of the primitive church to fill up the time during which the people communicated


r Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. ii. c. 18. §. 3.

Goar, Rituale Græc. p. 153:

s Concil. Laodicen. canon 19.

t Concil. Toletan. 4. canon 17

u Concil. 2. Turon. canon 4. • Ad orandum et communicandum laicis et foeminis, sicut mos est, pateant sancta sanctorum." Vid. Mabillon de Lit. Gall. lib. i. c. 5. No. 24, &c.

by singing a psalm. We find from Cyril, Chrysostom, and Jerome, that in the churches of Antioch and Jerusalem, “O taste and see,” &c. was sung during the communion in the fourth century. In the west we find numerous traces of the same custom. Augustine expressly mentions it', and it appears to have prevailed in Gaul and Italy. In aftertimes it was generally adopted in the west, and the anthem was called communiow. With regard to any words used at the delivery of the elements, we know not when they began to be used. Our Lord made use of expressions in the delivery of the sacrament which the apostles commemorated in their thanksgiving and consecration; but there is not the slightest reason to think that these expressions were ever in any way used at the delivery of the elements in the primitive church. However, in the second and third centuries it appears that a certain form was used in many, if not all, churches.

iurches. The minister, in presenting the bread to every communicant, said, “ The body of Christ,” and the communicant, to signify his faith, said, “ Amen.” It appears that in the time of Gregory the Great, the ancient form of delivery had been changed into a prayer. “ The body of our Lord Jesus Christ preserve thy soul;” to which the party receiving answered, “ Amen y;” but this was not the original design of the form.

Augustin. Retract. lib. ii. x Cornel. Roman. apud Eu. c. 11. quoted in vol. i. p. 136. sebii Hist. Eccl. lib. vi. c. 43.

p. 245. ed. Valesii ; Apost. w Bingham's Antiquities, b. Const. lib. viii. c. 13. p. 405. xv. ch. 5. §. 10. Antiphona- edit. Clerici ; Cyril Hierosol. rius Gregorii Pamel. Liturg. Cat. Mystag. 5, No. 18. tom. ii. p. 62, 63, &c. Miss. y Johannes Diaconus in Vita Sarisb. fol. 1.

Gregorii lib. ii.


note d.


During all the primitive ages, the whole body of the faithful communicated at each celebration of the liturgy, and the sacrament was never distributed to those who were in health, except at this timez. But as charity grew chill the number of communicants became less, until there were scarcely any. In order to preserve a semblance of the communion, bread was blessed by the priest and distributed to the people at the close of the liturgy. However, in after-times even the custom of giving“ eulogiæ," or blessed bread, as a substitute for the sacrament became extinct; and now in a large part of the west the people never receive the communion, or even a semblance of it, at the celebration of the liturgya.



The Lord's Prayer cannot be inappropriate in any part of the liturgy. It must be acknowledged, however, that we have no certain instance in the liturgies of the primitive church of its use in this place, immediately after communion. The Ethiopic liturgy, indeed, appears either to prescribe the prayer itself,

z Mabillon de Liturgia Gal- post communionem a sacerdote licana, p. 96.

dicuntur, pro ipsis communia The learned Romanist, cantibus sunt.” Rer. Liturg. Bona, regrets the departure of lib. ii. cap. 14. §. 5. p. 457. the Roman church, and those Would that they who commuthat communicate with her, nicate with the Roman church from the primitive practice. were not too timid or too luke

Tepescente successu tempo- warm to return to the practice ris fervore, multa ex his, ne of the primitive church in this missa prolixior evaderet, ab ea and


other respects. paulatim sejuncta sunt; adeo With regard to the custom ut etiam ipsa communio post of giving eulogiæ, see Bingmissam differatur, non sine mag- ham, Antiquities, book xv. c. 4. na rituum ecclesiasticorum per- $. 3. Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. ii. turbatione; quia orationes, quæ c. 19. §. 7.

or a part of it, after communion b; but no such thing appears in the Alexandrian, the Oriental, Roman, Italian, Gallican, or Spanish liturgies. Nor do we find any traces of such a custom amongst the writings of the Fathers. The use of the Lord's Prayer therefore in this place cannot be traced to any very great antiquity, though certainly in the fifth century it was a general custom to use it before communion, and in some churches it may have been used there even from the apostolic age. When the Lord's Prayer was repeated before communion, it was repeated by all the people, as well in the Gallican church, as in all the churches of the east. At Rome it was only repeated by the priest, according to Gregory the Greatd.



In all churches it was anciently customary to return thanks to God after receiving the sacrament, and to implore his grace for the future. The second form, which the church of England has appointed for this occasion, (though it would be presumptuous to say that it is more appropriate than the first,) may be fairly said to accord most with the thanksgivings which the primitive church used at this place. Let us, then, regard the second form of thanksgiving and prayer prescribed in this place by the English liturgy, and trace its analogy with ancient liturgies.

Liturg. Ethiop. Renaudot. apud Græcos ab omni populo Liturg. Oriental. tom. i. p. 521. dicitur : apud nos vero a solo

c Mabillon, Liturgia Gallic. sacerdote." Gregor. Mag. lib. lib. i. c. 5. No. 22. p. 49.

vii. Epist. 64. d • Sed et Dominica oratio


ENGLAND. Almighty and CESAREA. Ευχαριστουμέν σοι, everliving God, we most heart- κύριε ο Θεός ημών, επί τη μεταily thank thee, for that thou λήψει των αγίων, αχράντων, αθαdost vouchsafe to feed us, who νάτων, και επουρανίων σου μυστηhave duly received these holy ρίων, και έδωκας ημίν επ' ευεργεσία mysteries, with the spiritual και αγιασμό, και ιάσει των ψυχών food of the most precious Body και των σωμάτων ημών. αυτός δέand Blood of thy Son our Sa- σποτα των απάντων, δος γενέσθαι viour Jesus Christ; and dost ημίν την κοινωνίας του αγίου σώassure us thereby of thy fa


και αίματος του Χριστού vour and goodness towards us ; σου, εις πίστιν ακαταίσχυντον, εις and that we are very members αγάπην ανυποκρίτον, είς πλησμοincorporate in the mystical νην σοφίας, είς ιάσιν ψυχής και Body of thy Son, which is the

σώματος, εις αποτροπήν παντός blessed company of all faithful εναντίου, εις περιποίησιν των έντοpeople; and are also heirs λών σου, είς απολογίαν ευπρόσthrough hope of thy everlast- δεκτον την επί του φοβερού βήμαing kingdom, by the merits of τος του Χριστού σου. the most precious death and Similar forms occur in all passion of thy dear Son. And the ancient liturgies; amongst we most humbly beseech thee, which that of Antioch, and the O heavenly Father, so to assist beautiful form of the Alexanus with thy grace, that we may drian liturgy of Basil, are parcontinue in that holy fellow- ticularly deserving of noticef. ship, and do all such good works as thou hast prepared for us to walk in; through Je. sus Christ our Lord, to whom, with thee and the Holy Ghost, be all honour and glory, world without end. Amen.

It would be useless to cite the prayers in the ancient Gallican, Roman, and Italic sacramentaries, which correspond to this form, because they do not resemble it more than the oriental forms already

e Liturgia Basilii, Goar, Rit. Græc. p. 175.

f Liturgia Jacobi Syr. Re

naudot, tom. ii. p. 42. Basilii Copt. tom. i. p. 24.

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