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was the bearer of an ordinance of the em- ! Sir Charles, unwilling to interfere, depreperor Don Pedro, by which he abdicated cated engaging in this business; but he the crown of Portugal, which devolved was repeatedly pressed by the emperor to upon his brother, Don Miguel, under cer- accept the mission, and so many argutain conditions, the principal of which ments were urged, that he found himself was, that there should be granted to Por- at last no longer able to resist the aptugal what might be called a constitution, pointment. Their lordships would peror in other words, a charter. It would be ceive from what he had stated, that in proper for him here to state what the situ- acceding to this proposition, sir Charles ation of sir Charles Stuart was when these Stuart had acted wholly and entirely on events took place. Their lordships must his own responsibility, and without any be aware, that negotiations had, for a long instructions on the subject from his matime, been carrying on, for the purpose jesty's government. He was the more of putting an end to the hostilities which particular on this point, because it was desubsisted between the kingdom of Portugal sirable that it should be clearly understood, and the new empire of Brazil

. These ne- that his majesty's government had no pargotiations ultimately terminated in the ticipation in the recent political transactions separation of the two Crowns, Brazil, in Portugal, and that there had been no disbeing, in fact, no longer a colony, but in position on their part to interfere, in any dependent of Portugal. After much time way, in the internal affairs of that country. had elapsed, things seemed to have arrived On his arrival at Lisbon, sir Charles at such a state as to justify the appoint- Stuart delivered the instruments he had ment of sir Charles Stuart on a mission to brought from Brazil to the Vicegerent. Portugal upon this subject. He was to On receiving the despatches, the princess proceed to Lisbon, and thence, with such regent determined on following the dipowers as he might there receive, to Bra- rections they contained, and giving a conzil. Accordingly, sir Charles went to stitution to Portugal. She was, however, Lisbon on this delicate mission. It was well aware that that constitution was cal.

1 then proposed to the king of Portugal, culated to revive all the old animosities that he should grant a charter, or instru- which had but lately been allayed. In ment, by which he should publicly ac- addition to this, the council of regency, knowledge the independence of Brazil which was composed of the old ministers and that sir. Charles Stuart, who was at of her father, remonstrated against her liberty to accept this mission, or some other acceding to the propositions of Don Pedro. person appointed by his majesty, should She was but a young princess, and had carry out this instrument to Brazil. The had little experience in public affairs, exking of Portugal appointed sir Charles cept what she might have learned froin the Stuart for this purpose. Sir Charles, period of her father's death up to the time therefore, carried out with him, to be de- of which he was speaking. These cirlivered into the hands of the emperor of cumstances did not, however, deter her Brazil, the condition on which alone the from performing what she thought was her negotiation was to be concluded. Sir duty; and she certainly proceeded with Charles Stuart did deliver those conditions, activity to take the necessary steps for and having so done, this object was ac- carrying her brother's intentions into effect. complished; but he had still another duty But, unfortunately, at this very time conto discharge. He had been instructed, on siderable discontent prevailed. The grantthe condition of the independence of Bra- ing the constitution was considered a fozil being granted, to negociate a treaty of reign measure, and on that account commerce between this country and Brazil. viewed by many with dissatisfaction. It He was in the discharge of this duty when was found that Don Miguel had, in fact, he received an account of the king of a considerable party in the country, and Portugal's death. In consequence of this discontent began to show itself among event, the emperor Don Pedro resigned the some of the troops. Instances of insurCrown of Portugal to his brother, on cer- rection occurred more particularly in the tain conditions, appointing at the same time distant provinces, where the revolt of his sister regent of the kingdom, and is the troops was with difficulty suppressed. suing a charter or constitution. The em- The deserters took refuge in Spain, and were peror, applied to sir Charles Stuart to be there cordially received. In a short time, the bearer of those documents to Portugal. such a force was collected in that country

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as was sufficient to give serious apprehen- after the arrival of this intelligence, the sions to the government of Portugal --ap- Portuguese ambassador presented to this prehensions which were much aggravated government a demand for military assistby the state of irritation of many of the ance from this country, in virtue of the frontier provinces. The government of Por- existing treaties. The authority for making tugal had now two courses to pursue this demand had been placed in the hands either to call upon the Spanish government of the Portuguese ambassador, for the to give up the deserters, in virtue of a treaty purpose of his making use of it when the subsisting between the two powers, or to occasion for so doing should arrive. But retaliate, by giving a similar encourage- it appeared, that he had received no official ment to Spanish refugees. The government intelligence respecting the conduct of the of Portugal did not adopt either of those Spanish court from his own government, courses, and acted throughout with great and that the account which had reached forbearance and moderation. They con- him of the aggression came through France; tented themselves with requiring that the so that, in truth, his authority for the fact armed rebels should be disarmed, and was not better than that of the governdesiring that their arms should be sent to ment of this country. No official despatches Portugal. His majesty's ministers did not relative to the inroad had come from the overlook. this system of forbearance, on Portuguese government. In a few days account of which it became more neces- after, his majesty's government received sary to press on the Spanish government despatches from Mr. Lamb, which comto abandon its protection to the Portuguese municated in substance the same intelrebels. Accordingly, remonstrance follow- ligence which had previously come from ed remonstrance;

and, in return, assurances Paris. He received it from the Spanish were repeatedly given, that that system of minister, which was, indeed, the same protection should be put an end to; but source from which the communication no measure appeared to be adopted for the through France proceeded. The commupurpose of stopping the collection of an nication of the Spanish minister was armed force on the territory of Portugal, accompanied by a strong assurance, that to disarm the deserters, and deliver up the aggression had been made without the their arms to the Portuguese government. knowledge, and in direct opposition to the In consequence of this state of things, his orders, of his government. On receiving majesty's minister at the court of Madrid this communication, Mr. Lamb, of course, notified to the Spanish government, that made strong remonstrances against such he should be under the necessity of leaving proceedings, and took measures for ascerthat capital, if the government did not taining what were the real views of the disarm and disperse the Portuguese rebels. court of Madrid. As he had already However, no proceeding for that purpose stated, no authentic intelligend was adopted, and the deserters were actual inroad by the Portuguese troops allowed to retain possession of their arms, from Spain had yet been received ; but, on and to assemble on the frontiers. Soon Friday night last, accounts reached his after this remonstrance, accounts were majesty's government from Lisbon, of that received through France from Madrid, event having taken place. What, howthat a considerable force of Portuguese ever, was very remarkable was, that the deserters had marched from Old Castile to inroad now made known was not stated to the frontiers of Portugal; but the Spanish have been made in the quarter mentioned government, in giving this information, in the account received through France accompanied it by assurances, that they from the Spanish government. It came had no concern with it. The French from Estremadura. It was stated, that government was, however, so little satis- the large body of men who made this fied with this explanation, that orders were invasion came from thence armed and sent to the French ambassador to return equipped by the Spanish authorities, and immediately to Paris, if the Portuguese had been collected under the authority of deserters were not dispersed; and instruc- the governor himself. It was further said, tions were given to the Chargé d' Affaires that the Spanish governor had given to express, in the strongest terms, the dis- directions for some Spanish artillery to approbation of his government, of the accompany the rebels. This was the proceedings which had taken place on the report ; but, upon inquiry, it was denied. frontiers of Portugal. Three or four days This force, however, advanced and took possession of some places, among which / with Portugal in 1810, the former obligawas the town of Villa Viciosa. Their tions were renewed ; and it had been lordships would perceive that they had stipulated, that the arrangements then here the knowledge of a direct inroad entered into were without prejudice to the upon Portugal. But, in addition to this ancient system of alliance between the affair, there was attached to it a consider- | two countries, which is declared to be still

а ation of importance, which would not in full force. Now, though the attack on have belonged to the occurrence, had it Portugal had not been made by Spanish stood by itself. The proceedings which troops, but by foreign troops, under the had taken place argued a communication direction of Spanish authorities, and in the from one part of the Spanish territory to pay of Spain, the case was completely another--a system of combination, by brought within the stipulations of the which it was arranged, that when this in- treaty; nor was the obligation on this road should be made on one part of the country to afford assistance the less bePortuguese territory, another should, at cause the aggression was made on the the same time, be made on another point; occasion of a civil war. He conceived, and showed that the aggressors were not therefore, that the case did come strictly confined to irruptions from Old Castile within the obligation of the treaty; but, and Estremadura. This combined plan supposing that such treaties did not exist, was of such a nature, that it must be sup- he considered that it was for the interest posed to have been sanctioned and pre- of this country that assistance should be pared by the Spanish authorities. Con- afforded to Portugal. The noble earl siderable expense must have been incurred; next proceeded to state, that it was the and the arms could not have been obtained intention of government immediately to without connivance. Had the aggression order out some British troops to Lisbon, been confined to one part of the frontier, for the assistance of our ally against any the excuse might have been set up. It aggression on its territory; but that, in the might have been supposed to be the act of mean time, it would be the earnest desire an individual governor neglecting the in- of his majesty's government, to use every structions he had received. This certainly exertion to bring about a termination of might have happened, though it had been the differences between the two states. the sincere intention of the Spanish | Instructions to that effect had been sent government that the instructions given to off to our ambassadors at Lisbon and the governors of provinces should be Madrid, and the advice that had been strictly observed. When, however, the given, and would continue to be given, to aggression was of such a magnitude as the Portuguese government, would be to that which he had described, a case was adopt the same system towards Spain, made out which called for the interference which it had been earnestly recommended of his majesty's government. Their lord to the latter power to observe towards ships were aware, that in consequence of Portugal. Portugal was advised not to the alliance between Great Britain and give encouragement to the entrance of Portugal, the latter was entitled, in case Spanish refugees--not to allow them, of invasion, to call upon this country for under any pretence, to enter that country assistance. The first treaty with Portugal armed- not to encourage, or countenance was concluded in 1661, and the second in in any manner, inroads on the Spanish 1703. By the former, this country was frontier, by Portuguese subjects on subjects

. bound to support her ally with 3,000 men ; of Spain. It was recommended, that by the latter, with 6,000. Holland was a every thing not necessary for the due party to those stipulations along with this protection of her own rights and the intecountry; but the government of the grity of her kingdom, should be avoided Netherlands had not renewed the treaties by Portugal, which would increase irritawhich subsisted between the former united tion between the two kingdoms; as any provinces and Portugal. There remained, attempts of the kind would tend only to therefore, no obligation on the part of Hol- counteract the efforts of his majesty to land. But without any reference to those put an end to the difference between the treaties, there certainly was sufficient two states. It might be true, and he ground for proceeding as his majesty's believed that, to a certain extent, it was, government had done ; for by the treaty of that there existed in Spain a faction which 1815, which referred to that concluded I would set at defiance even the orders of

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their own sovereign, if those orders did | would do him the justice to believe, that not fall in with their views. With such a he did not use mere words of course, or faction there could be no treaty or nego

mean to take merit to himself by any tiation ; but it was to be hoped, that when hypocritical cant upon this occasion, when they perceived that the government of this he assured their lordships that he strongly country would not allow of any foreign felt that no good or wise man would ever interference with Portugal, their attempts give his vote for any measure which might would cease; that when they perceived lead to war, or to the necessity of war, that England would lend effectual assist without the deepest concern at the responance to resist any aggression on the sibility which attached to what he did. Portuguese territory, they would lay down It must at all times present a subject of their arms, and that thus an end would be difficulty, when a man was called upon to put to that cause of difference. He would vote on such a question, but more parnot further trespass on their lordships, but ticularly so on the present occasion, when would move,

the state of public credit, the amount of “ That an humble Address be presented debt and taxation, and above all, the disto his Majesty, to return to his Majesty tressed state of a great portion of the the thanks of this House, for his Majesty's people were taken into consideration. gracious Message, in which his Majesty is Taking into consideration these circumgraciously pleased to acquaint this House, stances, any man must regret the necesthat an earnest application has been made sity which called upon him for such a by the Princess Regent of Portugal, vote: yet, strongly impressed as he was claiming, in virtue of the ancient obliga- with these feelings, he would not hesitate tions of alliance and amity subsisting to say, that with a pure mind, a steady between his Majesty and the Crown of purpose, and a clear conscience, he gave Portugal, his Majesty's aid against an his unqualified support to the address now hostile aggression from Spain.

moved by the noble earl ; and he did so “ To assure his Majesty that we parti- because it was his firm opinion, that an cipate in the feelings with which his early assertion of the fixed determination Majesty has learnt, that, notwithstanding of this country to maintain its honour, the assurances obtained from the Court of and the integrity of its ally, by enforcing Madrid, by the joint representations of his an observance of the faith of treaties, Majesty and his ally the King of France, would be the most effectual way to preof the determination of his Catholic Ma- vent a war. If he entertained any doubt jesty, neither to commit, nor to allow to at all of the measures now proposed, it be committed from his Catholic Majesty's was, perhaps, that they came a little too territory, any aggression against Portugal, late. "The noble earl had said, that we hostile inroads into the territory of Por- were bound to maintain the stipulations tugal have been concerted in Spain, and of the treaty with Portugal. In that he have been executed under the eyes of fully concurred, but he would go further, Spanish authorities by Portuguese regi- and say, that if no such treaties existed, a ments which had deserted into Spain, and sense of honour, a sense of what was due which the Spanish government had re- to themselves, and to the interests of a peatedly and solemnly engaged to disarm power with which this country had been and to disperse.

so long in amity, should induce their lord“ That we trust that his Majesty's efforts ships to assent to the address now proto awaken the Spanish government to the posed. It was unnecessary for him, at dangerous consequences of this apparent that moment, to point out to their lordconnivance will be successful; but that ships the importance of Portugal as the we entreat his Majesty to believe, that his ally of England. Highly as he valued Majesty may confidently rely on the the general services of the noble duke zeal and affection of this House, for opposite, he thought that none of his great their cordial concurrence and support in achievements were more important to this maintaining the faith of treaties, and in country, than those in which he showed securing against foreign hostility the that British strength and valour were safety and independence of the kingdom sufficient to protect that favoured spot, of Portugal, the oldest ally of Great Lisbon, against the world in arms. He Britain."

thought it was for the interest of England, Lord Holland trusted their lordships that Lisbon and the coast of Portugal should always be in the hands of a power that she might ensure a ready obedience with whom this country was a favoured to her request, he would say that it was ally; and he, therefore, entirely concurred idle to talk of transmitting eloquent pain what had been stated by the noble earl pers. It was only waste of pen and ink, on that subject. The insidious manner of when she could at a single word produce the recent attack on Portugal, the little the desired effect. If France were to say, provocation, or rather the no provocation, in the words of the farce, “Go call a given for such an aggression, must make coach, and let a coach be called,” Spain England anxious to grant its aid, in the must do it. Why, then, should time be observance of its treaty; but, independ spent in transmitting eloquent documents ? ently of treaty, he hoped it would be Eloquent as such papers might be, until he granted with all that cordiality and saw something else done, he must take sympathy which hatred of oppression must leave to doubt the sincerity of France. always inspire. He had expressed his The professed object of the remonstrance hope, that the active measures now to be would be to control the workings of a adopted might be effective in preventing a faction now triumphant in Spain. But war; yet he should be disguising his real | how was it triumphant, and why, and by sentiments, did he not state, that if we did whose means? Was it not by the aid of enter into a war with Spain, it would not the French army? That army was marched be with a wretched, feeble, and faithless into Spain under similar professions of sinmonarch, but with a fanatic and tyran- cerity to those now made by the French nical faction, not only militant in Spain, court. Had not their lordships, had not but dominant elsewhere-powerful, not the country, heard repeated assurances of merely from its uncontrolled sway in that the sincerity of France, before its army country, but from its extensive influence crossed the Pyrenees? Over and over all over the continent of Europe. It again, the French government had assured would, therefore, be, in that sense, an ob- the British cabinet of its sincerity; but ject to contend with of no very light the army marched, and Spain was now nature. He now came to another ques- held in military possession by France, tion, on which he felt some delicacy, but which at the same time affected to remonit was most important and deserved serious strate against certain proceedings which it consideration. He was glad to hear it could have prevented by a single word. stated, that the king of France had acted These remarks might, perhaps, be consiin conjunction with his majesty, in endea- dered ungracious towards France, and also vouring to dissuade the court of Spain towards his majesty's ministers, with whom from the aggression on Portugal, and he he entirely concurred in the present address; felt thankful for the early opportunity the yet if he entertained some hopes that the French court took of giving us intelligence course now proposed would be successful of what was passing in Spain. He wished, in preserving the integrity of Portugal, however, that he could view the conduct still the history of what had occurred of France on this subject without distrust. forced him to believe, that a timely exerBut being called upon to act, we should cise of half the spirit now evinced, would act from experience-we should act from have prevented the faction in Spain from probability-and, looking to the past and being triumphant, and France from being the probability of the future, he thought now in military possession of that country. we should receive with great caution every It might not be gracious to travel back to thing that was done on this subject, even what was done in Europe formerly. He by that power which it had cost so much would admit that the question for their of the blood and treasure of this country consideration was, what should be done to restore. Their lordships were told that for the protection of our ally; and what the French court had sent to Spain re- for ourselves ? He would not, therefore, monstrances. Remonstrances ! Of what travel back to former periods, though many kind? They had heard of the eloquence topics connected with what had taken of the papers transmitted on this subject place presented themselves to his mind, to the Spanish government. That elo- He would only add, that he would prefer quence might be very great; but, when he fighting in Spain for the existence of Porviewed the relation in which France stood tugal, to fighting in Portugal for the towards Spain — when he saw that she existence of Ireland, or to fighting in Iremight command, or to use a milder term, I land for the authority of England. He

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