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him hear what the Spirit saith unto the Churches,"— when we consider how those Churches heard and were rewarded.

It was with feelings of this nature that we opened Mr. Arundell's work; and when we came to the following splendid exordium of his remarks on Ephesus, we were induced to think that we had fallen on a book of abundant value.

What would have been the astonishment and grief of the beloved Apostle and Timothy, if they could have foreseen that a time would come when there would be in Ephesus neither angel, nor church, nor city; when the great city would become “ heaps, a desolation, a dry land, and a wilderness; a land wherein no man dwelleth, neither doth any son of man pass thereby!” Once it had an idolatrous temple, celebrated for its magnificence as one of the wonders of the world; and the mountains of Corissus and Prion re-echoed the shouts of ten thousand tongues, “ Great is Diana of the Ephesians!" Once it had christian temples almost rivalling the pagan in splendour, wherein the image that fell from Jupiter lay prostrate before the cross, and as many tongues, moved by the Holy Ghost, made public avowal that “ Great is the Lord Jesus!" Once it had a bishop, the angel of the church, Timothy, the beloved disciple of St. John; and tradition reports that it was honoured with the last days of both these great men, and of the mother of our Lord. Some centuries passed on, and the altars of Jesus were again thrown down to make way for the delusions of Mahomet; the cross is removed from the dome of the church, and the crescent glitters in its stead; while within, the keblé is substituted for the altar. A few years more, and all may be silence in the mosque and in the church! A few unintelligible heaps of stones, with some mud cottages untenanted, are all the remains of the great city of the Ephesians! The busy hum of a mighty population is silent in death! • Thy riches and thy fairs, thy merchandize, thy mariners, and thy pilots, thy caulkers

, and the occupiers of thy merchandize, and all thy men of war, are fallen.” Even the sea has retired from the scene of desolation, and a pestilential morass, covered with mud and rushes, has succeeded to the waters which brought up the ships laden with merchandize from every country.--Pp. 26, 27.

The account given of the present state of Ephesus, taken from Chandler, and Smith, and Chishull, and Lake, &c., is too long for insertion : but it

may
be summed

up
in this

passage. I was at Ephesus in January, 1824; the desolation was then complete: a Turk, whose shed we occupied, his Arab servant, and a single Greek, composed the entire population; some Turcomans excepted, whose black tents were pitched among the ruins. The Greek revolution, and the predatory excursions of the Samiotes, in great measure accounted for this total desertion. There is still

, however, a village near, probably the same which Chishull and Van Egmont mention, having four hundred Greek houses.-- Pp. 56, 57. Of the state of LAODICEA we give these extracts.

Laodicea,” says Dr. Smith, “ (called by the Turks Eski-hissar, or the Old Castle,) a city of Lydia, according to the geography of the ancients, is situated upon six or seven hills, taking up a vast compass of ground. To the north and north-east of it runs the river Lycus, at about a mile and a half distance, but more nearly watered by two little rivers, Asopus and Caper; whereof the one is to the west, the other to the south-east; both which pass into the Lycus, and that into the Mæander. It is now utterly desolated, and without any inhabitant, except wolves, and jackals, and foxes; but the ruins show sufficiently what it has been formerly, the three theatres and the circus adding much to the stateliness of it, and arguing its greatness.”—Pp. 85, 86.

“ It is an old observation, that the country about the Mæander, the soil being light and friable, and full of salts generating inflammable matter, was undermined by fire and water. Hence it abounded in hot springs, which, after passing under ground from the reservoirs, appeared on the mountain, or were found bubbling up in the plain or in the mud of the river; and hence it was subject to frequent earthquakes; the nitrous vapour compressed in the cavities, and sublimed by heat or fermentation, bursting its prison with loud explosions, agitating the atmosphere, and shaking the earth and waters with a violence as extensive as destructive; and hence, moreover, the pestilential grottoes, which had subterraneous communications with each other, derived their noisome effluvia; and serving as smaller vents to these furnaces or hollows, were regarded as apertures of hell, as passages for deadly fumes rising up from the realms of Pluto. One or more of these mountains, perhaps, has burned; and it may be suspected, that the surface of the country, Laodicea in particular, has, in some places, been formed from its own bowels.” To a country such as this, how awfully appropriate is the message of the Apocalypse: “I know thy works, that thou art neither cold nor hot; I would thou wert cold or hot. So then, because thou art lukewarm, and neither cold nor hot, I will spue thee out of my mouth.”- Pp. 89, 90.

Of PHILADELPHIA :

We arrived at Allah Sher, the ancient Philadelphia, at a quarter before eleven, entering the town through chasms in the old wall, but which, being built of small stones, did not appear to be much older, if so ancient, than the days of the lower empire; the passage through the streets was filthy in the extreme, though the view of the place, as we approached it

, was extremely beautiful, and well entitled to the appellation of the "fair city.”—Pp. 167, 168.

We walked through the town, and up to the hill on which formerly stood the Acropolis: the houses were mean in the extreme, and we saw nothing on the hill but some walls, evidently of much more modern date than either the times of the Roman, or even the lower empire. On an adjoining hill, separated from the first by a deep fosse or a narrow ravine, were similar fragments of walls, but we observed a few rows of large square stones just appearing above the surface of the ground. The view from these elevated situations was magnificent in the extreme; highly cultivated gardens and vineyards lay at the back and sides of the town, and before it, one of the most extensive and richest plains in Asia. The Turkish name, Allah Sher, “the city of God,” reminded me of the Psalmist—" Beautiful for situation is Mount Zion,” &c. There is an affecting resemblance in the present condition of both these once highly-favoured “cities of God;" the glory of the temple is departed from both; and though the candlestick has never been removed from Philadelphia, yet it emits but a glimmering light, for it has long ceased to be trimmed with the pure oil of the sanctuary. We returned through a different part of the town, and though objects of much curiosity, were treated with civility, confirming Chandler's observations, that the Philadelphians are a “civil people.” It was extremely pleasing to see a number of turtle-doves on the roofs of the houses; they were well associated with the name of Philadelphia. The storks retain possession still of the walls of the city, as well as the roofs of many of the houses.

We called upon the Bishop at three o'clock, who received us with much kind attention. He had given us an invitation at our first meeting in Sairikeuy, and the request of the aga was almost unnecessary. At five o'clock we accompanied him to his church. It was Palm-Sunday, and the service extremely long. I could not help shedding tears, at contrasting this unmeaning mummery with the pure worship of primitive times, which, probably, had been offered on the very site of the present church. A single pillar, evidently belonging to a much earlier structure, reminded me of the reward of victory promised to the faithful member of the church of Philadelphia. “ Him that overcometh will I make a pillar in the temple of my God, and he shall no more go out: and I will write upon him the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God," &c.—Pp. 168–170.

The Christian population is on the increase, the Turkish on the decrease at Philadelphia. The account ends with the following passage from Gibbon, in illustration of Rev. iii. 10.

“ At a distance from the sea, forgotten by the emperor, encompassed on all sides by the Turks, her valiant citizens defended their religion and freedom above fourscore years, and, at length, capitulated with the proudest of the Ottomans, in 1390. Among the Greek colonies and churches of Asia, Philadelphia is still erect-a column in a scene of ruins." —P. 175.

The author writes thus of SARDIS :

Sardis, the capital of Lydia, identified with the names of Cræstis, and Cyrus, and Alexander, and covering the plain with her thousands of inhabitants, and tens of thousands of men of war;—great even in the days of Augustus;-ruined by earthquakes, and restored to its importance by the munificence of Tiberius; Christian Sardis, offering her hymns of thanksgiving for deliverance from pagan persecution, in the magnificent temples of the Virgin and Apostle;—Sardis, again fallen under the yoke of a false religion, but still retaining her numerous population, and powerful defence, only five hundred years ago:—what is Sardis now? “Her foundations are fallen; her walls are thrown down." "She sits silent in darkness, and is no longer called the lady of kingdoms.” “How doth the city sit solitary, that was full of people!" A few mud huts, inhabited by Turkish herdsmen, and a mill or two, contain all the present population of Sardis. The only members of the church of Sardis are two Greek servants to the Turkish miller; and how little operative the spirit of primitive Christianity is on one at least of these men, will be subsequently shewn.—Pp. 177, 178.

Previous to quitting Sardis, I was deeply affected by an instance of bad principle in one of the two Christians at Sardis. I was anxious to send a letter to Smyrna, and requested this man simply to forward it by one of the numerous caravans, which are almost hourly passing before the mill door, and, as an inducement, offered to give him a Greek Testament. I had made the same man a present last December. He flatly and surlily refused to do it; while a Turk, who accidentally came in at the moment, voluntarily offered to convey it, and he was as good as his word.—P. 184.

The appearance of THYATIRA (says our author) as we approached it, was that of a very long line of cypresses, poplars, and other trees, amidst which appeared the minarets of several mosques, and the roofs of a few houses at the right. On the left, a view of distant hills, the line of which continued over the town; and at the right, adjoining the town, was a low hill, with two ruined windinills.

Thyatira is a large place, and abounds with shops of every description. The population is estimated at three hundred Greek houses (the papas told us five hundred), thirty Armenian, and one thousand Turkish; nine mosques, one Armenian, and one Greek church. We visited the latter; it was a wretchedly poor place, and so much under the level of the church-yard, as to require five steps to descend into it. The priest told us that the Bishop of Ephesus is the Apžeepers of Thyatira. We intended to give him a Testament, but he seemed so insensible of its worth, that we reserved it, as it was our only remaining copy, and bestowed it afterwards much better.-Pp. 188, 189.

As a parallel to this instance, we take another passage from the second journey, speaking of Adala or Atala in the road to Thyatira from Koolah.

In the corner of the khan is a small church, resorted to on Sundays by the Greeks of the neighbourhood (for there are none in Adala), and who are single men, principally employed as gardeners. A priest from Salickly, and other places nearer Smyrna, occasionally officiates. I went into the church, and found a single Greek, who had just before arrived on horseback, earnest at his devotions, if devotion consists in making numerous prostrations, crosses, &c., before each of the pictures on the screen. I invited him to my room, and offered him a Testament; but he was quite indifferent to the offer, and, in effect, actually refused it, though he knew it to be the Gospel, and understood me when I read to him the fourth chapter of St. John. I then requested him to give it to the priest for the use of the church. He declined to do so, and I was obliged to leave it myself in the church. So near Sardis, only five hours distant, and little more from Philadelphia, in so little estimation is the word of God held! The Greeks here, with few exceptions, know not their own language, but speak Turkish.--Pp. 269, 270.

Of PERGAMUS there is not so full an account as we anticipated: but it contains some interesting particulars respecting the ruins of the church of Agios Theologos, suppposed to be older than the Apocalypse.

The internal division into aisles was made by two rows of granite columns, the spoils of former temples, fragments of which abound. Upon them rested the galleries for the women level with the windows. The tribune, or altar, is embowed, and on either side, at ten yards distance, is a cupola, finishing a room of forty feet diameter, and more than a hundred feet high, both which, retaining their domes, exceed the other walls about five yards. The whole length is two hundred and twenty-five feet. It is constructed with brick, and pieces of marble for ornament, and is, excepting St. Sophia at Constantinople, what conveys the best idea of the Christian churches on the Greek model. The doors, as Smith says, are very high; opposite to which is a great nicchio or cavity in the wall; and a vault underneath 'sustained by a great pillar. This vault is at present a workshop for coarse pottery. Tradition says, that upon the capture of Constantinople, this church was converted to a mosque, a minaret being built at its north-east end; and a ridiculous story is told of its being as quickly disused in consequence of a miraculous change of position in the door of this minaret, which, fronting as it ought to do in the evening, was found the following morning to have turned completely round. One of the circular rooms appeared to have been used as a church much after this period; the recess for the altar, which Smith calls a nicchio, and the marble steps still remain; and it seems the Turks still permit the Greeks to enter it, for I saw a dirty lamp hanging before some wretched paper saints. There is another ancient church in the town, that of St. Sophia, now a mosque. From the size of the stones, it appears to be of very remote antiquity; I should be almost inclined to believe earlier than the time of St. John. My conductor, a Greek, assured me that its prostitution to a mosque occurred as recently as fifteen years ago,

before which the service of the Greek church was regularly performed in it; but this is altogether at variance with Smith's account, who says that it was a mosque in his time. Outside the south door stands an octagonal base or pediment, of which I could not understand the use, unless it supported a fountain or a baptistery.--Pp. 287–289.

The population seems to increase, amounting to upwards of 15,000, “of which, fifteen hundred are Greeks, two hundred Armenians, who have a church, and about a hundred Jews, with a synagogue.” (p. 290.)

The famous vase at Pergamus did not much interest our Author : we have seen a more particular account in the journal of a recent traveller, which we would willingly transfer, did the space allotted for this article permit.

There is no account of SMYRNA; perhaps the author thought it sufficiently well known to require no further history; or, perchance, the idea of its being his home rendered him less inclined to describe it. But the work, we are told in the Preface, was not intended for publication exactly in its present form.

Our limits have altogether prevented our taking any notice of the many interesting circumstances alluded to in the progress of the journey. We must take leave however to add a few memoranda by way of appendix. The following account of the present Bishop of Asia is very interesting :

We were surprised to see a number of Greeks about the khan (of Sairikeuy); it proved that they were in attendance upon the Bishop of Philadelphia, who is also Bishop of Laodicea, Hierapolis, Khonas, &c., and was here on a general visitation of his diocese. He sent one of his priests with a polite request that we would call upon him, which we did after dinner, remaining with him an hour. We were much better pleased with him than the Bishop of Heliopolis; he was extremely intelligent, and gave us much information. His priests waited on him with respect, but without servility. We entered his apartment during the performan

ance of the evening service, which there seemed a great anxiety to despatch as speedily as possible: the prayers were unintelligible, from the rapidity with which they were uttered, and in the repetition of Kuple, Kuple, Kuple chenoov, gabbled fifty times in less than a minute, it was difficult to recognize the awful and affecting supplication, “ Lord, have mercy upon us.".

His apartment resembled rather that of a Pasha on his march, than of the peaceful messenger of the gospel of peace. Handsomely mounted guns, pistols and sabres, with splendid horse furniture, were hung round the walls of the room—it reminded me of the early times of Europe, and of a print which I have seen of the armour of the Bishop of Beauvais, presented to the Pope by order of Richard I.-Pp. 74, 75.

The following passage is interesting on other accounts: but especially after the perusal of the splendid volume of poor Clapperton and Denham :

I saw a few medals; they were all of Selge and Perga; while examining them, I was surprised to be addressed by a Turk in bad English and good Italian. He afterwards paid us a visit at the khan, when I found he was a slaveproprietor, conducting about a dozen males and females, then in an adjoining apartment, to Constantinople for sale. He told us he came from Egypt, but that these unhappy victims were from Barbary; their colour, however, bespoke them natives of the interior of Africa; and the man admitted, that not unfrequently he had slaves from even beyond Timbuctoo. The price in Egypt was from sixty to seventy dollars; while at Constantinople, it varied from fifteen hundred to two thousand piastres; that is, at the present exchange, from one hundred and twenty-five to one hundred and seventy dollars. They had been landed at Kakava, to the westward of Satalia; and had been ten days in performing the journey to Bourdour, part of the road lying over immense mountains covered with snow. We learnt that Memet Ali had a regular and constant communication with Constantinople by the same route; his despatches being first conveyed by packet vessels to Kakava. A traffic in human flesh is, in any shape, so revolting to the feelings of an Englishman, that he can scarcely think of it without strong irritation; and yet, after all, the slave of a Turk has many advantages of situation above that of a Christian. I must be understood to mean slaves such as those we saw at Bourdour, professing the same faith. Like the year of jubilee among the Jews, the seventh year releases the captive, and the purchase is always made upon that express condition-a condition also

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