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trumpets, and the heroism of the actors on both sides, imparted an idea of reality that for the moment made the spectator forget that he was looking on a performance of dogs. Not a bark was heard in the struggle.
After numerous hairbreadth escapes, the chief surmounted the third line of fortifications, followed by his troops; the enemy's standard was hurled down, and the British flag hoisted in its place; the ramparts were manned by the conquerors; and the smoke cleared away—to the tune of God save the King.
It is impossible to convey a just idea of this performance, which altogether reflected great credit on its contriver, as also on the abilities of each individual dog. We must conclude, that the firing from the embrasures, and some other parts of the mécanique, were effected by human agency ; but the actions of the dogs were clearly their own, and shewed what could be effected with animals by dint of patient culture.
Another specimen of these canine theatricals was quite a contrast to the bustle of the siege. The scene was an assembly-room, on the sides and the further end of which seats were placed ; while a musicgallery, and a profusion of chandeliers, gave a richness and truth to the general effect. Livery-servants were in attendance on a few of the company, who entered and took their seats. Frequent knockings now occurred at the door, followed by the entrance of parties attired in the fashion of the period. These were, of course, the same individuals who had recently been in the deadly breach ; but now all was tranquillity, elegance, and ease. Parties were formally introduced to each other with an appearance of the greatest decorum, though sometimes a young dog would shew a slight disposition to break through restraint, but only to the increased amusement of the beholders. Some of the dogs that represented ladies were dressed in silks, gauzes, laces, and gay tasteful ribbons. Some wore artificial flowers, with the flowing ringlets of youth ; others wore the powdered and pomatumed head-dress of riper years, with caps and lappets, in ludicrous contrast to the features of the animals. Doubtless the whole had been the result of judicious study and correct arrangement, for the most animated were habited as the most youthful. The animals which represented gentlemen were judiciously equipped; some as youthful, and others as aged beaux, regulated by their degrees of proficiency, since those most youthfully dressed were most attentive to the ladies. The frequent bow, and return of courtesy, produced great mirth in the audience; but when the noses of the animals neared each other, it produced a shriek of delight from the youthful spectators. On a sudden, the master of the ceremonies appeared. No doubt he was the chief in the battle-fray. He was now an elegant fellow, full of animation ; he wore a superb court-dress, and his manners were in agreement with his costume. He approached many of the visitors : to some of the gentlemen he
gave merely a look of recognition; to the ladies he was generally attentive; to some he projected his paw familiarly, to others he bowed with respect; and introduced one to another with an air of elegance that surprised and delighted the spectators. There was a general feeling of astonishment at some of the nicer features of the scene, as at the various degrees of intimacy which individuals expressed by their nods and bows of recognition.
As the performance advanced, the interest increased. A little music was heard as from the gallery, but it was soon interrupted by a loud knocking, which announced the arrival of some important visitor, and expectation was raised. Several livery-servants entered, and then a sedan-chair was borne in by appropriately dressed dogs; they removed the poles, raised the head, and opened the door of the sedan; forth came a lady, splendidly attired in spangled satin and jewels, and her head decorated with a plume of ostrich feathers! She made a great impression, and appeared as if conscious of her superior attraction; meanwhile the chair was removed, the master of the ceremonies, in his court-dress, was in readiness to receive the élégante, the bow and courtesy were admirably interchanged, and an air of elegance pervaded the deportment of both. The band now struck up an air of the kind to which ball-room companies are accustomed to promenade, and the company immediately quitted their seats, and began to walk ceremoniously in pairs round the room. Three of the ladies placed their arms under those of their attendant gentlemen. On seats being resumed, the master of the ceremonies and the lady who came in the sedan-chair arose; he led her to the centre of the room ; Foote's minuet struck up; the pair commenced the movements with an attention to time; they performed the crossings and turnings, the advancings, retreatings, and obeisances, during which there was a perfect silence, and they concluded amid thunders of applause. What ultimately became of the ingenious manager with his company, our informant never heard.
Fully as interesting an exhibition of clever dogs took place in London in the summer of 1843, under the auspices of M. Leonard, a French gentleman of scientific attainments and enlightened character, who had for some years directed his attention to the reasoning powers of animals, and their cultivation. Two pointers, Braque and Philax, had been the especial objects of his instruction, and their naturally inferior intellectual capacities had been excited in an extraordinary degree. A writer in the Atlas newspaper thus spoke of the exhibition of these animals : ‘M. Leonard's dogs are not merely clever, well-taught animals, which, by dint of practice, can pick up a particular letter, or can, by a sort of instinct, indicate a number which may be asked for ; they call into action powers which, if not strictly intellectual, approximate very closely to reason. For instance, they exert memory. Four pieces of paper were placed upon the floor, which the company numbered indiscriminately 2, 4, 6, 8. The numbers were named but once, and yet the dogs were able to pick up any one of them at command, although they were not placed in regular order. The numbers were then changed, with a similar result. Again, different objects were placed upon the floor, and when a similar thing—say a glove-was exhibited, one or other of the animals picked it up immediately. The dogs distinguish colours, and, in short, appear to understand everything that is said to them,
“The dog Braque plays a game of dominoes with any one who likes. We are aware that this has been done before ; but when it is considered that it is necessary to distinguish the number of spots, it must be admitted that this requires the exercise of a power little inferior to reason. The dog sits on the chair with the dominoes before him, and when his adversary plays, he scans each of his dominoes with an air of attention and gravity which is perfectly marvellous. When he could not match the domino played, he became restless and shook his head, and gave other indications of his inability to do so. No human being could have paid more attention. The dog seemed to watch the game with deep interest, and what is more, he won.
' Another point strongly indicative of the close approach to the reasoning powers, was the exactness with which the dogs obeyed an understood signal. It was agreed that when three blows were struck upon a chair, Philax should do what was requested, and when five were given, that the task should devolve on Braque. This arrangement was strictly adhered to. We do not intend to follow the various proofs which were afforded of the intelligence of the dogs; it is sufficient to say that a multiplicity of directions given to them were obeyed implicitly, and that they appeared to understand what their master said as well as any individual in the room.
M. Leonard entered into a highly interesting explanation of his theory regarding the intellectual powers of animals, and the mode he adopts to train and subdue horses, exhibiting the defects of the system generally pursued. His principle is, that horses are not vicious by nature, but because they have been badly taught, and that, as with children, these defects may be corrected by proper teaching. M. Leonard does not enter into these inquiries for profit, but solely with a scientific and humane view, being desirous of investigating the extent of the reasoning powers of animals.'
It does not appear possible that dogs should be educated to the extent of those of M. Leonard, unless we can suppose that they acquire a tolerably exact knowledge of language. That they in reality learn to now the meaning of certain words, not merely when addressed to them, but when spoken in ordinary conversation, is beyond a doubt ; although the accompanying looks and movements in all likelihood help them in their interpretation. We
have known a small spaniel, for instance, which thoroughly understood the meaning of 'out,' or 'going out,' when spoken in the most casual way in conversation. A lady of our acquaintance has a dog which lives at eninity with another dog in the neighbourhood, called York, and angrily bárks when the word York is pronounced in his hearing
The late Dr J. Macculloch has related, of his own knowledge, that a shepherd's dog always eluded the intentions of the household regarding him, if aught was whispered in his presence that did not coincide with his wishes. Sir Walter Scott has told a number of anecdotes of a dog called Dandie, the property of a gentleman, which knew on most occasions what was said in his presence. His master returning home one night rather late, found all the family in bed, and not being able to find the boot-jack in its usual place, said to his dog : ‘Dandie, I cannot find my boot-jack ; search for it.' The dog, quite sensible of what had been said to him, scratched at the room door, which his master opened, proceeded to a distant part of the house, and soon returned, carrying in his mouth the boot-jack, which his master had left that morning under a sofa. James Hogg, in his Shepherd's Calendar, declares that dogs know what is said on subjects in which they feel interested. He mentions the case of a farmer who had a bitch that for the space of three or four years, in the latter part of his life, met him always at the foot of his farm, about a mile and a half from his house, on his way home. If he was half a day away, a week, or a fortnight, it was all the same ; she met him at that spot; and there never was an instance seen of her going to wait his arrival there on a wrong day. She could only know of his coming home by hearing it mentioned in the family The same writer speaks of a clever sheep-dog, named Hector, which had a similar tact in picking up what was said. One day he observed to his mother : 'I am going to-morrow to Bowerhope for a fortnight; but I will not take Hector with me, for he is constantly quarrelling with the rest of the dogs.' Hector, which was present, and overheard the conversation, was missing next morning; and when Hogg reached Bowerhope, there was Hector sitting on a knoll, waiting his arrival. He had swum across a flooded river to reach the spot.
Still more surprising, the dog may be trained not only to know the meaning of words, but to speak them. The learned Leibnitz reported to the French Academy that he had seen a dog in Germany which had been taught to pronounce certain words. The teacher of the animal, he stated, was a Saxon peasant-boy, who, having observed in the dog's voice an indistinct resemblance to various sounds of the human voice, was prompted to endeavour to make him speak. The animal was three years old at the beginning of his instructions, a circumstance which must have been unfavourable to the object; yet, by dint of great labour and perseverance, in three
years the boy had taught it to pronounce thirty German words. It used to astonish its visitors by calling for tea, coffee, chocolate, &c. ; but it is proper to remark, that it required its master to pronounce the words beforehand; and it never appeared to become quite reconciled to the exhibitions it was forced to make.
The educability of the dog's perceptive faculties has been exemplified in a remarkable manner by his acquired knowledge of musical sounds. On some dogs, fine music produces an apparently painful effect, causing them gradually to become restless, to moan piteously, and finally, to flee from the spot with every sign of suffering and distress. Others have been seen to sit and listen to music with seeming delight, and even to go every Sunday to church, with the obvious purpose of enjoying the solemn and powerful strains of
Some dogs manifest a keen sense of false notes in music. Mrs S. C. Hall, when residing at Old Brompton, possessed an Italian greyhound which screamed in apparent agony when a jarring combination of notes was produced accidentally or intentionally on the piano. These opposite and various manifestations shew what might be done by education to teach dogs a critical knowledge of sounds. A gentleman of Darmstadt, in Germany, as we learn, taught a poodle dog to detect false notes in music. We give the account of this remarkable instance of educability as it appeared in a French newspaper.
Mr Shaving acquired a competency by commercial industry, retired from business, and devoted himself, heart and soul, to the cultivation and enjoyment of music. Every member of his little household was by degrees involved more or less in the same occupation, and even the housemaid could in time bear a part in a chorus, or decipher a melody of Schubert. One individual alone in the family seemed to resist this musical entrancement: this was a small spaniel, the sole specimen of the canine race in the mansion. Mr S-felt the impossibility of instilling the theory of sounds into the head of Poodle, but he firmly resolved to make the animal bear some part or other in the general domestic concert; and by perseverance, and the adoption of ingenious means, he attained his object. Every time that a false note escaped either from instrument or voicemas often as any blunder, of whatever kind, was committed by the members of the musical family (and such blunders were sometimes committed intentionally)-down came its master's cane on the back of the unfortunate Poodle, till she howled and growled again. Poodle perceived the meaning of these unkind chastisements, and instead of becoming sulky, shewed every disposition to howl on the instant a false note was uttered, without waiting for the formality of a blow. By and by, a me re glance of Mr S's eye was sufficient to make the animal howl to, admiration. In the end, Poodle became so thoroughly acquainted vith, and attentive to, false notes and other musical barbarisms, that the slightest mistake of the kind was