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"entire," "of which no part has been used," especially of things reconstituted to a former fulness, hence ab integro, "afresh."-6. Virgo, Astræa, daughter of Zeus and Themis, who returned to heaven when the golden age expired, during which Saturn, as fables said, reigned (Sat. regna) in Italy, Æn. vi. 794.-8. modo, with fave. nascenti, at his birth. quo, abl. of the cause.-9. gens, "race," here for "age" so sæcula, "age," or generation," for the people in it, G. i. 468, a Lucretian usage.-10. Lucina, goddess of child-birth, as bringing babes ad lucem; sometimes same as Juno, or, as here, Diana, Hor. Od. III. xxii., Carm. Sæc. 15. tuus Apollo, "thy (as brother of Diana Lucina) Apollo;" compare the way in which these kindred deities are invoked throughout the Carmen Sæculare, Hor., as the authors of human happiness.-11. teque adeo, &c., "and thou too being consul;" adeo is especially used with this pronoun and with adverbs of time, e.g. jam, when standing first in a clause; it is a copula adding weight to what it joins, especially as shewing that the mind is led on to a further point than would have been expected, see G. i. 24; Ciris, 98; Æn. v. 268. inibit, "will begin;" so, ineunte, exeunte anno, and like phrases.-14. irrita, und. facta, “made void."

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19. errantes hederas, from Catull. Ixi. 34, tenax hedera hoc et hoc arborem implicat errans; so Milton, Lycidas, "gadding vine." baccare, "ladies-glove," supposed to dispel fascination, see vii. 27.-20. colocasia, "the Egyptian bean," it bears a large leaf and superb flower; prob. an exotic word.-21. ipsa, "of their own accord;" so ipse, v. 43.-24. fallax, "deceptive," as being easily mistaken; so fallunt aconita legentes, G. ii. 152; Hor. Epod. ii. 7. veneni, i. e. productive of it.-25. amomum, "ginger;" prob. an oriental word.-26. simul," as soon as," with poteris.— 27. quæ (= qualis), &c., “what their (i. e. heroum and pa

rentis) virtue is," see on ii. 19; "what is virtue?" would require quid.-28-36. the whole depends on simul poteris. molli, "waving," so vi. 53.—32. Thetim, put for "the sea ;" so Nerea, vi. 35.-34. alter, "a second." Tiphys, the pilot of the Argo, whose crew were heroes, v. 39; the Argonautic is the earliest legend of Greek voyage.

38. mari, abl. "from."-40. rastros, sing. -trum, pl. -tri, der. rado.-41. tauris, dat. commodi; but solvet tauros jugo would be abl., as in v. 14.-42. mentiri ... colores, "to counterfeit colours," acc. quasi-cognate, the color being

the mendacium.-43. ipse, see on v. 21. suave, see on iii. 8. mutabit. Mutare aliquid aliquo, either "to acquire," or "to part with anything in exchange for another."-44. vellera, i. e. their native colour. luto, see on ii. 50.-45. Sandyx, Gr. σávdvę or -1, “vermilion," prepared from sulphuret of arsenic. pascentes, mostly trans., here neut., so ii. 96, (also G. iii. 467.)-46. sæcla, acc. quasi-cognate (as cursus), with currite, which agrees with fusi und.— 47. f.numine, decree of destiny. incrementum, see note C. –51. terrasquē, see note A.-53. aspice lætantur ut, "look! how all things exult;" see on en, the poet here assumes a prophet's tone. as used for subst. dicere, a Greek constr. -56. Linus, an ancient legendary Greek poet, killed accidentally by Hercules; one legend made him the son of Apollo (as here), and teacher of Orpheus. Orphei, dat. "Oppe. 60. risu, "by her smile."-61. longa fastidia, acc., "tedious languor;" dispelled and changed into smiles of joy, risu, v. 60, after the child's birth. tulerunt, penult. short by poetic license, so steterunt, dederunt.

i. 68. venturo, quantum, neut., = ad dicendum.

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ECLOGUE V.

INTRODUCTION.

In this poem, (probably written 712,) in the first part of which one shepherd bewails the death of another, and in the last declares him a deity, some have thought a tribute to the memory of Julius Cæsar to be designed. If so, the description, formosi pecoris custos, formosior ipse, v. 44, hardly suits the idea of the historical hero, although the name Daphnis may, perhaps, suggest his bay-leaf crown (Sápvn). In this case, by mater, v. 23, the goddess Venus might be meant, see E. ix. 47; G. i. 28. Milton in his "Lycidas” has imitated this Eclogue.

NOTES.

2. inflare dicere, depending on boni, so pares with infin., vii. 5; and so in passive, cantari dignus, v. 54; amari, 89.-4. major, i. e. natu.—5-6. sub out of composition may govern acc., umbras, compounded the dat., antro.-7. raris, &c., "has dotted with clusters here and there." labrusca, "the wild vine."-18. Alcor, Codrus, Tityrus, Stimichon, v. 55, Damætas, Ægon, v. 72, Alphesibæus, v. 73, Antigenes, v. 89, are mere names of shepherds, mostly borrowed from Theocritus.-14. modulans, &c., "setting to music, have marked the alternate pauses." alterna, i. e. modulamina, a cognate acc.-17. saliunca, "the wild nard,"

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23. atque atque," both... and;" so G. iii. 257; this conjunction adds peculiar emphasis to what it couples, and here seems to express the earnestness of the appeal, vocat : vocat crudelia = upbraids with cruelty."-27-8. tuum interitum is in oratio obliqua, depending on loquuntur.— 29. curru, dat. contr. for currui.-30. inducere, as subst., "the introducing;" the constr. of the cases following this verb is varied in v. 40, and in ix. 20, the meaning being the same; so we might say, "to spread the shade over the fountains," or 'to overspread the fountains with shade;" so insero, G. ii. 69; prætexo, G. iii. 15; præfigo, G. iii. 400, vary their constr.-31. hastas, i. e. the thyrsi used in the rites of Bacchus, and representing probably the growing vine training on a pole.—32. decori, dat., marking effect.-35. Pales, goddess of shepherds.-36-7. inverted, in the order of sense v. 37 precedes v. 36. grandia, i. e. picked for their size, see G. i. 197.-37. lolium, "darnel." -38. purpureo, Pliny speaks of the narcissus as a white flower with a purple cup.-39. paliurus, “" Christ's thorn." -40. inducite, see on v. 30.-43-4. these two lines are the carmen, "epitaph," spoken of v. 42, "I am Daphnis of the woods," &c.

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46. the second quale agrees with restinguere, used as a subst.-49. alter ab illo," second to him."-50. quocumque modo, "in whatever way" (we can).-53. quidquam, i. e. munus, 'any duty."-54. cantari, see on v. 2.-56. insuetum, 'new to him." alacris, "lively."-61. bonus, 66 gracious," (epithet of a deity).-64. sonant, this governs a cogn. case of the whole expression, "Deus ... ille.”—65. on aras and altaria, see on i. 44.-67. bina, "two on each (altar);" duos, "two for the pair." in primis hilarans, especially when gladdening."-70. messis = æstas. Ariusia, from the Ariusian promontory of Chios. nectar, in app. with vina.-72. Lyctius, adj., from Lyctus, in Crete.—

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75. lustrabimus agros, at the ambarvalia; see on iii. 77, pro frugibus.-80. damnabis ... votis, "thou also shalt make men liable in the things vowed by them," (abl. of penalty,) i. e. shalt require the performance of vows; so (gen. of same) voti reus, Æ. v. 237.

82. sibilus, pl. in poetry, sibila, "the whistle."-85. ante, "first," adv. cicuta, see on E. ii. 36.-86. The second and third eclogues are here intended by their proems, hence it is inferred that Virgil himself is persuaded by Menalcas here; the order is hæc docuit nos "Formosum...Alexin ;" Hæc eadem docuit" Cujum..Melibai."-88. pedum, “crook," der. pes, because used to seize the sheep by the foot.

ECLOGUE VI.

INTRODUCTION.

WRITTEN probably 714, when Octavius' legate, Alfenus Varus, to whom it is inscribed, v. 10, was prefect in Cis. Gaul, having succeeded Pollio there, (see Introd. to E. iv.), whom Octavius had displaced, and with Corn. Gallus was still busy in dividing the lands, (see introd. to E. i. and ix.) In it Silenus, caught asleep by two Satyrs, is coaxed to sing. His song is a strain of cosmogony and mythology, into which a tribute to the genius of Corn. Gallus is rather awkwardly foisted.

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