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65. nos alii 66 Pars, we, some of us,-others;" pars is a noun of multitude, in the 1st pers. pl. limiting nos. -66. Oaxem, a river in Crete, on the north side.-68. post = posthac, so v. 70.-70. "Hereafter, shall I, surveying (what is now) my territory, look with admiration on some few ears of corn?" arista, prop. the "beard." In 65-7 he speaks of exile, in 68-70 he imagines the scene of his homestead as it will appear if he ever returns. En puts the view as it were before the eye; so vi. 7, also ii. 46, ecce; G. i. nonne vides; E. iv. 52, aspice. Fines and culmen depend on videns; the view is nearer in 69 than in 68, and nearer still in 70, so near, he can even tell the scanty ears. -71. novalia, prop. "fresh-turned fields," or 66 fallows," "fields."-72. quo, gener. to what a pitch." ordine, rank." nunc, 66 now!" i. e. "if you can."-75. felix, prop. "fruitful," (feo, see on fetas, v. 50), here, "happy." -76. pendere," hang," expressive of the animal's posture as browsing on a steep.-79. cytisum, a kind of shrub with trefoil foliage.-83. fumant, i. e. the evening fire being lit.

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ECLOGUE II.

INTRODUCTION.

IN this Eclogue, prob. the first written, 712, Virgil (under the character of a disconsolate shepherd) praises a boy named Alexander (Alexis), whom he had seen in the retinue of Pollio, (Iollas, v. 57). It was so admired by Pollio, that the boy was given to the poet, and by him carefully educated. Virgil has borrowed largely and di

rectly from the Cyclops, as well as other Idylls of Theocritus; but some of the traits of uncouth simplicity which describe the passion of the fond monster Polyphemus, are almost a burlesque when applied to the sentimental Corydon, e. g. v. 25-6, 71-3.

NOTES.

1. Ardebat, used transitively, by way of ouveσis, as stronger than amabat; so horreo, doleo, and many other neut. verbs.-5. studio inani, "with fruitless longing."-10. Thestylis, a shepherdess. rapido astu, dep. on fessis ; rapidus contains the force of rapio, implying both violence and swiftness; we find rapidus sol, ignis, &c., in poetry, in the former sense. serpyllum, "wild thyme," der. (epπvλλov, Epπw,) serpo, "to creep."-18. ligustra, "privets." vaccinia, some dark-coloured flower, perhaps "hyacinths." nigra, see note C.-19. sum ... sim, this line exemplifies well the difference between the direct and oblique structure; qui sim belongs to the latter, introduced by quæris, and has the subj. mood, so sit, i. 19, &c. defit, "fails," used especially of matters limited in quantity, e.g. a period of time, provisions, &c.; the pass. deficior is used by Cicero. Verbal compounds of facio, as calefacio, and adverbial, as satisfacio, take fio; but compounds with preps. take ficior, except defio, confio, both found only in infin. and a few third pers.-24. Amphion (in Homer) founded Thebes; a later legend attributed its walls to the magic power of his lyre. Dircæus, from Dirce, a fountain of Thebes. Actao, from aкт, "the shore ;" an ancient name of Attica, on the confines of which and Boeotia, Mount Aracynthus (see note C.) lay. Actæō in hiatus, see note B.

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26. placidum, &c., "when the sea was still, unstirred (see on i. 29) from the winds." ventis, abl. of instrument, the negative influence of the winds being poetically spoken of as if positive.—27. si nunquam, &c., "if the reflection never deceives," &c., if I can be sure I am as I look.— 28. sordida, "paltry," so v. 44, sordent.-30. hibisco, dat., poety., to express motion or tendency towards; so Hor. Od. 1. xxiv. 18, nigro compulerit gregi; so mitte mihi, E. iii. 76, for ad me—hibiscum, (Gr. ißlokos,) "marsh-mallow."—34. trivisse, see on v. 37.—36. cicutis, "hemlocks," this plant, being of tubular stalk, was used for pipes.-37. fistula, here "a collection of pipes," (such as are commonly called Pan's pipes,) oftener, one only. This explains the verb trivisse, expressing the lip's quick passage over the tips of the reeds.-38. secundum, 66 a second owner."

40. nec tuta valle, "in no safe valley."-41, etiam nunc, even yet," because when older they would lose the spots.-43. pridem, from pris (obs. root of prior, whence priscus, pristinus), and dem, demonstrative particle.—46. calathis, Gr. κáλalos, in pure Latin, quasillum. Naïs, water-nymph, pl. Naides, x. 10; but Naiades, vi. 21, from Naias, der. vats, "that which floats."-47. summa, "heads." -48. anethi, "of anise."-49. casiâ, "spurge-flax," (Martyn,) an Italian garden herb; it grew on the ground (G. ii. 213), had a sweet smell, and a fresh green colour (G. iv. 30), identified with Ovuéλaia ("olive-thyme") of Dioscorides and Pliny, but a different thing from the casia of G. ii. 466, an oriental plant, perhaps cinnamon.— 50. luteolâ, dim. of luteus, der. Lutum, prop. the plant (weld) which yielded a bright yellow dye, like the yolk of an egg; flavus is a paler yellow. pingit, "diversifies." calthâ, "marigold."—51, mala, "quinces," prop. called "mala Cydonia," from a place in Crete, their supposed native soil. pruna, in hiatus, see note B.-54. lauri, not

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"laurels," but "bays." proxima, "associated with (the bay)," for the reason given v. 55.-57. concedat, "give in." Iollas, the dominus of v. 2.-58. heu, heu, this exclamation, like o, v. 65, requiring a distinct sound, was not liable to elision. Austrum, "the sirocco."

61. Pallas, known as Toλoûxos, or the city-keeper, at Athens and in several other cities.-66. suspensa, used especially of things which just avoid touching the ground, with jugo, abl., "trailing from the yoke," the day's ploughing being over; so Hor. Epod. ii. 63. Quin, der. qui (nom. or old abl.) and ne; in such phrases as nemo est quin credat, apparently nom., here abl., "why not?" detexere, complete by weaving."-72. molli, "lithe;" so of the acanthus, iii. 45.

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ECLOGUE III.

INTRODUCTION,

WRITTEN perhaps 712, the next to E. II. Its subject is a poetic contest between two shepherds, who quarrel, challenge each other, and sing amæboan verse. This E. is the least pleasing of all; the abuse of the shepherds is coarse, and their songs trivial, teeming with oblique, and sometimes obscure, allusions. Among these we trace the poct's personal feelings in the praise of Pollio, and the obloquy cast on Bavius and Mævius, two pitiful poets, the jealous contemporaries of Virgil.

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NOTES.

1. cujum, this use of the gen. of qui as a possess. adj. is found in Plautus and Terence, but had gone out of fashion, except perhaps among rustics, in Virgil's time, who was ridiculed for using it.-2. Meliboi, dep. on sit, und. with pecus.-3. ipse, i. e. Egon, the rival of Menalcas (see v. 4) in the love of Neæra.-4. fovet, "caresses." alienus, "who does not belong to them."-6. pecori, hiatus, see note B.-7. viris, emphatically used, as to intimate that Menalcas was too degraded to be esteemed a man.—8. te, dep. on some verb (prob. of base signification) suppressed. transversa, "askance," neut. pl. used as adverb; so densa sere, G. ii. 275; and in sing. suave rubens, E. iii. 63.-9. quo sacello, "in what shrine," (i. e. "it was done"); some rustic cavern sacred to the nymphs seems intended. faciles, “good-natured,” i. e. in not avenging the sacrilege; so G. iv. 535.-10. credo, "I dare say!" The speaker here ironically supposes the "hacking Micon's orchard," &c., to have been done by himself, which he wishes thereby to insinuate as against the other. malá, "mischievous."—11. incidere, "to hack."-13. quæ, acc. after vidisti, and to be repeated with nocuisses; neut. as referring to the whole of the objects generally.-—16. talia, "such things" (as follow).- 18. insidiis, "from your ambush." Lyciscâ, fem., a proper name for a bitch, dimin. of λúkos, a wolf; so Hylax, viii. 107. carecta, “rows of sedge;" carectum, as if caricetum, from carex; so salictum, from salix. tu, emphatic, "it was you who," &c.-21. as reddat, (imperat.) is "he ought to render; so redderet, "he ought to have rendered;" here, "ought he

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