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moft ever fince the Deluge, fubfifted in a ftate divided from the rest of mankind, and are ftill likely to do to, is not Human, but Divine. For no human wisdom or power could form, or, however, could execute, fuch a vaft, extenfive defign. Thus the very being of the Jews, in their pretent circumftances, is a flanding, public proof of the truth of Revelation; at leaft as far as the call of Abraham: and alfo is a fair and manifeft pledge of the great event foretold in the Prophetic Writings; when Babylon fhall fall, the fulness of the Gentiles come, and al Ifrael be faved, and, I fuppofe, return to their own land again. For their being fo wonderfully preferved, in a diftinct body, I make no queftion, points to their reftoration predicted particularly by St. Paul, Rom. xi. 12, 15, 25, to 33 (*). But to return.


The particular Honcurs and Privileges of the Jewish Nation, while they were the peculiar People of God, and the Terms fignifying thofe Honours, &c. explained.


HE nature and dignity of the foregoing fcheme, and the ftate and privileges of the Jewish nation, will be better understood, if we carefully obferve the particular phrafes by which their relation to God, and his favours to them, are expreffed in Scripture. And,

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II. I. As God, in his infinite wifdom and goodnefs, was pleased to prefer them beo e any other nation, and to fingle them out for the purposes of revelation, and preferving the knowledge, worship, and obedience of the true God, God is faid to choose them, and they are reprefented as his chofen, or elect people: Deut. iv. 37. vii. 6. x. 15, "The Lord had a delight in thy fathers,and he chofe their feed after them, even you above all people." 1 Kings iii. 8, "Thy fervant is in the midst of thy people which thou hast chofen, a great people that cannot be numbered." I Chron. xvi. 13, "O ye feed of Ifrael his fervant, ye children of Jacob his chofen ones." Pfal. cv. 6. xxxiii. 12, "Bieffed is the nation whofe God is the Lord: and the people whom he hath chosen for his own inheritance." cv. 43. cvi. 5, "That I may fee the good of thy chofen, or elect, that I may rejoice in the gladnefs of thy nation." cxxxv. 4. Ifai. xli. 8, 9. xliii. 20. xliv. 1, 2. xlv. 4, "For Jacob my fervant's fake, and Ifrael mine elect, I have even called thee by thy name." Ezek. xx. 5, "Thus faith the Lord, in the day when I chose Ifrael, and


(*) Since I wrote this there has been published three Difcourfes, under the title of The Circumstances of the jewish People an Argument for the Truth of the Chriftian Religion," by the learned and judicious Dr. N. Lard ner, which I think well worth perufing.

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lifted my Hand unto the Seed of the Houfe of Jacob, and made myfe!f known unto them in the Land of Egypt."-Hence re-inftating them in their former Privileges is expreffed by choofing them again, Ifa. xiv. I, "For the Lord will have Mercy on Jacob, and will yet chocfe Ifrael, and set them in their own Land." Zech. i. 17. ii. 12.

12. II. The first Step he took, in Execution of his Purpose of Election, was, to rescue them from their wretched Situation in the Servitude and Idolatry of Egypt, and to carry them, through all Enemies and Dangers, to the Liberty and happy State, to which he intended to advance them. With regard to which the Language of Scripture is, I. that he Delivered, 2. Saved, 3. Bought, or Purchafed, 4. Redeemed them. Exod. iii. 8, "And I am come down to deliver them out of the Hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them unto a good Land.” So Exod. xviii. 8, 9, 10. Judg. vi. 8, 9.-Exod. vi. 6, " I am the Lord, and I will bring you from under the Burthens of the Egyptians, and I will rid [deliver] you out of their Bondage." So Exod. v. 23.

1 Sam. x. 18.


13. Exod. xiv. 30, "Thus the Lord faved Ifrael that Day, out of the Hand of the Egyptians." Deut. xxxiii. 29, " Happy art thou, O Ifrael : Who is like unto thee, O People faved by the Lord ?" 1 Sam. x. 19, Thus God was their Saviour and Salvation.-Pfal. cvi. 21, They, [the Ifraelites,] forgot God their Saviour, which had done great Things in Egypt." Ifai. xliii. 3, "I am the Lord thy God, the Holy One of Ifrael, thy Saviour: I gave Egypt for thy Ranfom," lxiii. 8. Exod. xv. 2, "The Lord is my Strength and Song, and he is become my Salvation." Deut. xxxii. 15.

14. Exod. xv. 16, "Fear and Dread fhall fall upon them-till thy People pafs over, O Lord, till thy People pass over, which thou haft purchased." Deut. xxxii. 6, "Do ye thus requite the Lord, O foolifh People and unwife? Is he not thy Father, that has bought thee?" Pfal. lxxiv. 2, "Rememberthy Congregation which thou haft purchased, or bought, of old (*).”

15. Exod.

(*) In order to understand the Notion of buying and purchafing, as here ap plied, let it be obferved; that buying is often ufed metaphorically in Scripture, where it is common to meet with buying without Money and without Price; or buying with a Price improperly fo called. Ifai. lv. 1, "Ho, every one that thurfteth," that is defirous of Life and Salvation, " come ye to the Waters, and he that hath no Money, come ye; buy and eat, yea, come buy Wine and Milk without Money and without Price." Which is explained, Ver. 3, "Incline your Ear and come unto me, hear," be attentive to my instructions, and your Soul thall live." In this fenfewe buy, when we ferioufly apply our Minds to Study and receive the Precepts of Divine Wisdom, and the Promifes of Divine Grace'; and endeavour to have our Hearts and Lives conformed to them. Thus we buy the Truth, Prov. xxiii. 23. iv. 5, 7. "Get [buy] Wifdom, get [buy] Understanding," fo Chap. xv. 32. xvi. 16. xvii. 16. xix. 8. In all thefe Places the Word we render, get, might have been tranflated, buy, and fo it is rendered, Deut. xxviii, 68. 2 Sam. xxiv. 21. 2 Chron. xxxiv. 11. Jer. xxxii. 7. Amos viii. 6. Gen, xlvii. 19. Ruth iv. 4, 8, and in feveral other Places. Thus we "buy" of Chrift "Gold tried in the Fire, and white Raiment," (Rev. iii.18.) viz. the most valuable Endowments of Mind. Thus the wife Merchant Man (Mat. xiii. 45, 46.) having found "the Pearl of great Price," the Virtue and Happinefs of the Gofpel," went and fold all that he hd, and bought it."





15. Exod. vi. 6. xv. 13, "Thou in thy Mercy haft led forth thy People, which thou haft redeemed." Deut. vii. 8, "Because the Lord loved you,-hath he brought you out with a mighty Hand, and redeemed you out of the House of Bondmen," &c. ix. 26. xxiv. 18. 2 Sam. vii. 23, "And what one Nation in the Earth is like thy People, even like Ifrael, whom God went to redeem for a People to himself, and to make him a Name, and to do for you great Things and terrible for thy Land, before thy People, which thou redeemedft to Thee from Egypt, from the Nations and their Gods ?"-Hence God is ftiled their Redeemer. Pfal. lxxviii. 35," And they remembered that God was their Rock, and the high God their Redeemer." And in many other Places.

16. III. As God fetched them out of Egypt, invited them to the Honours and Happiness of his People, and by many exprefs Declarations, and Acts of Mercy, engaged them to adhere to him as their God, he is faid to call them, and they were his called. Ifai. xli. 8, 9, "But thou Ifrael art my fervant,-thou whom I have taken from the Ends of the Earth, and called thee from the chief Men thereof.". See Ver. 2. Chap. li. 2. Hof. xi. 1, "When Ifrael was a Child, then I loved him, and called my Son out of Egypt." Ifa. lxviii. 12, “Hearken unto me, O Jacob, and Ifrael my called.

17. IV. And as he brought them out of the most abject Slavery, and advanced them to a new and happy State of Being, attended with dif tinguishing Privileges, Enjoyments and Marks of Honour, he is faid, 1. To create, make and form them, 2. To give them life, 3. To have begotten them. Ifai. xliii. 1, "But thus faith the Lord that created thee, O Jacob, and he that formed thee, O Ifrael, fear not:" Ver. 5,


is, ftraitway in his Heart he renounced all temporal Enjoyments, that he might difpofe himself for eternal Light. And, in this Sente, we fell, when, through Carelefinefs, we fall into a Courfe of Sin, or, through Obthnacy, continue in it. Thus we may fell the Truth inftead of buying it, Prov. xxiii. 23. Thus Ahab did fell himfelf to work Wickednefs, 1 Kings xxi. 25. And thus the Jew, in the Flesh, was "carnal, and fold under Sin,' Rom. vii. 15. Thus we buy, when we diligently ufe proper Means to gain Knowledge, and good Habits; we fell, when we neglect and abandon ourfelves to ignorance and Vice.

And the most High God is alfo in Scripture faid to buy and fell, with refpect to his Creatures. He buyeth a People when he interpofes in their Favour, and employs all proper Means to free them from Suffering, or any Circumstances of Wretchednefs, and to raise them to a happy and profperous State. So he purchafed, or bought the Children of Ifrael, by bringing them out of the Slavery of Egypt, to the Liberty and Privileges of Canaan by his mighty Power, Wifdom and Goodnefs; which may be confidered as the Price, improperly fo called, for which he bought them. On the other hand; he fells a People, when he withdraws his Favour and Bieffing, fuffers their Enemies to prevail, or Calamity and Ruin to fall upon them. Deut. xxxi. 30, "How fhould One chafe a Thoufand, had not their Rock fold them, and the Lord fhut them up." Judg. ii. 14. "The Anger of the Lord was hot against Ifrael, and he fold them into the Hands of their Enemies." And this Notion of Buying, or Purchafing, is in the New Testament very properly applied to our Salvation by Jefus Chrift; and therefore fhould be well confi

dered and understood.

"Fear not, for I am with thee: I will bring thy Seed from the East, and gather thee from the Weft." Ver. 7, "Even every one that is called by my Name: For I have created him for my Glory: I have formed him, yea, I have made him." Ver. 15, "I am the Lord, your holy One, the Creator of Ifrael, your King." Deut. xxxii. 6, "Do ye thus requite the Lord, O foolish People?Hath he not made thee and established thee?" Ver. 15. Pfal. cxlix. 2. Ifai. xxvii. 11,"It is a People of no Understanding: Therefore he that made them will have no Mercy on them, and he that formed them will fhew them no favour." xliii. 21. xliv. 1, 2, "Yet hear now, O Jacob, my Servant, and Ifrael whom I have chofen, thus faith the Lord that made thee, and formed thee from the Womb.” Ver. 21, 24, “Thus faith the Lord thy Redeemer, and he that formed thee from the Womb," &c.

18. Ezek. xvi. 3, "Thus faith the Lord unto Jerufalem, Thy Birth and thy Nativity is of the Land of Canaan." Ver. 6, " And when I paffed by thee, and faw thee polluted in thy own Blood, I faid unto thee, live; yea, I faid unto thee, when thou waft in thy Blood, live." See Ezek. xxxvii. I to 15. Zech. x. 9 19. Deut. xxxii. 18. "Of the Rock that begat thee thou art unmindful, and haft forgotten God that formed thee." Num. xi. 12, "Have I [Mofes] conceived all this People? Have I begotten them?" Meaning, not I, but thou, O Lord, haft begotten them. Jer. ii. 26, 27, "As the Thief is afhamed when he is found: So is the Houfe of Ifrael afhamed, faying to a Stock, Thou art my Father; and to a Stone, Thou hast brought me forth," or begotten me; afcribing to Idols the National Advantages, which they received from God.

20. Thus, as God created the whole Body of the Jews, and made them to live, they received a Being or Exiftence. Ifai. lxiii. 19, "We are; thou haft never ruled over them, [the Heathen ;] they are not called by thy Name. "Or rather thus: "We are of old; Thou haft not ruled over them; thy Name hath not been called upon them." It is in the

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and are therefore called by the היינו מעולם לא משלת בם ,Hebrew

Apoftle Things that are, in Oppofition to the Gentiles, who, as they formerly were not created in the fame Manner, were "the Things which are not." 1 Cor. i. 28, "God has chofen Things which are not, to bring to nought Things that are." Further,

21. V. As He made them live, and begat them, (1.) He fuftains the Character of a Father, and (2.) They are his Children, his Sons and Daughters, which were born to him. Deut. xxxii. 6, "Do ye thus requite the Lord, O foolish People?Is he not thy Father, that hath brought thee?" Ifai. lxiii. 16, "Doubtlefs thou art our Father though Abraham be ignorant of us, and Ifrael acknowledge us not: Thou, O Lord, art our Father, our Redeemer," &c. Jer. xxxi. 9,-" For I am a Father to Ifrael, and Ephraim is my First-born." Mal. ii. 10, "Have we not all one Father? hath not one God created us?" [17.]


22. Deut. xiv. 1, "Ye are the Children of the Lord your God. Ifai. i. 2, Hear, O Heavens, and give Ear, O Earth; for the Lord hath spoken, I have nourished and brought up Children, and they have rebelled against


23. Exod. iv. 22, 23, "Thou shalt fay unto Pharaoh, Thus faith the Lord, Ifrael is my Son, even my Firft-born. And I fay unto thee, Let my Son X 2 go,"


go," &c. Hof. xi. 1. Deut. i. 31. viii. 5. xxxii. 19, " And when the Lord faw it he abhorred them, because of the provoking of his Sons, and of his Daughters." Ifai. xliii. 6.

24. Ezek. xvi. 3, 4, 5, 6, " Thus faith the Lord God unto Jerufalem, Thy Birth and thy Nativity is of the Land of Canaan,-as for thy Nativity, in the Day thou waft born, thy Navel was not cut, &c. none Eye pitied thee, -but thou waft caft out in the open Field,-in the Day that thou waft born." Hof. ii. 2, 3, "Plead with your Mother, (the House of Ifrael, Chap. i. 6, 10, 11,) plead,-Left I strip her naked, and fet her as in the Day that he was born, and make her as a Wilderness," &c (*). Hence their Original is represented under the Notion of a Womb. Ifai. xliv. 2, "The Lord-that formed thee from the Womb.” Ver. 24. xlvi. 3. 25. VI. And, as the whole Body of the Jews were the Children of one Father, even of God, this naturally established among themfelves the mutual and endearing Relation of Brethren (including that of Sifters;) and they were obliged to confider, and to deal with each other accordingly. Lev. xxv. 46. Deut. i. 16. iii. 18. xv. 7, "If there be among you a poor Man of one of thy Brethren,-thou shalt not harden thy Heart, nor fhut thy Hand against thy poor Brother," xvii. 15. xviii. 15. xix. 19. xxii. 1. xxiv. 14. Judg. xx. 13. 1 Kings xii. 24. [Acts xxiii. 1.] And in many other Places.


26. VII. And the Relation of God, as a Father, to the Jewish Nation, as his Children, will lead our Thoughts to á clear Idea of their Being, as they are frequently called the Houfe, or Family of God. Num. xii. 7,"My Servant Mofes is not fo, who is faithful in all my Houfe." 1 Chron. xvii. 14, "I will fettle him in my Houfe, and in my Kingdom for ever." Jer. xii. 7, "I have forfaken my House, I have left my Heritage." Hof.ix. 15, "For the Wickednefs of their [Ephraim's] Doings, I will drive them out of my Houfe, I will love them no more: All their Princes are Revolters." Zech. ix. 8. Pfal. xciii. 5. And in other Places, and, perhaps, frequently in the Pfalms, as the xxiii. 6. xxvii. 4, &c.

27. VIII. Further; the Scripture directs us to confider the Land of Canaan as the Estate, or Inheritance, belonging to this Houfe, or Family. Num. xxvi. 53, "Unto these [namely, all the Children of Ifrael] the Land fhall be divided for an Inheritance." Deut. xxi. 23,—“ That thy Land be not defiled, which the Lord thy God giveth thee for an Inheri tance." And in many other Places.

28. Here it may not be improper to take Notice; that the Land of Canaan,

(*) In thefe Texts the whole Body of Ifraclites are manifeftly spoken of; and God's forming them into a Nation or Society of People, invested in pe culiar Privileges, and taken into a fpecial Relation to himself, is evidently denoted by his begetting them, being their Father, and they his Children, born, by his Goodnefs and Power, out of Servitude and Mifery, to a new State of Honour and Enjoyment. For, obferve well; The Scriptural Notion of a Father, in a figurative Senfe, is one that confers a happy State, or an ex alted State of Existence, in Oppofition to one low or wretched; begetting is conferring that State; being born is being raised to it; and a Son, Daughter, Children, is the Perfon or Perfons, put into that State. Thefe Terms have Relation to any Change of State for the better; but are commonly applied to the Jewish Nation, or Chriftian World, as taken into the Covenant and King dom of God.

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