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STUDIEN UND KRITIKEN. (Theological Essays and Reviews.) Fourth Number.-1. WEISS, The Petrine Question. 2. ROMAUG, The Declining Regard for the Doctrines of the Church and the Standards of Faith. 3. KUBEL, The Ethics of "The Wisdom of Solomon." 4. KOSTER, Remarks on the Parable of the Unjust Steward. 5. BURK, Commentary on Galatians ii, 6. 6. DUSTERDICK, Review of Ahrens' "Amt der Schlussel," (Ministry of the Keys. Hanover, 1864.) 7. HERZOG, Review of Baur's Church History of the 19th Century, (Kirchengeschichte des 19ten Jahrundertes. Tubingen, 1862.)

ZEITSCHRIFT FUR WISSENSCHAFTLICHE THEOLOGIE. (Journal of Scientific Theology.) Third Number, 1865.-1. HILGENFELD, The ChristParty in Corinth. 2. LIPSIUs, The Pastor of Hermas, and Montanism at Rome. 3. E. ZELLER, Exegetical Remarks on the Gospel of Mark. (1. Mark xiii, 32. 2. Christ and the Demons.) 4. HILGENFELD, C. Tischendorf as "Defensor Fidei." 5. HITZIG, Ben Pandera and Ben Stada. 6. EGLI, The Rationalists of the Islam. 7. Letter from the Duke of Coburg to Prof. Hilgenfeld.

In the first article Prof. Hilgenfeld undertakes to defend the view of F. C. Baur on the Christ-Party at Corinth, according to which this party denied the apostolate of Paul, while affirming the sole authority of the twelve original apostles. The correctness of this view has been contested by Neander and Schenkel, and especially by Beischlag, (in Studien und Kritiken. 1865. Pp. 217, seqq.) who, against Baur, advances the opinion that there were in Corinth two parties of Jewish Christians, a mild "Petrine" one and a fanatical one, the "ChristParty," and that while Paul found no difficulty in coming to an understanding with the former and with the "Apollos-Party," he had to wage a war of life and death against the latter. The argument used for establishing this opinion by Prof. Beyschlag, Professor Hilgenfeld undertakes to refute in the above article. While, according to Beyschlag, the "Christ-Party" were Jewish Christians, who were thoroughly "unapostolic," and no less opposed to the original apostles than to Paul, Hilgenfeld seeks to show that they were the adherents of the original apostles and immediate disciples of Christ, who did not believe in the conversion and in the authority of Paul. The opinion first defended by Baur, and now again by himself, Hilgenfeld regards as the "chief fortress" of modern critical theology.

The second article, by Professor Lipsius, of Vienna, well known by his works on Gnosticism, is the first of a series on the relation of the Pastor of Hermas to Montanism, as it appeared in the Church of Rome. The object of the author is to show that the "fundamental views" expressed in the Pastor are entirely identical with the tenets of Montanism.

The sixth article is a brief review of a pamphlet on a Rationalistic sect among the Mohammedans, by Dr. Steiner, which we learn is to be followed by a larger work on the same subject. According to the

reviewer, Dr. Egli, of Zurich, the literary world may expect in the promised work entirely new information on a very interesting and important subject.

French Reviews.

REVUE CHRETIENNE.-May-1. BONNECHOSE, Channing and the New Theological School. 2. Bois, The Idea of God and its New Critics. 3. CAILLIATTE, On the Causes which arrested the Development of the Reformation in France.

June.-1. PEDEZERT, The Emperor Mark Aurelius. 2. PRESSENSE, The Supernatural before the Tribunal of Conscience. 3. PRESSENSE, On

the Efforts made in France in behalf of Emancipation. July.-1. PRESSENSE, An Appeal in behalf of Freedmen. 2. PEDEZERT, The Emperor Mark Aurelius. (Second Article.) 3. CAILLIATTE, On the Causes which arrested the Development of the Reformation in France.

There is no paper in France which has shown us a warmer sympathy throughout the war, and which is now making more earnest efforts in behalf of the Freedmen than the Revue Chretienne. In its number for June, we find an interesting article on what has hitherto been done in France in behalf of the cause of emancipation.

We first have an eloquent appeal from Professor Laboulaye to the ladies of France, to organize for the purpose of aiding the people of the United States in making provision for the most urgent wants of the freedmen. In consequence of this appeal a numerous meeting of ladies took place in Paris, which effected a permanent organization, of which Madame Laboulaye is president, and Madame E. de Pressensé, the wife of the editor of the Revue Chretienne, vice-president, and which, among the members of the executive committee, counts the names of the wives of Ath. Coquerel; Ath. Coquerel, fils; Grandpierre, (editor of the Esperance, the chief organ of the Reformed Church;) Gueroult, (editor of the Opinione Nationale ;) Garnier Pagès; Martin Paschoud; Alfred Monod; Guillaume Monod; Count Montalembert; Neffzer, (editor of the Temps;) Prevost Paradol, (editor of the Journal des Debats ;) Jules Simon; St. René Taillandier; Cornelis de Witt, (son-in-law of M. Guizot.)


"French Committee of Emancipation At the same time a formed, in order to correspond with the societies established in America, England, and other countries, to aid in the total abolition of slavery, the education and support of the freedmen, and the publication of all the facts which belong to this great cause. The provisional committee of the society is composed of the Duke de Broglie, president of the committee of 1843, for the abolition of slavery, and M. Guizot, as honorary presidents; Professor Laboulaye, as acting president; Augustin Cochin, as secretary; Prince de Broglie,

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Henry Martin, (the distinguished historian,) Guillaume Monod, Count Montalembert, E. de Pressensé, Cornelis de Witt, and a number of other distinguished men.

In conclusion, the article gives an extract from the excellent essay of Count Montalembert, on the issue of the American War, which has been both republished and translated in this country.

REVUE DES DEUX MONDES.-May 1.-1. AMEDEE THIERRY, Jerome and Paula in the City of Saints. 7. O. D'HAUSSONVILLE, The Roman Church and the Negotiations of the Concordat, (from 1800 to 1814.) May 15.-1. TAINE, Italy and Italian Life, (fifth article.) 7. LANGEL, The President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln-Personal Reminiscences.

June 1.-3. BURNOUF, Christian Civilization in the East. 5. VITET, Faith and Science, with special reference to the book of M. Guizot. 6. AYLIES, Death Penalty.

June 15.-4. REVILLE, St. Hippolyte-Pope Callixtus and the Christian Society of Rome of the Thirteenth Century. 7. SZABAD, The Campaign of Georgia and the End of the American War.

July 1.-3. ST. RENE TAILLANDIER, A Russian Mission in Palestine-
Tischendorf and the Grand Duke Constantine. 7. CH. DE MAZADE, A
Protestant Humorist. 10. JANET, A French Forerunner of Hegel.
July 15.-2. CH. DE REMUSAT, On Future Life. 4. LANGEL, The United
States during the War. 7. WALKER, The American Finances after the
Civil War.

In the number of July 15, Ch. de Remusat, of the French Academy, one of the first living scholars of France, gives as a review of the recent French literature on the Future Life, and more particularly of the following four works: De La Vie Future, (Future Life,) by Th. Henry Martin; La Vie Eternelle, (Life Eternal,) by Earnest Naville; La Pluralité des Mondes Habités, (Plurality of the Inhabited Worlds,) by Camille Flammarion; and La Pluralité des Existences de Ame, (Plurality of the Existences of the Soul,) by André Pezzani. Henry Martin, the author of the first of these works, must not be confounded with the celebrated historian of the same name, who is an enthusiastic member of the school of which Jean Reybaud is the chief, and which believes in the transmigration of the soul. The author of the work on the Future Life is, on the contrary, an ardent champion of the Roman Catholic faith, and the reviewer accords to his work the praise that it belongs among the best that have been written on the subject by Catholic scholars, and that he exhaustively treats his subject from a theological as well as a philosophical and physical point of view. The work of Naville is written in the same spirit. It is not a scientific treatise, but seven lectures or sermons, to establish the certainty of the life everlasting offered and promised by Jesus Christ. His work also is written, according to the reviewer, with superior talent. The two last named works are written by disciples of Jean

Reybaud, the great champion in modern times of the theory of "a migration" of souls. Both authors give a history of the doctrine. Pezzani has already written a number of other works on the same subject, and Flammarion announces the continuation of his work by another, which will be devoted to a description and discussion of the other worlds. Incidentally the article in the Revue des Deux Mondes, which analyzes the above works, refers to other recent literature on the same subject, as, to a work by Lambert, who, in an essay entitled Immortalité Selon le Christ, (Immortality According to Christ, (Paris, 1865,) undertakes to establish that the Life Everlasting of the New Testament was meant to be an abolition of death in this world.


Religion, Theology, and Biblical Literature.

Reason in Religion. By FREDERICK HENRY HEDGE. Boston: Walker, Fuller, & Co. 1865.

Dr. Hedge is, we believe, largely a representative man in the Unitarian ranks of the present day. The present volume exhibits a summary of his views, expressed in clear, eloquent, but diffuse style. Views, we may properly call them; for he simply presents what seems most agreeable in doctrine to himself, rather than attempts to prove them by argument to others. His mind, indeed, appears to be decidedly more intuitive than logical; and he would, perhaps, even positively decline to believe "a religion that can be proved." It may be interesting to our readers for us to give a slight summary of his summary.

The basis of his system is the Kant and Hamilton philosophy. The Understanding is "the faculty that judges according to sense." That is, it takes the material furnished by the five senses, and reflects upon it, classifies it, and judges it by the rules of logic. Hence it is a powerful and a wonderful instrument in the finite, limited, and conditioned affairs of common life. But it mounts not into the universal or infinite, and hence knows nothing of God. Had we the Understanding alone, the conception of God would never enter the human mind. But over and above the Understanding we have the Pure Reason of Kant, the Faith of Hamilton, or the Intuitions of M'Cosh, to which the Deity stands as a self-revealing God. It is in opposition to this philosophy that Comte affirms that no conception of God is legitimate or credible; and Herbert Spencer maintains that there is nothing but an Unknowable Absolute, of which neither intelligence, will, nor any

other attribute, is predicable. Dr. Hedge, using the phraseology of Hamilton, proceeds to develop the God and the religion which unfold themselves to his Faith.

First, there is a "Regent God," or Providence. Our author selects that theory of Providence by which God is the central Will in nature, and nature's laws are his volitions, so that miracle, even if incapable of proof, is intrinsically possible. There is the "Answering" and the "Exorable God," and hence the legitimacy of prayer. Our author's theory of prayer is, that it often forms the condition upon which divine results depend; just as the seed sown is the condition on which the divine will furnishes the harvest. The Understanding never, indeed, will recognize in the particular instance that a particular prayer is answered; yet Faith justly maintains that prayer is often granted either in the specific thing prayed for, or in some blessed equivalent, to the soul. Nay, all true prayer is granted in proportion to the clearness of its truth and the energy of its faith. And in this chapter Dr. Hedge writes not with merely poetical beauty, but with an earnest devotional spirit refreshing as a fountain in the desert. Thus far in relation to God; now in relation to man.

First comes the old enigma, Whence is evil? and the old discord, What is sin? His theory is that of optimism. This world with all its evil is the best possible world, better, in spite of its evil, than the best world without evil. And sin is both an act and a condition of our nature at variance with absolute right and in discord with our own higher nature. Our deliverance is to be attained not so much by a fight with sin within us as by a cultivation and an up-building of our better nature. Our regeneration is rather the full development of our natural goodness, and is rather a positive than a negative work. Both our justification and our regeneration are therefore to be attained by faith. Thus far the theodicy, and now for the Christology.

Christ is divine. We cannot be too thankful, our author thinks, that the Athanasian doctrine prevailed in the Church over the dangerous polytheism of Arius. There doubtless was a divine Providence in it. Thereby the divine in man was retained as a familiar thought in Christianity. But Christ is not God. He is simply glorified man, in whom dwells the power to speak with a divine authority. We have no proof that he wrought miracles; for we have no cotemporaneous reliable record of his sayings and doings. Miracles or deeds transcending the ordinary level of nature he may have performed; but of this there is no satisfactory evidence. Indeed the miraculous part of the Gospel narratives, the incarnation, the supernatural deeds, the resurrection, whether true or not, form no neces

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