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well known as leaders of the Rational- , guard against making any concessions istic party, although some, like Rothe which would imply the negation de facto and Baumgarten, have always been of the existence of the kingdom of Italy. looked upon as prominent representa- The government was of opinion that the tives of the evangelical school. They court of Rome, if it really wanted the all agree, however, upon leaving to establishment of amicable relations, every particular congregation the right could at least not refuse to grant to of choosing its own pastor, no matter Italy the minimum of the rights and what his theological view's may be. powers conceded to all the other CathThe congregations are to hold their olic governments of the world. It deprovincial and national synods, the manded, therefore, in particular the subpowers of which are, however, not to mission of all the papal bulls to the interfere with the rights of the individ- royal exequatur, and the oath of allegiual congregations. Some particulars of ance from the bishops. When the Papal the plan are yet involved in consider- court persisted in refusing these deable obscurity, but in the main it seems mands, the negotiations were broken to aim at introducing a kind of mixed off, and the envoy recalled from Rome. Congregational and Presbyterian Church The issue of the negotiations between Constitution, with a great latitude as to Italy and Rome has dispelled many fears creed, so as to embrace all shades of and raised great hopes for the future. orthodox as well as Unitarian Churches. The Italian government has hastened to
The chief importance of this "Pro- lay before the world, in the form of a testant Diet" lies in the fact that it report
, addressed by the Minister La represents the first national organiza- Marmora, to the king, a full and official tion among the State Churches of Ger. narrative of the whole of the negotiamany, which is sincerely in favor of tions. At the close of this report the emancipation of the Churches from the minister says—and the government, by State, and of introducing the era of eccle- i publishing the report, indorses the senti. siastical Church government. Its design ment—that the day is perhaps not far to put an end to the present isolation of distant “when the so much desired septhe Churches in every particular Ger. aration of Church and State will bring man state, and to substitute for it a with it the complete separation of relignational organization, may likewise lead ious and spiritual from civil interests, to important results.
to the common benefit of both Church
and State." Hitherto none of the larger ROMAN CATHOLIOISM. governments of Europe have yet dared
to adopt the principle of separation beITALY.
tween Church and State. The example THE NEGOTIATIONS BETWEEN ITALY
of a powerful state like Italy would proAND THE POPE. The progressive party i hasten the complete triumph of one of
duce a profound sensation, and greatly of Italy, and the friends of civil and re
the fundamental principles of American ligious liberty all over the world who
democracy. sympathize with it, have viewed with considerable alarm the opening of nego
SPAIN. tiations between the government of Victor Emmanuel and the Pope. It LIBERAL REFORMS.-The government was feared that the hope of restoring of Spain has for many years been repeace between Church and State might garded by the ultramontane party as a induce the Italian government to make true model. This reputation it owed compromises respecting the remainder cliefly to its loud professions of devo. of the temporal power of the Pope, | tion to the Roman Catholic Church in which would destroy the nation's hope i general, and to the Pope's temporal of the ultimate annexation of Rome. power in particular. The fact that
These fears have fortunately proved even this most Catholic of all the gor. groundless. The Italian government, it ernments did not grant to the monastic is true, was very anxious to establish orders that liberty which they enjoy in peace with the head of the Roman the United States and most of the ProtCatholic Church. Its special envoy,
estant countries, and that even assoSignor Vejezzi, was instructed to show | ciations which extend throughout the the most coaciliatory spirit, and only to whole Catholic world, as the Society for the Propagation of Faith, were barely | the right nor to the left in prosecuting tolerated in Spain, and therefore unable the objects they liave in view, while to strike root, was readily ignored in Roman Catholic ladies "laugh those to view of the rigid legislation adopted scorn" who would induce them to take against Protestantism. It is, therefore, active parts in furthering acts of charity easy to comprehend the disappointment and works of educational advancement and mortification felt at Rome, and by for the benefit of their poorer and more the ultramontane party throughout the ignorant fellow-men, women, and chil. world, at the great change which has dren. Dr. Goss deplored the religious recently taken place in Spain. The destiintion that existed in different parts ultra-conservative ministry has been of England, and declared that the dismissed, and a new ministry, under churches and chapels of his faith were the presidency of General O'Donnell, for the most part deeply encumbered has been appointed, one of the first with debt, from the startling sum of acts of which has been the recognition £10,000 downward. He also stated, of the kingdom of Italy. The Catholic as a proof of the decline of his Church, party made the most strenuous efforts that in one street in Liverpool, in which to prevent this. In the Cortes the were one thousand Roman Catholics, ultramontane members most vehemently there was only one man who went to protested against it. All the bishops church, and only four children who went addressed letters to the Queen strongly to school. denouncing such a policy, and some of them in their letters used language
SOUTH AMERICA. which will make them liable to be summoned before the courts. It is gratify
PROGRESS OF RELIGIOUS TOLERATION ing to know that the ministry has resist.
AND OF THE PROTESTANT MISSIONS.-In ed all these attempts. The recognition Spanish America one country after anof Italy is already an accomplished fact. other is removing from its constitution The confessor of the Queen, Bishop that odious provision which probibits Claret, one of the most fanatical priests the public exercise of any other form of of Spain, and an equally fanatical pun, religion than the Roman Catholic. In who was one of the chief advisers of July the Congress of Chili was occupied the Queen, have been removed from the with a consideration of Art. 5 of the court, and the Archbishop of Burgos Constitution, which is as follows: "The has been relieved from his position as
religion of the Republic of Chili is the instructor of the Prince Asturias. The
Roman Catholic, to the exclusion of the Anglican Bishop of Gibraltar has re
public exercise of any other." The deceived permission to visit the resident
bates were lengthy and most animated. Englishmen in several of the large cities. The reform side was advocated by the to hold religious service for them, and ablest and best men in Congress, and
violently opposed by the priests, espeto consecrate Protestant cemeteries.
cially the Jesuits. At length a proposi.
į tion of the government to allow ProtENGLAND.
estants to exercise their religion in
chapels and private edifices, and also to ROMAN CATHOLICISM NOT INCREASING. | have schools for the education of their - A curious testimony that the Church children, was adopted by both houses, of Rome is not making as great prog- | with the omission, however, of the word ress in England as has sometimes been “chapel” in the first proposition. reported was recently given by one of The nunber of Protestants in many the Roman Catholic bishops, Dr. Goss, ofs of the South American countries, espeLiverpool. In an address to one of the cially in Chili, the Argentine Republic, Catholic congregations of Liverpool he and Brazil, is rapidly increasing in consoundly rated his flock, especially the sequence of inmigration. By far the female portion of it, for their apathy, majority of the Protestant immigrants neglect, and indifference in carrying out are Germans; and already each of the works of charity and education. He above three states has flourishing colotold them in pretty plain terms that nies, and even large towns, exclusivel; Protestant ladies are zealous, hearty, inhabited by Germans. The Churches and indefatigable in carrying out their and missionary societies of Germany philanthropy; that they turn neither to take, on the whole, but little notice of
FOURTH SERIES, Vol. XVII.-38
them, and churches and schools are there- , astical Council of Berlin for resident fore sadly wanting. Of late, however, pastors. some improvements have been notice- Fully as good are the prospects of able, especially in Brazil. Reports from Protestantism in the Argentine Repubthe Brazilian province of Rio Grande do lic, where the Methodist Episcopal Sul state that the total German popula. Church has highly flourishing missions. tion (Protestant and Catholic) of this The city of Buenos Ayres has no less province already amounts to fifty thou- than four Protestant churches. The sand, or nearly one third of the aggregate Methodist preachers have the nucleus population of the province. The cen- of a congregation and regular preaching ters of colonization are St. Leopoldo, at six places in the province of Buenos Porto Alegre, and St. Cruz. The Ayres, (besides the capital,) at two in largest of these colonies is St. Leopoldo, the province of Santa Fé, and at one in which in a total population of twenty- the province of Entre Rios. The annual five thousand has twenty thousand Ger- number of immigrants into the Argenmans. They received in 1864, from the tine Republic amounts to about twelve supreme ecclesiastical council of Berlin, thousand, and it is thought that nearly a pastor. Churches have also been twelve thousand of them are Protestants. built at St. Cruz, Donna Josepha, and Religious toleration is fully secured, and Porto Alegre, all of which congregations the prospects of Protestantism are therehave applied to the Supreme Ecclesi. I fore brilliant.
ART. VIII.-FOREIGN LITERARY INTELLIGENCE.
the evangelical Church of Germany, and
called forth from the evangelical party AMONG the more important works a demand for his removal from the posi. which Rénan's Life of Jesus have call
tion as President of the Preachers' Semed forth, and the new works on the inary, has published in defense of his same subject by Dr. D. F. Strauss, in opinions, and of the rights of his party Germany, belongs one by Professor
in the evangelical Church, a work entiSepp, (Roman Catholic,) Professor of His.
tled “Protestant Freedom, in its Combat tory at the University of Munich, and with the Ecclesiastical Reaction," (Die author of a very comprehensive Life of Protestantische Freiheit in ihrem gegenJesus, in seven volumes.
His new wärtigem Kampfe mit der Kirchlichen Rework treats of the proofs to be found in action. Wiesbaden, 1865.) The work the world's history for the truth of the
treats fully of the recent Church history deeds and the doctrines of Jesus, (Thaten of the Grand Duchy of Baden, and may und Lehren Jesu mit ihrer weltgeschichtli- be regarded as an apology of the new, chen Beglaubigung. Schaffhausen, 1865.) chiefly Rationalistic, organization in The Commentary on the Psalms, by
Protestant Germany, called the "ProtDr. Hitzig, Professor at Heidelberg,
estant Association," on the first Gen(Die Psalmen. Heidelberg, vol. 2, 1865,) eral Assembly of which we report more has been completed by the publication of fully in our department of "Religious the second volume.
Intelligence." Of the first complete edition of the
The proceedings of this General As. works of John Calvin which has been sembly (Verhandlungen des Deutschen begun by Professors Baum, Cunitz, and
Protestantenvereins auf dem Ersten ProtesReuss of Strasburg, the third volume tantentage, Elberfeld, 1865) contain a has recently been issued: Corpus Refor: ample one by Dr. Rothe, on the best
number of important addresses: for exSeries Altera. Opera. Vol. iii. Brunswick, 1865.
means by which members alienated
from the Church may be regained to Dr. Schenkel, whose Life of Christ her; and another by Dr. C. Schwarz, has produced so great an excitement in the author of the work on modern
theology,) on “Freedom of Teaching in, A new “Life of Jesus," which will the Protestant Church, and its Limits." attract considerable attention, has re
cently been announced in Germany, The literary controversy in Germany being a posthumous work by the late on the “Life of Jesus continues to
Chevalier Bunsen, and constituting the call forth a number of works from both
ninth work of his Bibel-werk. The parties. The posthumous work on the standpoint of this work will be similar subject by Schleiermacher was replied to
to that of Schenkel, and will be, like the by Dr. F. Strauss, in a pamphlet called latter, a representative publication or
The Christof Faith and the Jesus ofWhat Strauss calls the Whalf”men. History (Der Christus des Glaubens and der Jesus der Geschichte, Tübingen “The Prophecies of the Prophet Isa1865,) in which he strongly denounces | iah," (Die Weissagugen des Propheten the attempt of Schleiermacher of medi- | Jesaia. Berlin, 1865,) is the title of a ating between the old Christian Churches | work by Dr. Hosse. It is to serve as and the new school as impossible, while the introduction to a new commentary in an appendixhe passes a similarly on the prophet. severe sentence against the work of
Dr. L. Wiese, one of the prominent Schenkel. Against the latter Strauss
German writers on educational matters, has since written a new work entitled
has issued a new volume on the educaThe Half and the Whole,(Die Hal ben und die Ganzen.” Tübingen, 186,Thang Berlin, lagi
tion of woman. (Veber weibliche Erziemeaning those that in his opinion are wholly and consistently, and those that are only half and inconsistently come
FRANCE. bating the old views of the Christian
Positivism has found a new champion Church concerning the Scriptures and in M. Alph Leblais, who has published a concerning the Life of Jesus. Strauss, work on “Materialism and Spiritualof course, regards himself as one of the
ism, (Matérialisme et Spiritualisme. “whole" men, and Schenkel as a re
Paris, presentative of the "half.” The party 1865.) The work is introduced to the
Etude de Philosophie Positive. of Schenkel replies bitterly to Strauss public by the present chief of the Posiin the eighth number of its organ, the tivists, M. Littré, who sharply attacks Allgemeine Kirchliche Zeitschrift The
Professor Janet for his articles against mutual animosity between the Whale
the Positivist school. M. Leblais beand the “whole" men belongs among gins by remarking that two great printhe worst specimens of the odium theo- ciples have froin the earliest times logicum which the history of theology divided the camp of metaplıysicians—the records. We learn from the above number of the Kirchliche Zeitschcrift, other by Plato. The latter, of course,
one being represented by Aristotle, the tuat a letter written by Stranss iu 1839, or four years after he had written bis totle is represented as one of the fore
is thoroughly condemned, while Aris“Life of Jesus," when he had been
most instructors of mankind. M. Leelected Professor of Dogmatic Theology wlais applies Positivism to the fine arts in Zurich, has recently been published, and classics, and places Shakspeare and in this letter stil speaks of Christ
among the celebrities of the modern as "really the son of man, and also the
school, while Racine and Dante are set son of God," whose death is “the guar
aside as untrue and radically imperfect. antee of our pardon and salvation, as
The author is particularly bitter against well as of the bliss and joy which awaits ng in the future life." Schenkel calls ious," he says, “under whatever form
religion. “ The ideas, so-called religthat rather strango language from a
they are manifested, are permanent man who four years before had pub.
causes of dissension in the family and lished such radical views on the Life of
of disorder in the state." Jesus, and who now so loudly boasts of his radicalism and his contempt of all Professor Janet has published in book the "halt" men. Strauss explains the form his able articles in the Revue des language of his Zurich letter by the fact Deut Mondes on the chief French reprethat at that time he was an adherent of sentatives of Positivism and of Panthethe Hegelian School, and that as such ism-Taine, Rénan, Littré, and Vachehe could use the terms above quoted. rot, (La Crise Philosophique. Paris, adelphia.) 1. Early History of Heathenism. 2. Arabia. 3. The Revised Webster. 4. The First Miracle of Christ. 5. President Lincoln. 6. The
1865.) We bave given an account of Mr. Emile Saisset had proposed to himthese articles in our notice of the Revue self as the great work of his life to write des Deux Moniles, in a former number of a history of Skepticism. He charged, the METHODIST QUARTERLY REVIEW. it seems, both theology and science " The Science of the Invisible,” (La losophy by denying its ability to estab
with undervaluing the power of phiScience de l'Invisible, Etudes de Psycho- ! lish the great truths of natural theology, logie et de Theodicie. Paris, 1865,) is the
the existence of a personal God, and the title of a new work by Charles Levêque, Professor at the College de France. The immortality of the soul, and on that acvolume consists of a lecture on Lib
count he pronounced both of them guilty erty and Fatalism,” two essays originally those portions of the proposed work
of skepticism. The above work contains published in the Revue des Deux Mondes, which the late author had been able to on the " present condition of the science finish. Some of them had appeared beof the soul," and “Proclus and his God;" and two articles or Dameron and fore; others are now published for the
first time. Among the latter class be. In the preface the author states that he desires to serve that longs an article on Enesidemus, the pinilosophy which, for the last sixty greatest skeptic of antiquity. The most years , has been teaching in France the important articles in this volume are one
on Pascal and the other on Kant, the existence of a personal God, the imma
latter of which had already appeared in teriality of the soul, liberty, right, and
the Revue des Deux Mondes, while the duty.
other appears now for the first time. Another postbumous work of the late Two other volumes of Emile Saisset Emile Saisset, on Skepticism, (Sur le have been recently published by his Skepticisme. Paris, 1865,) has been pub- brother in the Bibliothèque de Philosophie lished by his brother, Amedee Saigset. Contemporaine, the one entitled l'Ame et Professor of Philosophy at the Sorbonne, I la Vie, and the other Fragment et Discours.
Art, IX.-SYNOPSIS OF THE QUARTERLIES, AND
OTHERS OF THE HIGHER PERIODICALS.
American Quarterly Reviews. BIBLICAL REPERTORY AND PRINCETON REVIEW, July, 1865. (Phil
General Assembly. Boston REVIEW, July, 1865. (Boston.) 1. Congregational Polity, Usages,
and Law. 2. The Sin against the Holy Ghost. 3. Mendelssohn's Letters,
and Life. 4. “ The Christian Unity Society. 5. Short Sermons. EVANGELICAL QUARTERLY REVIEW, July, 1865. (Gettysburg.)_1. The
Lutheran Doctrine of Ordination. 2. Lutheran Hymnology. 3. The Sabbath a Delight. 4. The Ministers of the Gospel the Moral Watchmen of Nations. 5. “Know Thyself :" Personally and Nationally Considered. 6. Abraham Lincoln. 7. Addresses delivered at the Installation of the Professors of the Theological Seminary of the Evangelical
Lutheran Church, Philadelphia, October 4, 1864. NEW ENGLANDER, July, 1865. (New Haven.) 1. The Revival of Letters
in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth centuries. Part II. To the End of Century XV, and Beyond it to the Close of the Papacy of Leo X. 2. The Portuguese in India : A Historic Episode. 3. Personal Perils of the Preacher. 4. The Definitions of the new Webster's Dictionary. 5. The