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would largely increase the importance of the journal for all scholars, as it thus might become the medium between Russia and other countries. In the above number we have an account of a Russian work on Huss and Luther, written from the stand-point of the Greek Church and of Panslavism, and therefore directed against the Roman Catholic and the Protestant Churches and the German nationality. The work was originally a prize essay, and completed in 1848; but it was not published until 1859, (at Moscow, in the Russian language, 2 vols.) The object of the author is to show that Huss fully agreed with the doctrines of the Greek Church, and that he was a patriotic champion of the Slavic race. The arguments of the author in support of his theory are very weak. Huss, it is true, was a very decided opponent of the Germans, especially those in Bohemia; but whether he had any national aspirations, in the sense of the nineteenth century, can neither be proved nor disputed, because neither his own works nor his cotemporaries say anything about it. The main argument of the author for maintaining an agreement between Huss and the Greek Church is an utterance of Huss that there are many Christians in Greece and India who do not recognize the Pope. ("Non recurrunt Græci ad Papam de quibus absit credere quad singuli sine damnandi.") From this the author infers that "Huss only combined the religious convictions planted in those regions (Bohemia and Moravia) by Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius, and that therefore he deemed it unnecessary to define more explicitly his relation to the Oriental Church." The judgment of the author on Luther is very severe, and he censures the great reformer no less than Roman Catholic theologians are accustomed to do. The work shows, however, a considerable acquaintance with the literature of Western Europe, and is interesting as one of the few Russian works which elaborately attempt to prove the superiority of the institutions of Eastern Europe over those of Western Europe.

ZEITSCHRIFT FUR HISTORISCHE THEOLOGIE. (JOURNAL OF HISTORIC THEOLOGY.) Third Number, 1865.-1. NIPPOLD, A Review of Scholten's De Leer der Hervormde Kerk, (Doctrine of the Reformed Church.) 2. Dr. Ebrard, The Age of the Nobla Leiczon. A Reply to Dr. Herzog. The former article, filling nearly two hundred pages, gives the substance of one of the most celebrated theological works of Holland, the manual of systematic theology, by Dr. J. H. Scholten. This work, whose full title is "De Leer der Hervormde Kerk in hare grondbeginselen uit de bronnen voorgesteld en beoordeelt," or, "The Doctrine of the Reformed Church, set forth and examined from authentic sources," has passed through four editions, (Leyden, 1848,

1850, 1855, 1861-62, 3 vols.,) and ever since been the object of the most animated controversy. The stand-point of the author is one of moderate, speculative rationalism.

French Reviews.

REVUE CHRETIENNE.-March 5.-1. ROSSEEUW ST. HILAIRE, Review of the History of France by Bonnechose. 2. E. DE GUERLE, Father Newman's Apology of Roman Catholicism. 3. REY, Radicalism at Geneva. 4. MONNIER, Compulsory Primary Instruction in Germany.

April 5.-1. MONNIER, Compulsory Primary Instruction in Germany. 2. Bois, The Idea of God and its New Critics.

REVUE DES DEUX MONDES.—January 1, 1865.—2. RECLUS, Science-Of the Oscillations of the Soil. 3. KLACZKO, Poland and Denmark, (third article.) 5. TAINE, Italy and Italian Life, (second article: Monte Cassino.) 6. LAVELEYE, Commercial and Monetary Crises, (first article: The Money Article in England during the Last Fifty Years.)

January 15.-1. TAINE, Italy and Italian Life, (third article, Rome.) 2. DORA D'ISTRIA, The Servian Nationality. 3. LEVEQUE, The Last Days of Pagan Theology-Proclus and his god. 5. LAVELEYE, Commercial and Monetary Crises, (second article.) 6. BOISSIER, Cicero in his Public and Private Life.

February 1.-1. DUPONT-WHITE, Positivism, (first article: Its Causes.) 3. PERROT, The Kurds of the Haimaneh. 6. MAZADE, Michelet's Biblical Reveries. 7. JULES SIMON, Moral Statistics.

February 15.-1. ESQUIROS, England and English Life, (twenty-sixth article.) 3. DUPONT-WHITE, Positivism, (second article: Its Philosophical Inferiority.) 6. RECLUS, The War of Uruguay. 7. REVILLE, St. Irenæus and the Gnostics of his Times. .

March 1.-2. BOISSIER, Cicero in his Public and Private Life. 6. ReyBAUD, The American War and the Cotton Market.

March 15.-3. CARO, Cotemporary Philosophers-Theodore Jouffroy and his Works. 5. BIRAUT, The Cardinals Chiaramonti, Pacca, and Consalvi, on the Papacy. 6. JANET, Modern Skepticism-Pascal and Kant. April 1.-3. O. D'HAUSSONVILLE, The Roman Church and the Negotiations on the Concordat, (1800-1814.) 5. RENAN, Egyptian Antiquities. 7. KLACZKO, Poland and Denmark. 10. The South American Congress and Peru.

April 15.-1. TAINE, Italy and Italian Life, (sixth article: The Churches and Roman Society.) 3. LAUGEL, The United States during the War, (second article.)

The article on the Modern Papacy, in the number of March 15, undertakes to prove by the writings of the Cardinals Chiaramonti, (who subsequently became Pope under the name of Pius IX.,) Consalvi, and Pacca, that at the beginning of the present century three of the leading spirits of the Catholic Church expressed the opinion that the Pope might lose his temporal power without disadvantage to the Church, and that the Church might reconcile herself with modern liberalism.

Chiaramonti was Bishop of Imola when the three legations which the Pope had ceded to France, in virtue of the Treaty of Tolentino, were reunited with the Cisalpine Republic. The principal reforms to which the French Revolution had given rise had been introduced. While most of the bishops had fled when the French troops first took possession of the Romagna he remained at his post, and in 1797 astonished the world by publishing one of his sermons, in which he fully adhered to the principle of modern democracy and the republican form of government. He has no objection to make to the proclamation of "Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity" as the basis of civil society. He accepts the principles propounded by a much more advanced liberalism than the one condemned in the late Encyclical of Pius IX., and expressly declares: "The democratic form of gov ernment adopted among us is not contrary to the maxims of the Gospel; on the contrary, it demands the sublime virtues which are only learned at the school of Jesus Christ." "Far be from you the narrow views of parties." "Let virtue, enlightened by reason, and finished by the Gospel, be the only foundation of our democracy." The Catholic historians are naturally but little edified at the liberalism of one of their Popes, though it was entirely repudiated as soon as Chiaramonti ascended the Papal throne, and some have entirely misrepresented its contents.

The Cardinals Consalvi and Pacca (in their Memoirs) speak of the possibility of the abolition of the temporal power, and clearly express the hope that, though unjust, such a measure would not be without its advantages to the Church. "The Pontiffs," says Pacca, "would henceforth devote all their care to the spiritual welfare of the faithful; the Church, deprived of the luster of wealth and of honors, would see those only enter the ministry who are guided by good motives; the Popes would no longer consult in the selection of their counselors birth and recommendations, and the crowd of ecclesiastical functionaries who crowd around the holy see would disappear."


Religion, Theology, and Biblical Literature.

The Verdict of Reason upon the Question of the Future Punishment of those who Die Impenitent. By HENRY MARTYN DEXTER. 12mo., pp. 157. Boston: Nichols & Noyes. 1865.

Externally a very neat volume, internally a fresh and original train of thought upon an ancient subject. The author takes first the ground that Scripture is both sustained by reason, and is a true and

necessary aid to reason in her office as "ultimate judge." Scripture being accepted as such aid, he shows on what principles we are to accept and interpret the dicta of Scripture. Among these principles he affirms that of two interpretations that must be preferred which is "least to our taste" and that which is "safest for man." He then examines the testimony of the Old Testament, of Christ and of the Apostles, and furnishes a large amount of indirect proofs from Scripture positions and language. He closes with reviewing objections, as well as the substitution of annihilation in the place of endless misery. The whole is a very acute and effective treatment of the subject.

The Christ of the Gospels, and the Christ of Modern Criticism: Lectures on M. Rénan's "Vie de Jesus." By JOHN TULLOCH, D.D., Principal of the College of St. Mary, in the University of St. Andrew. Author of "Theism," "Leaders of the Reformation," etc. With an Introduction by Rev. I. W. WILEY, D.D. 12mo., pp. 266. cock. 1865.

Cincinnati: Poe & Hitch

eloquent dissertations The book is of course on the mass of minuter

A series of graceful, scholarly, sometimes upon M. Rénan's brilliant but impious Novel. too brief to deal in minute dissecting criticism points involved in the work. That belongs to books like "Ebrard on the Gospels," Lange's "Life of Christ," etc. But the general points are well put by Tulloch, and well developed.


In his first lecture Dr. Tulloch controverts the Positivist standpoint from which Rénan writes; the coolest possible assumption that any crossing of the ordinary course of nature by divine interposition is out of the question, not even worthy to be controverted. Lecture Second states and sustains the Christian view of the biblical miracles. tures Third and Fourth take up the question of the origin and integrity of the Gospels. Lectures Fifth and Sixth state the argument from the character of Jesus. The whole is initiated with an introduction by the editor, Dr. Wiley, written in a style quite equal to that of the author it introduces. The book is made in Poe & Hitchcock's

handsomest style.

Our Country: Its Trial and its Triumph. A Series of Discourses suggested by the Varying Events of the War for the Union. By GEORGE PECK, D.D. 12mo., pp. 300. New York: Carlton & Porter. 1865.

At leading points in our country's great struggle the author of the Discourses before us came forth to guide by his teachings, and sustain by his encouragement, the minds and hearts of his countrymen. The magnificence of our national heritage, the duty of loyalty, the trial of our freedom, the guilt of slavery, the danger of compromise, the impossibility of honest neutrality, the cruelty of a false peace, the beauty

of Christian benevolence in the midst of war, are the pregnant topics pertinently and eloquently unfolded. Dr. Peck exhibited a clear appreciation of the noble character of President Lincoln long before his tragic death had consecrated his character. The Church will welcome this volume from the hand of the venerated author.

By Rev. W. Fox, M.A. 1865.

DENTON, M.A. Edited
Large 16mo., pp. 208.

A Commentary on the Lord's Prayer. and Enlarged by Rev. HENRY J. New York: Carlton & Porter. Both for ministry and people a good manual to develop the spiritual wealth imbedded in this divine formula of prayer has been a felt need in our Methodist literature. Mr. Fox has selected an excellent English treatise on this subject, and has Americanized it and modernized it. The English volume consisted mainly, though not exclusively, of material gathered from the old commentators and homily-writers of Europe. Mr. Fox has added extracts from Guizot, Tholuck, Huntingdon, Williams, and others. The whole is ranged in the form of a commentary. It is a little treasury of the best thoughts of the best authors on "the prayer of prayers."

Life in Heaven. By the author of "Heaven our Home," and "Meet for Heaven." 12mo., pp. 273. Boston: Roberts Brothers. 1865.

In the same beautiful style with the series we have noticed, both of composition and of external finish. The chapters are not doctrinal disquisitions. The doctrine is indeed the basis; but the superstructure is contemplation. Heaven as a blissful world, as a goal to which we travel, the joys of the arrival, the glorious society attained, and the blessed intercourse in the heavenly home, are the pervading topics of the book. They are presented in a pure, vivid, realizing style. They open before us those vistas revealed to us in the blessed word, enabling us to feel that there is a great result for which to live and labor.

Foreign Theological Publications.

Der Christus des Glaubens und der Christus der Geschichte. Von DAVID FRIEDRICH STRAUSS. Small 8vo., pp. 240. Berlin. 1865. STRAUSS once more! The rage for new Gospels of the Son of God caused Schleiermacher's disciples to overhaul their old copy books, and see if their illustrious master must remain denied of the privilege of having his say with the rest. At the time of the publication of his other posthumous works such meager shreds of his Lectures on the Life of Christ were discovered that his literary executors deemed it unjust to him to attempt a reproduction of them in print. About a

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