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at the express request and with the aid to write back to St. Petersburgh to get of the Archbishop of Kasan, whom he a fresh supply for the fair. The increase described as a man ready for every good of schools among the peasantry is also word and work. Russian friends at St. rapidly increasing the circulation of the Petersburgh resolved, last year, to send Bible. When Mr. Long was in Russia a colporteur to the fair of Nijnii Nov. the Holy Synod was publishing a new gorod for the sale of Bibles; but before edition of eighty thousand copies of the he got half way, there was such a de- Testament, which will be sold at fifteen mand that he sold all his stock, and had l copeks a copy, or about sixpence.

ART. VII.-FOREIGN LITERARY INTELLIGENCE.

GERMANY.

his larger work, that in his opinion both

the Eastern Church and the papacy had We have already noticed the appear- an about equal share in the perpetuation ance of a work on the reunion of the of the schism. In the introduction and Roman and the Oriental Church, (Ges- concluding paragraphs of his larger work, chichte der Kirchlichen Trennung Zwischen Dr. Pichler gives a very copious collecden Orient und Occident von den ersten tion of the opinions of prominent men in Anfängen bis Zur yüngsten Gegenwurt. both Churches respecting their reunion. Vol. i, Munich, 1864,) by Dr. Pichler, From this it appears that the representalecturer (Privatdocent) of Catholic The- tives of Rome generally demand the ology at the University of Munich. The submission of the Greeks to the supremwork is highly recommended by the acy of the pope as the first condition of Protestant, still more than the Roman such a reunion, while the Greeks and Catholic press, for the author belongs Russians regard the papal supremacy as to that class of Catholic writers who the greatest obstacle, and favor a federseek to distinguish themselves more ative co-existence and mutual recognition by the thoroughness of their learning of the two Churches. than by the use of violent language Among the chief representatives of against other religious denominations. the Roman view the author quotes BishThe “Neue Evangelische Kirchenzei- op Dupanloup, of Orleans, who made tung," of Berlin, the leading Church a brilliant speech on the subject at the paper of the evangelical party of Protes. great assembly of Roman Catholic bishtant Germany, gives on the occasion of ops, held at Rome on June 3, 1862. the publication of this work an interest. Dupanloup regards as the sole course of ing article on the recent literature con- the origin and perpetuation of the schism cerning the reunion of the Roman and the arrogance of the patriarchs of Conthe Oriental Churches, from which we stantinople, who intended to rob the pope give a few extracts. The author had of the primacy. A similar opinion is already made himself advantageously expressed by an Austrian statesman, known by two other works on the rela- Baron J. A. Von Helfert, in an article on tion of the Greek to other Christian “Russia and the Catholic Church of Poo' Churches, one on the Patriarch Cyril land," published in the Vienna “ReLakaris and his Times, (Der Patriarch view," in 1864. Helfert says that the Lukaris und seine Zeit, Munich, 1862) Greeks themselves do not deny that they and the other on “The Present Stage of had recognized the primacy of the pope the Oriental Church Question,' (Die long ago, and that, therefore, the schism Orientalische Kirchenfrage nach ihrem is only due to their arrogance and pride. Gegenwärtigen Stande, Munich, 1862,) in A Russian Catholic, Kirejewski, pubboth of which he displays thorough lished in 1859 a pamphlet at Paris en. scholarship, as well as a candor rarely to titled, “ La Russie est-elle Schismatique,be found in Roman Catholic authors. Al. (" Is Russia Schismatic,') in which he ready in these two smaller works he bad makes the paradox assertion, that since indicated what he more fully develops in the council of Florence the Church of

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Russia was de facto and de jure united | shepherd, and following the lead of the with the Church of Rome; a boldness ancient holy popes, will be honored as for which he was punished by the Rus- the father of all Christian nations, and sian Government with exile. This view as the highest although not infallible of a reunion is advocated with special bead of orthodoxy." Another Greek zeal and ardor by the Russian Jesuit, writer, in an article on the Orthodox Prince Gagarin, who in his work Anatolian Church compared with the L'Avenir de l'Eglise Grecque unie, re- Roman Catholic and the Protestant gards as the best means to lead the Church, (in the religious journal, EvayGreeks over to Rome the establishment yehikos Knput — Evangelical Herald of a central seminary of the united Athens, 1861, January number,) does Greeks of all nations, at Constantinople, not show the same readiness to concedo which is to educate the missionaries for to the pope an honorary primacy, in the "conversion ” of the Greeks. “The case he should be converted to the heads and teachers of this seminary, he Orthodox Church, but he utters very thinks, ought to be monks of Latin tolerant views on the relation of the orders, who, however, should adopt and Greek to the Roman Catholic and the adhere to the Greek rite, as the Latin Protestant Churches, and hopes that all rite would always remain in the eyes of the differences will some day be amicathe Orientals something foreign, which bly adjusted. He believes that both could only produce distrust."

Churches have fallen into serious errors: Those representatives of the Greek Protestantism, by proclaiming the prinChurch who are not altogether averse to ciple of free investigation; and the pathe idea of a reunion make Rome re- pal Church by adding new perverse sponsible for the schism, and demand doctrines, as that of the primacy of the from her a return to the true form of pope, and of the immaculate conception Christianity, which, they say, the Orien- to the old fundamental doctrines of tal Church has preserved much more revelation. But the members of both pure than the Church of Rome. Abbé Churches, he says, can be saved if they Guettée, a learned priest of the Catholic overcome the dangers and obstacles of Church of France, who has been excom- their way, and live in accordance with municated by the bishops and the pope the doctrines of the orthodox Anatolian on account of his strongly expressed Church. Another writer in the same antipapal opinions, declares in his work, Athenian journal (February, 1861) says La Papauté Schismatique, (“The Papacy that men will be saved in every Church Schismatic," Paris, 1863:) "Not the which believes that Jesus is the Son of Orientals are schismatic, but the popes, God, God-man and Saviour. The Rugwho used the misfortunes of the East to sian Turgeneff (Les Russes et la Russie, arrogate to themselves, under the title of 1847) thinks that the educated classes successors of Peter, a universal power in of his country lean more toward Protestthe Church." The Russian Privy Coun- antism than toward Roman Catholicism, cillor, Yutchef, in a memorial concerning and expects that when religious liberty the union question which was presented | shall be proclaimed in Russia, Protestto the Emperor Nicholas in 1850, made antism will receive from the Greek the admission that "the Christian prin. Church a great many members. The ciple had never entirely disappeared in Greek Pitzipios, who was formerly one the Roman Church; yea, that it was yet of the chief advocates of a union with stronger than error and passion, and Rome, (in his work L'Eglise Orientale, would once triumph over all its ene- 3 vols., 1855,) and organized at Rome a mies;" but this triumph, he thought, central committee of the Christian Ori. would be obtained when Rome “on that ental Society," has, since 1860, fallen out day of the great union shall restore to with Rome, and professed views which the Orthodox Church inviolate the de. more approach Protestantism.

ID a posit of a Christian guidance of the west- work on Romanism, (Le Romanisme,) ern Church.” The Byzantine theologian, published at Paris in 1860, he declares Elias Tantalides, (in his review of De that the substance of the Romish system Maistre's work du Pape, and of Abbé is a despotism which employs every Jager's History of Photius, Constanti- means of fraud and violence for attainnople, 1847,) expresses the hope that ing its purposes; that Christian Rome “the time will yet come when the pope has inherited the donineering spirit of will also hear the voice of the good | Pagan Rome; that the popes, as blind: among them.

tools of Romanism, have done violence are a feature which greatly diminishes to the doctrines and ceremonies of the the interest of Christian readers in his Church; that the temporal power of the work. The introduction to the work popes and their claim to infallibility are embraces a comprehensive survey of the two great obstacles to a removal of everything pertinent to the origin of Mathose discrepancies which now exist hometanism. between the Eastern and Western Churches. Dr. Pichler regards the ar

FRANCE. gumentation of Pitzipios as in many re- A resuscitation of Saint Simonism as spects eccentric, paradoxical, and adven

a theological system is attempted by turous, yet he himself repeatedly de- Emile Barrault, (Le Christ.) The author clares, either directly or indirectly, distinguishes three phases in the progress against the papal claim to infallibility, of Saint Simonism. The first disciples and he also declares that "the union of the school, and the master himself, will not be effected until it will be seen did not go beyond the limits of metathat great real difficulties, especially on physical speculation; then came those our side, prevent it, and until we united- who gave to their theories the form and ly labor for removing therh.” He re

character of a religious system; finally, commends to the members of his own

the present adepts indorsing in all its (the Roman Catholic) Church a more consequences the doctrine of Saint Sithorough study of the doctrine, the life, mon, and thoroughly understanding his and the constitution of the Oriental thought, claim to be the successful aposChurch than has hitherto been found tles of transformed Christianity.

As far as the Orientals are concerned he expects much from the A new work in favor of the belief in increase of civilization, especially among a transmigration of souls has been pubthe lower classes of the population, from lished by André Pezzani, (Pluralité des the growing influence of the light of Existences de l'Ame.) The author underscience, from a thorough reform of the takes to show that the notion of immuta. clergy, whose fanatical intolerance, ility, either in reward or in punishment, spiritual degradation, hierarchical arro- is absurd; while, on the contrary, the gance and avarice, constitute the greatest opinion which admits of our final purifiobstacle to union on that side.

cation and beatitude after a series of Rome is still very far from encourag- probational existences is absolutely cering, or even tolerating, such views as tain, both historically and dogmatically. those expressed by Dr. Pichler; still it In support of this view, M. Pezzani in. pays a great deal of attention to the vokes the testimony of, 1. Profane Anstudy of the history of the Greek Church. tiquity, (book i.) 2. Sacred Antiquity, The propaganda has recently published, including the Jewish and Christian the. in order to promote the union movement ologies, the Kabbala, etc., (book ii.) among the Greeks, two works: a His. 3. Cotemporary writers, (book iii.) The tory of the Council of Florence, by a fourth book gives us the author's own Benedictine monk, ('H áyia kai olkovjev- conclusions. ική εν Φλορεντία σύνοδος,) and a History of the Greek Church Law, by Car

A Jewish writer, J. Cohen, has underdinal Pitra, (Juris Ecclesiastici Græ

taken to defend his race from the charge

of being corum Historia et Monumenta, jussu

deicides,” (Les "Deicides,' Pii IX., Pont. Max., curanti J. B. Pitra, S. Paris, 1865.) His argumentation is

, that R. E. Card. One vol. in fol., Greek and

Christ neither said nor did anything to

convince the Jews of his times of his diLatin.)

vinity; that consequently, if the Jews The “Life of Mahomet," by Dr. believing only to have a man before

were mistaken, they erred in good faith, Sprenger, (Das Leben und die Lehre them when they put him to death acMahomets, Berlin, 1865,) bas just been cording to their laws. completed by the publication of the third volume. The work is highly prized An interesting contribution to the higby scholars, and especially by Orientalists, tory of the papacy is the “ Diplomatic on account of the vast erudition and the History of the Conclaves," (Histoire profound research of the author. His Diplomatique des Conclaves, 2 vols., views on religion, however, in general, Paris, 1865,) by Petruciello della Gatand on the Christian religion in particular, I tina, a prominent member of the Italian

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Parliament. The author is a decided op. | his work, for the Conclaves are promiponent of the spiritual as well as the nent among those events in the history temporal power of the popes, and at- of the Church of Rome, which appear tacks popery without mercy.

He could even to the eyes of her devoted partisans hardly have selected a fitter subject for as anything but edifying.

Art. VIII.—SYNOPSIS OF THE QUARTERLIES, AND

OTHERS OF THE HIGHER PERIODICALS.

American Quarterly Reviews. EVANGELICAL QUARTERLY REVIEW, January, 1865. (Gettysburgh, Penn.)

1. The Reformation, the Work of God. 2. Darwin on the Origin of Species. 3. Lutheran Hymnology. 4. Exemplary Piety in the Ministry. 5. Condition of the Jews in the Days of Christ. 6. The Name Jehovah. 7. Pennsylvania College. 8. Repose as an Element of Chris

tian Character. 9. The Israelites Borrowing from the Egyptians. FREEWILL BAPTIST QUARTERLY, January, 1865. (Dover, Mass.)-1. Ré

nan's Life of Jesus. 2. Missions and the Schools. 3. The Presidential Election. 4. The Ground of Reward in Heaven. 5. Webster's New

Dictionary. AMERICAN PRESBYTERIAN AND THEOLOGICAL REVIEW, January, 1865.

(New York.)—1. Christian Miracles and Physical Science. 2. Delivery in Preaching. 3. Origin of Homer's Purer Religious Ideas. 4. John Foster on Future Punishment. 5. Gibbon and Colenso. 6. Christianity and Civilization. 7. The Covenanters and the Stuarts. 8. Whedon on the Will.

Of the three extended opposing reviews of “Whedon on the Will,” in the Princeton, the Danville, and the American Presbyterian, the last, by the editor, Dr. Smith, is undoubtedly the ablest, and we, therefore, select it for full reply. By subjecting the work to an unsparing hostile scrutiny, the Review has done it the invaluable service of really attesting the final validity of its argument and the indestructible truth of its great doctrine. After retrenching a large area of generalities and one-sided blank assertions, we have a residuum of manly attempts at severe logic, skillfully aimed at important positions ; logic which it is a pleasure for us to meet and to demolish. We stand upon this singular vantage ground with Dr. Smith, that his every argument, so far as there is regular argument, has already been within our own mind, more clearly than in his pages, deliberately weighed and amply provided for. So that by an unfortunate (to him) anachronism, his argument was mostly refuted before it was written ; like an infant reprobate, damned before it was born. In a large number of instances we may be obliged simply to refer him to the unanswered answers to his reasoning in the volume itself, and decline giving bim any further reply until he has dealt with what we have furnished. In this Synopsis we shall notice a few of his collaterals and incidentals, and, as we hope, place on record our answer to his main argument by a full article in a coming Quarterly. It is our earnest prayer and our joyous trust that the cause of truth will be advanced ; and that a true, liberal, evangelical, compact, and symmetrical theodicy, based upon accurate views of human freedom, and furnishing exalted views of God's righteousness, will be increasingly established.

1. Dr. Smith opens, or rather prefaces the discussion by saying of the author of the work reviewed :

He brings all Calvinists, old school and new school, in New England and in all branches of the Presbyterian Church, under the same condemnation. It is rather amusing to see Princeton and Andover, Bangor and New Haven, swept into the same drag-net; all classed as “necessarians."... He will not admit them into the full Arminian fellowship unless they are prepared to say, that the

power to the contrary” has actually been exercised, or, that they do sometimes choose from the weaker inducement.-P. 125.

If we sweep them into the same "drag.net,” it is precisely where they “sweep" themselves. With all their subordinate variances they all claim to be Calvinists; proclaiming Edwards their common standard, and ready for a brave and compact onset upon us frank, prompt, and exultant Arminians. Why should we "admit them into the full Arminian fellowship,” when none of them ask admission ? For one or two centuries their pulpits have resounded with demonstrations against something they called “Arminianism." Let them send Edwards's fatalism, with a facilis descensus, to its own place, and adopt the free, God-honoring theology of JAMES ARMINIUS, and, all protestant as we are, no Pope ever welcomed a returning heretic to his fold more heartily than we will “ admit into the full Arminian fellowship” these unfortunate but wise refugees from the inharmonious “ drag-net.”

2. Dr. Smith (p.* 127) imputes to us the “assumption, not the assertion, mark, “that Calvinism as a system stands or falls with the doctrine of philosophical necessity' as expounded by Edwards." We assumed this, we reply, just as much-and no more—as did both the Edwardses themselves assume it; and just as much as Dr. Smith himself assumes it in every paragraph but the one containing this unnecessary denial. The “elaborate essay Cunningham, so instructively quoted by our reviewer in disproof of our so-called “assumption," was quoted and discussed by us in our Quarterly at the time of its publication ; and one of the series

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The p. refers to the pages of the Review, the P., capital, to those of the work reviewed.

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