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and-fine-linen democratic leader does not expect his mob material to enter his fashionable soiree. A Fernando Wood may indeed consort with Patrick in the caucus or tap-room; but Patrick never expects to see the inside of his mansion. Who supposes that he is obliged to be an associate with a voter even of the same ticket? What more separate than Jew and Gentile? Yet they belong to the same politics. We are a thousand communities in one, divided by a countless variety of principles. Those communities may for ages vote at the same polls and for the same candidates, and yet remain with scarce any other point of contact. The political enfranchisement of the negro involves no social amalgamation. That whole matter, at any rate, can be left to regulate itself.
Essays: Moral, Political, and Esthetic. By HERBERT SPENCER. 12mo., pp. 386. New York: Appleton & Co. 1865.
These Essays exhibit on almost every page the powers of an independent, humanitarian thinker. They contain very little trace of Mr. Spencer's peculiar views on theological subjects. There are essays on the Philosophy of Style, the Morals of Trade, Personal Beauty, Representative Government, Prison Ethics, Railway Morals and Railway Policy, Gracefulness, State Tampering with Money and Banks, Parliamentary Reform. Mr. Spencer's ethics are rigid, his political views are liberalistic, and his aim is the production of the highest earthly good. On these topics he is well worthy our discriminative attention.
Introduction to the Study of International Law. Designed as an Aid in Teaching, and in Historical Studies. By THEODORE D. WOOLSEY, President of Yale College. 8vo., pp. 441. New York: Charles Scribner. This is a revised and enlarged edition of the work published by the learned president of Yale in 1861. The early exhaustion of the first edition evinced the favor with which it was received as a textbook for the professor and a manual for the historical student. The events of the present war suggest some discussions, in which, with a judicial calmness, he maintains the permanence of fundamental principles against the one-sided views of the moment. We doubt not the work as now revised will be accepted as an improved standard in the important department it occupies.
A Latin Grammar for Schools and Colleges. By ALBERT HARKNESS, Ph.D., Prof. in Brown University. 12mo., pp. 355. New York: Appleton & Co. The above grammar is the production of a scholar already favorably known in his First and Second Latin Books, of which this is
the Third and completion of the series. We have to do, then, with an acquaintance; and we open the grammar, not with any idle curiosity agape for some startling theory in Latin Philology, but confidently expecting to find patient research, sound criticism, a happy blending of scholar and teacher, and the results, not the processes, of modern philological investigation, methodized and crystalized for use. The learned professor, did not his modesty equal his merit, would have told us more in his preface, that, in addition to the fact, "his views of philology have been formed in a great measure under the moulding influence of the great German masters," he enjoyed the rare advantage of intimate association with that greatest of living Latinists, Professor Fr. Ritschl, of the Royal University at Bonn.
Part I. presents a few well-compacted first principles. Part II. Verily we have at last "Etymology made easy." It was a happy thought that gave us large face type for the terminations of all inflected words: art lending herself to grammar, painting to the eye the "forms of things." This arrangement must be of incalculable advantage to the student; forms and principles will be more easily remembered, while all confusion of stem and ending will be obviated. Part III. Syntax has cost the author the heaviest outlay, or we are no prophet. It bears marks of careful reading, a deliberate balancing of authorities and sound judgment. "Sect. VI. Use of the Subjunctive." Let us join hands, reader, and sing a pæan! That prudish old prevaricator has grown strangely intelligible under the tuition of Professor Harkness.
Professor Harkness's Latin Grammar is, to use a Germanism, an epoch-making book, Simple yet philosophical in its methods, concise without being obscure, complete without verboseness, it is an honor to American scholarship. "Harkness's Latin Grammar" is a library of Principles-" Andrews's Grammar of the Latin Language" is a lumber-room of Facts. V.
Bryant and Stratton's Counting-House Book-keeping, containing a Complete Exposition of the Science of Accounts in its Application to the Various Departments of Business, including Complete Sets of Books in Wholesale and Retail, Merchandising, Farming, Settlement of Estates, Forwarding, Commission, Banking, Stock Brokerage, etc. With Full Explanations and Appropriate Remarks on the Customs of Trade, and Examples of the most Important Business Forms in use. By H. B. BRYANT & H. D. STRATTON, Founders and Proprietors of the "International Chain of Colleges," and S. S. PACKARD, Resident Principal of the New York City Commercial College. 8vo., pp. 375. New York: Ivison, Phinney, Blakeman & Co. Chicago: S. C. Riggs & Co. 1864.
This goodly octavo is the recitation-book prepared for and used in the affiliated commercial colleges of Bryant & Stratton. Our
readers are doubtless somewhat acquainted with this net-work of schools, an institution which has sprung up, apparently, by spontaneous generation, but really created by the wants of the age, in a manner characteristic of our free system. The purpose of these commercial institutes is to furnish a complete training for the young book-keeper; a training which is not measured by an arbitrary limit of time, but by the genuine amount of perfect acquirement. The pupil is not so merged in a class as to be ground out and labeled with a routine diploma, deserved or not; but he is so dealt with individually that his class advancement rigidly depends upon his actual acquirement, and the diploma shall be good for its face. There is something decidedly suggestive in this straightforward, common-sense method.
The volume before us is the product of years of preparation, aided by the counsels of eminent business men. Its aim is to present the whole science-for practical commerce has most truly attained rank as a science-in all its theoretical and practical bearings, with such absolute completeness as to prepare the competent candidate "for first-class positions." It becomes not an outsider like us to pronounce magisterially upon their merits in detail; but we see no reason to doubt that both institution and book have a rare merit of somewhat amply fulfilling their pretensions.
Belles-Lettres, Classical, and Philological.
Selections from Canadian Poets. With Occasional Critical and Biographical Notes, and an Introductory Essay on Canadian Poetry. By EDWARD HARTLEY DEWART. 12mo., pp. 304. Montreal: John Lovell. It is a somewhat singular fact that the muses of our continent are inclined to a somewhat hyperborean residence. The prosaic, ungainly little state of Connecticut has produced from the genius of her Halleck, Bryant, and Percival, all cotemporaries, to say nothing of her Sigourney, Hillhouse, Brainard, and others, more genuine poetry in a single forty years than the whole sweet esthetical "sunny South" during the entire period of her history. The volume before us is calculated to show us that many a live poet carols a living lay even north of the silver lakes. Among them Mr. Dewart himself sustains an honorable rank. His excellent introductory essay develops the causes why Canada gives so little encouragement to elegant literature and poetical genius, and seeks to awaken in that direction a new and higher interest. Yet there is a constellation of successful poets, justifying the hope of a more glorious future:
The philosophic subtlety and creative imagination of Heavysege; the profound sensibility and exquisite musical harmony of Miss Vining; the lofty aspirations and ringing energy of Miss Haight; the delicate perception of beauty which breathes forth in the lyrics of Ascher; the ardent human sympathy and tenderness of Mrs. Deprohon; the calm beauty and attractive grace of Prof. Chapman; the simple and graphic truthfulness of Mrs. Moodie; the intense communion with Nature in her moods of quiet loveliness, which soothes and charms in the musical strains of J. F. M'Donnell; the simple melodies of Miss Johnson, full of earnestness and deep religious feeling; and many other names worthy of honorable mention, give a pledge to futurity that it will not always be winter with Canadian poetry.
But two there are eminent above this catalogue:
Among those who have most courageously appealed to the reading public, and most largely enriched the poetic literature of Canada, the first place is due to Charles Sangster. The richness and extent of his contributions, the originality and descriptive power he displays, and the variety of Canadian themes on which he has written with force and elegance, his passionate sympathy with the beautiful in nature, and the chivalrous and manly patriotism which finds an utterance in his poems, fully vindicate his claim to a higher place in the regard of his countrymen than he has yet obtained. Alexander M'Lachlan has also evinced that he possesses in a high degree the gift of song. In the opinion of many, he is the sweetest and most intensely human of all our Canadian bards. As Sangster and M'Lachlan are quite unlike, and each possesses a strongly-marked individuality of his own, any comparison between them is inappropriate, and might be unfair to both. In elaborate elegance and wealth of descriptive power, in the success with which he has treated Canadian themes, and in something of Miltonic stateliness and originality of style, Sangster has certainly no equal in this country. But in strong human sympathy, in subtle appreciation of character, in deep natural pathos, and in those gushes of noble and manly feeling which awaken the responsive echoes of every true heart, M'Lachlan is equally peerless.
Our own impression is that in a unique power of fascination Heavysege, the author of Saul, stands alone. The other specimens of the volume appeal with much success to our love of beauty and to our esthetic and poetic sensibilities. They more resemble the products of ordinary sensitive minds under a due degree of culture. He, with a waywardness of his own, fastens us by the strangeness of his conceptions, by the wealth of his invention, and even by the very sorcery of ugliness. Yet so far as we can learn he has written but his Saul alone. Last century there lived a gentleman who, from having made one parliamentary display of unparalleled eloquence, succeeded by an entire life of silence, was called "singlespeech Hamilton." We are not quite certain whether or not the author of Saul is single-poem Heavysege.
Modern Philology; its Discoveries, History, and Influence. By BENJAMIN W. DWIGHT, Author of "The Higher Christian Education." Second Series. 8vo., pp. 554. New York: Charles Scribner, 1864. Mr. Dwight is nobly leading the way in introducing into the English language some of the wealth of German research, aided by his own independent investigations, in the department of comparative philology. A previous volume has dealt rather with the
historical aspects of the subject. This enters into its scientific principles. One half of the present volume is devoted to Comparative Phonology; that is, to a thorough analysis of the elemental vocal utterances, developing the methods in which verbal changes result from the nature and operation of the human organs. The second half applies the principles to the illustration of English etymology. It is wonderful to trace the same word in its various transformations through different languages, and thence by induction obtain the laws of those changes, and then by those laws to verify the legitimacy of our future processes, so that etymology becomes no longer a pile of guesses, but, making allowances for the freedom of human nature, almost an exact science. Take an example: "4. Aevum, time, life, age (Sk. êva-s, a course, a way, etc. cf. ayu-s, long life, perhaps for orig. aivas, and Gr. aléç, alév, and aiɛí, always, and alwv, for al Fúv, a lifetime, etc.), ever (Gm. ewig); never (not ever), age (L. aetas for aevitas, Fr. âge, contracted from such a form as aetaticum), eternal (L. aeternus for aeviternus)."
Mr. Dwight significantly notes how little the English expresses in its terms and phrases the doctrine of freedom of will. Free mental operations are expressed as mere mental states: "We accordingly are ashamed and are afraid, and are penitent, and are converted and renewed instead of thinking and speaking of ourselves, as in the German, as shaming, frightening, repenting, and turning aright, ourselves. . . . The unconverted man here thinks it his duty to be penitent--to arrive indeed at such a resulting state, but not to take the necessary means himself of arriving there."
The same enthusiasm from which Mr. Dwight's great success arises in this department of investigation is the source of some peculiarities of thought and style not perfectly graceful. But these minor traits can be readily overlooked in the great service he is rendering to the scholarship of our country.
An American Dictionary of the English Language. By NOAH WEBSTER, LL.D. Thoroughly revised, and greatly enlarged and improved, by CHAUNCEY A. GOODRICH, D.D., LL.D., late Professor of Rhetoric and Oratory in Yale College, and NOAH PORTER, D.D., Clark Professor of Moral Philosophy and Metaphysics in Yale College. 4to., pp. 1840. G. & C. Merriam, Springfield, Mass. 1864.
Noah Webster was in his day that dangerous character of whom we are bidden to "beware," ""the man of one book." And the danger was not diminished by the fact, that for that one book he was ready and active at laying all other books under contribution. The one book thereby became very much a national institution, not circumscribed, however, in its reputation and use to our national