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English Reviews.

BRITISH AND FOREIGN EVANGELICAL REVIEW, October, 1864. (London.)1. St. Patrick, the Apostle of Ireland. 2. The Christian Church and Social Improvement. 3. Smith's Dictionary of the Bible. 4. Bishop M'Kenzie and African Missions. 5. Relics of the Glacial Epoch in North Britain. 6. Dr. Newman. 7. Authorship of the Pentateuch. 8. Biblical and Miscellaneous Intelligence. 9. German Theological Literature. BRITISH QUARTERLY REVIEW, October, 1864. (London.)-1. William the Conqueror. 2. Hansell's Greek Testament. 3. The Dolomite Mountains. 4. Chevalier's Mexico. 5. Our Foreign Policy. 6. Charles Knight's Personal Recollections. 7. Mind and Brain. 8. Tennyson's Poetry. 9. Projected Reforms in Germany. 10. Epilogue on Affairs.

CHRISTIAN REMEMBRANCER, October, 1864. (London.)-1. The Influence of the Ancien Régime on Modern France. 2. Trinity College, Toronto. 3. Father Mathew. 4. Subscription to Formularies. 5. Life and Correspondence of Theodore Parker. 6. Mr. Scrivener's Edition of Codex Beza. 7. Voices from Rome-Dr. Manning. 8. The Filioque Controversy. EDINBURGH REVIEW, October, 1864. (New York: reprint.)—1. Angus. 2. Coniferous Trees. 3. Archbishop Whately. 4. Co-operative Societies in 1864. 5. French Anti-Clerical Novels. 6. Man and Nature. 7. Weber's Life of Marshal Saxe. 8. Robert Browning's Poems. 9. The Five-YearOld Parliament.

JOURNAL OF SACRED LITERATURE AND BIBLICAL RECORD, October, 1864. (London.)—1. Israel in Egypt. 2. The Tree of Life. From the German of Dr. Piper. 3. The Parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus. 4. Analogy between the Apocalypse of the Old Testament and that of the New. 5. The Decipherment of Cuneiform Inscriptions Described and Tested. 6. A Rational View of Hebrew Chronology. 7. Selections from the Syriac. No. II; The Encomium of the Martyrs. By Eusebius of Cæsarea. English Translation. 8. Dr. M'Neece's University Sermons. LONDON QUARTERLY REVIEW, October, 1864. (New York: reprint.)— 1. Cochin-China and Cambodia. 2. Workmen's Benefit Societies. 3. Rawdon Brown's Venetian State Papers. 4. Dr. William Smith's Dictionary of the Bible. 5. Sanitary State of the Army in India. 6. Life of Lockhart. 7. Photography. 8. Law Reform. 9. Dr. Newman's Apologia. LONDON QUARTERLY REVIEW, (Wesleyan,) October, 1864. (London.)— 1. Laws and Penalties. 2. Our British North American Colonies. 3. Calvin and the Reformation. 4. Madame de Sévigné and her Friends. 5. Life in Java. 6. Mr. Kingsley and Dr. Newman. 7. Enoch Arden. 8. Mr. Trevelyan on India. 9. Müller's Lectures on Language. 10. The Recent Methodist Conference.

NATIONAL REVIEW, November, 1864. (London.)-1. Presidential Government. 2. Wordsworth, Tennyson, and Browning; or, Pure, Ornate, and Grotesque Art in English Poetry. 3. Modern Editions of the Greek Testament Considered, including the State of the Text and its Interpretation. 4. The Russian Version of the Crimean War. 5. Statesmanship in Constitutional Countries. 6. On the Relation of the Pauline Epistles to the Historical Books of the New Testament. 7. Madame de Sévigné. 8. The Functions of Criticism at the Present Time. 9. The Crisis of Faith. 10. Public Schools.

German Reviews.

ZEITSCHRIFT FUR WISSENSCHAFTLICHE THEOLOGIE. (Journal of Scientific Theology. 1864. Fourth Number.)-1. SPIEGEL, Johannes Pollius. 2. TOBLER, Essay on the Epistle to the Hebrews, according to the Codex Sinaiticus. 3. PH. BUTTMANN, Some Peculiarities of the Codex Sinaiticus in the New Testament, especially in the Gospels. 4. L. PAUL, Reply to an article of Professor Hilgenfeld on the Resurrection of Christ. 5. FRANK, The Free-Thinker, Johann Philipp Treiber. 6. A. BUTTMANN, The work of K. H. A. Lipsius on the Greek of the New Testament. 7. HILGENFELD, The New Critical School of Tübingen.

For some time the Journal of Scientific Theology has carried on a controversy on the Resurrection of Christ. Though, in general, the organ of the negative school, and counting among its contributors men like Strauss and Zeller, the journal admitted some time ago an article in defense of the real Resurrection of Christ from the pen of an orthodox theologian, L. Paul. This called forth a rejoinder from D. F. Strauss, and a brief resumé of the controversy from the pen of the editor of this journal, Professor Hilgenfeld, who, though admitting the correctness of some of the arguments used by L. Paul against Strauss, declared himself in the main, as was to be expected, for Strauss. In this last number L. Paul again replies to Professor Hilgenfeld.

The last article refers to the exegetical works of an able Roman Catholic theologian, Professor Aberle of Tubingen, who in a series of books and articles has endeavored to prove that the four Gospels were not written for the sole purpose of leaving to the Church an account of the life of the Saviour, but that each of the Gospels was called forth by special external circumstances, and that this explains a great many of the difficulties which negative theologians of the school of Strauss have found in the sacred records. Professor Hilgenfeld combats most of the arguments advanced by Professor Aberle.

ZEITSCHRIFT FUR HISTORISCHE THEOLOGIE. (Journal of Historical Theology. Fourth Number. 1864.)-1. NIPPOLD, Davis Joris, of Delft. His Life, his Doctrine, and his Sect. (Second Article.)


This second article gives the labors of Joris, at Basle, when he lived under the name of David of Brügge. The relations of Joris to Menno, Schwenkfeld, and other Reformers, gives to some portions of his history a general interest. The author then traces the history of the sect founded by Joris at Basle, in Holland, in Frisia, in Holstein. At the conclusion of the article the author acknowledges the receipt of some corrections and additions to his first article from Professor Scheffer, in Amsterdam, and expresses

the hope that Professor Scheffer, who, he says, has a more extensive knowledge of the Baptist movements of the Sixteenth Century than any other man living, may soon publish his work on the "History of Anabaptism."

French Reviews.

REVUE DES DEUX MONDES.-July 15.-3. A. D'ASSIER, The Brazilian Eldorado. 5. REVILLE, The Origin of the New Testament. 6. FR. LENORMANT, Greece since the Revolution of 1862. 7. JANET, The Philosophical Crisis and the Spiritualistic Ideas. (First article. The Critical School.) 10. MAZADE, Spain and Peru.

Aug. 1.-4. E. DE LAVELEYE, Belgium and the Actual Crisis. The Liberal Party and the Catholic Party. 6. L. REYBAUD, The Cultivation of Cotton in Algeria. 7. JANET, The Philosophical Crisis and the Spiritualistic Ideas. (Second article. Positivism and Idealism.)

Aug. 15.-3. BLERZY, Australia, its Physical History and its Colonization. 5. SIMON, Female Primary Instruction in France. 6. LANGEL, Pythagoras, his History and Doctrine.

Sept. 1.-1. AMEDEE THIERRY, Roman History in the Fourth and Fifth Centuries. (First article.) The Christian Society at Rome and the Roman Emigration to the Holy Land. 3. EsQUIROS, England and English Life. (Twenty-fifth article.) 4. CH. DE REMUSAT, Church and State.

Sept. 15.-2. KLACZKO, Poland and Denmark. 4. LITTRE, Essays on the Middle Ages. The History of Literature and Fine Arts in France during the Fourteenth Century.

Oct. 1.-2. RECLUS, History of the War in the United States. The Two Last Years of the Great American Conflict.. 3. KLACZKо, Poland and Denmark. (Second article.) 5. ST. MARC GIRARDIN, The Origin of the Eastern Question. Western Society after the Crusades.

Oct. 15.-4. CH. DE REMUSAT, The Political Situation in France. 5. CH. LEVEQUE, The Philosophy of the Spirit, its Defenders and Opponents. 6. BLERZY, Australia, its Physical History and its Colonization."

THE two articles in the numbers of July 15, and August 1, on the philosophical crisis in France, are a very interesting review of the recent philosophical literature of France. Their author, Professor Janet, of Paris, is well known as one of the foremost representatives of the "Spiritualistic" school of French philosophers, who firmly hold to the belief in a personal God and the immortality of the soul. Professor Janet passes in review four of the most important adversaries of the Spiritualistic school, namely, Taine, (Philosophes Français au dix-neuvieme siècle,) Rénan, (the author of the Life of Jesus, who explained his philosophical views more fully in an article of the Revue des Deux Mondes of October 15, 1863,) Littré, (preface to the new edition of the works of Auguste Comte,) and Vacherot, (De la Metaphysique et de la Science.)

The first article treats of Taine and Rénan as the representatives

of the critical school. Both claim to be disciples of Hegel; but their systems are widely different. Professor Janet thus characterizes their differences: "The philosophy of Taine I would call a philosophy of fact, and that of Rénan a philosophy of the phenomenon. I might be asked, What difference do you establish between a fact and a phenomenon? A fact, according to my opinion, is in some way a fixed, precise, determined phenomenon, having outlines that one can lay hold of and describe. It involves a kind of stability. A phenomenon is a fact in motion, a transition from one fact to another; a fact which from moment to moment is transforming itself. Starting from this definition I would say that Taine is particularly interested in facts, and Rénan in phenomena. The former is fond of emphasized individual description. He likes one fact to be distinct from the other. He strains the differences, makes them prominent. Such precision appears to Rénan contrary to the nature of things; for him everything that is precise is false; every definition is a compromise. There is no precise and determined fact, but only insensible transitions from one phenomenon to another, and as these transitions are imperceptible in the case of particular phenomena, they can only be observed on a large scale, and it therefore becomes necessary to study the general phenomena, the whole, the mass. Hence Rénan's preference for generalizing. Taine is especially interested in individuals; he is fond of writing monographs. Rénan rarely stops at the description of a particular fact; he prefers the changes, the vicissitudes, the revolutions in human affairs. Taine prefers modern and civilized periods; the society of France in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Rénan likes primitive societies, the obscure and subterranean sources of civilization, those primitive races whose history is only known by the languages which were spoken by them. Rénan is fond of studying the embryogeny of the human race, Taine its physiology, and especially its pathology. From all these reasons Rénan is not so opposed as Taine to the recognition of immaterial and metaphysical causes. As he shrinks from everything too clear and determined, Materialism appears to him a false doctrine; its pretended clearness is the very thing that is repulsive to him. Rénan is thus led to the recognition of the existence of a certain mysterious something. Call this "something" Soul, God, Moral Order, and you have again a new Spiritualism, which will be but slightly distinguished from the old one. For Mr. Taine, on the contrary, there is no mysterious something. He recognizes only two faculties, sensation and abstraction. Everything that is not a phenomenon perceived by the senses, or an

abstract notion expressed by words, is nothing. Sometimes his imagination soars up when he thinks of the totality of phenomena, and he speaks of nature with the enthusiasm of Lucretius. But nature in these instances is for him only a word which represents the sum of the perceived or imagined phenomena. The system of Taine is mechanism and fatality; that of Rénan transformation and motion. These two ideas are both lost in the common idea of an absolute phenomenism. For both, nature is only a great phenomenon, which is incessantly transforming;, humanity, one of the incidents in this transformation; the individual, an incident in this incident. The conception of the soul entirely vanishes; it is nothing but the complex product of an incalculable number of anterior phenomena. Sometimes they appear to admit something beyond this series of transformations. Taine calls it "Law;" Rénan, "The Infinite" or "The Ideal;" but these ideas play so obscure a part in their systems that it is difficult to catch their exact meaning, and we may look upon them rather as concessions to habit than as genuine scientific principles.

Mr. Littré is well known as the chief living representative of the School of Positive Philosophy established by Auguste Comte. Mr. Littré protests against the confounding of the Positive Philosophy with Materialism, and insists that Positivism is disinterested in all speculative schools, in Materialism as much as in Spiritualism. But Professor Janet easily shows that with regard to the fundamental doctrines of the Spiritualistic philosophy, the existence of God and the soul, the Positivists occupy the same ground as the Materialists.

Professor Janet pays a high compliment to the fourth adversary of the Spiritualistic school, whom he reviews and refutes-Vacherot. He calls him the most distinguished and strongest among the independent spirits who during the last ten years have sought their way outside of the beaten track of philosophy. "His style," he says, "is free, pure, noble, and ideal. In reading his remarkable work, we feel that we are in the domain not of imagination but of science. It is not a voluntary, premeditated, insidious aggression, having for its object the establishment of a new power upon the ruins of a former power; it is a pure and sincere research, controlled by conscience and dictated by understanding." Vacherot, our reviewer says, is not an unconditional enemy of Spiritualism. Having for a long time belonged himself to the Spiritualistic school, he has preserved some of its essential principles. With the Spiritualistic philosophers he admits that psychology is the basis of metaphysics. He also admits that the soul is not a result or a

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