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My dear Munro,

You, with the true kindness of your loyal nature, addressed to me your Edition of Lucretius, the greatest in some points, though not the best known, of Roman poets. And, with the same kindness, you have consented to accept from me the dedication of this humble work, a School Edition of Virgil. None can feel more strongly than myself, none can wish to declare more distinctly, that by this exchange I am the gainer. You have given like Glaucus in the Iliad; I, like the Greek Diomed, have received

χρύσεα χαλκείων, ἑκατόμβοι ̓ ἐννεαβοίων.

You know how sincerely I sign myself

Christmas, 1875.

Your affectionate Friend,





I. The Notes in this book were begun in 1856, but, from causes explained in my former Preface, not finished before 1875. The work was undertaken at the request of one who lived to see, but did not long survive, its publication. I mean my accomplished friend, the late Mr. William LONGMAN, whose premature death was a great public as well as private loss.

II. In this second edition three divisions of the former commentary (translation, vocabulary, and notes) are fused in one, and numerical reference made more distinct. This change unavoidably swells the size of the volume, which also contains an enlarged Syntax and Indices, with a verse translation of the Eclogues.

III. Those who study the Virgilian Syntax should compare with it the Second Appendix to the Public School Latin Primer' (1878 and later), which treats concisely, but carefully, of Moods and Compound Construction.

In this place I think it my duty to introduce a critical notice of the manner in which Conington's edition deals with three classes of construction; viz:

(1) Mood subordinate to actual oratio obliqua.
(2) Mood subordinate to virtual oratio obliqua.

(3) Mood of indirect will-speech, called in that edition by no specific name, but only termed oratio obliqua'; in my syntax 'petitio obliqua.'

In my respect for the memory of the late Professor Conington I yield to none. I recall with affectionate admiration his wide culture, his fine genius, his poetic taste, and the amiableness of his character. But it is neither honest nor wise to praise even the dead beyond his true merits, by acknowledging him right where you know him to be wrong. • Amicus ille: sed amicior veritas, amicior doctrinae sanitas.' Besides which, the treatment of these questions is forced upon me by the procedure of others, unless I consent to leave the cause of truth in grammar undefended.

While, then, I give just honour to the many good points in Conington's notes, and to the sound judgment shown in his prefatory dissertations, I must yet say, that on questions of grammar his commentary is generally defective, often wrong.

I proceed to prove this assertion in respect of the three topics named above.

(1) Mood subordinate to actual oratio obliqua.

We cannot suppose that C. had not observed the threefold nature of oratio obliqua (statement, question, and will-speech), as it appears in historical passages like this of Justin, v. 10 :

Thrasybulus, cum exercitus triginta tyrannorum fugeret, magna voce exclamat: cur se victorem fugiant ? civium illam meminerint aciem, non hostium esse : triginta se dominis, non civitati bellum inferre ; where, in subordination to one verb 'exclamat,' appear (a) an oblique question, 'cur fugiant ?'; (B) an oblique willspeech, 'meminerint’; (v) an oblique statement, 'se inferre.'

There seems to be no passage in Virgil, where all three constructions are thus zeugmatically conjoined; but statement and will-speech are found together occasionally, as Aen. iii. 234-5, iv. 288–94, xi. 101-5; and in none of these places is attention drawn by C. to the zeugma, nor in iv. to the subordinate subjunctives' nesciat speret.'

In Ecl. vi. he takes no notice of the long construction by oblique question with uti . . , ut 31 . 40, or of its

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