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"To house a Topgallant Mast.-Proceed in the same manner, except that when the mast is low enough, belay the mast-rope, pass a heel-lashing through the fid-hole, and round the topmast.
"To send down a Topmast.-Hook the top-block, reeve the mast-rope through it and through the sheave-hole in the foot of the mast, and hitch it to the staple at the other side of the cap. Lead the fall through a snatch-block to the capstan. Sling the lower yard, if it is to remain aloft, and unshackle the trusses, if they are of iron. Come up the rigging, stays and backstays, weigh the mast, take out the fid, and lower away. If the rigging is to remain aloft, lash the cross-trees to the lower cap. The rigging should be stowed away snugly in the top, and the backstays be snaked up and down the lower rigging.
"To rig in a Jib-boom.-Reeve the heel-rope (if necessary), come up the stay, martingale stay and guys; unreeve the jib-stay, station hands at each guy, clear away the heel-lashing, haul in upon the guys, and light the boom on board. In most cases the boom will come in without a heelrope. Make fast the eyes of the rigging to the bowsprit cap, and haul all taut."
Finding ourselves utterly incompetent to express an opinion concerning the propriety of these rules and directions, we shall turn to one or two portions of the Treatise which are more intelligible to the general reader. Not, however, with the hope that thereby anything like the same or an equal interest can be created on the part of persons, who are neither led by callings, duty, nor affection to sympathize keenly with sea-faring men, that was excited by the author's former work. Still, there is matter in the neat volume before us that has claims upon popular attention, and that may well set profitable speculation afloat.
The investigating and reflecting mind will find that the mere origin, derivation, or literal meaning of nautical terms are in themselves subjects that present curious points. What technicalities and phrases are common to commercial nations, and what not-what peculiar even to one port of England, and what to another-are things which might occupy an etymologist and a philosopher. Then the maritime international laws, as well as those which are in force for one's own country, constitute a large branch of the science and the practice of jurisprudence; and, whether during war or peace, are indexes of the progress of civilization. But, not to go so deeply into principles and illustrations, and to confine ourselves to particular parts of Mr. Dana's purely practical book, it is interesting to perceive how many nautical usages, which are in no way derived from positive enactments, have acquired all the authority nearly of written laws, and which courts of justice recognize. Maritime life affords a large field for the operation of such usages, and therefore great scope for curious speculation.
This volume, we are told in the Preface, is published at the same
time in England and in America; that in the latter and author's country, it appears, under the title of the "Seaman's Friend," while the "Seaman's Manual" is adopted in the British edition as more significant of the nature of the book; that very few of the terms or the methods of management in the Merchant Service of America differ in any material respect from those which are used in English vessels-probably less in the sea-language common to both than may be detected as peculiar in the different great ports of the mother-country; and that therefore the abstract given in the present little work of the rules established in American ships will be found applicable to the practice in our own, and even when they differ may prove suggestive.
This Treatise contains several illustrative Plates, such as one of the Spars and Rigging of a Ship, with an index of references amounting to 131 names; another of a Ship's Sails; another of the Frame of a Ship; another of the various kinds of craft; and another of Splices, Bends, Hitches, &c. In the volume will also be found a Dictionary of Sea Terms.
The First Part of the Treatise presents a number of short chap. ters on "Practical Seamanship," in which a great multitude of details in the working, &c., of a ship are given. The Second Part is devoted to the "Čustoms and Usages of the Merchant Service;" and the Third to the "Laws relating to the Practical Duties of Master and Mariners." In this last part the laws of the United States relative to shipping, of course are considered in reference to the rights and duties of the officers and crews respectively; but "A gentleman of the legal profession has appended a few notes, with the view of showing points of difference where they exist in the British laws." We now extract several passages from that division of the Manual which treats of the "Customs and Usages of the Merchant Service." With regard to the duties and responsibilities of the Master, we are told that, by the general marine law of all commercial nations, these are great and onerous, although much difference occurs in different ports, as to the part he takes in supplying and manning the vessel. We quote certain specialities and well-conceived suggestions:
"In the manner of shipping the crew, there is as great a difference as in that of providing the stores. Usually, the whole thing is left to shippingmasters, who are paid so much a head for each of the crew, and are responsible for their appearance on board at the time of sailing. When this plan is adopted, neither the master nor owner, except by accident, knows anything of the crew before the vessel goes to sea. The shipping-master opens the articles at his office, procures the men, sees that they sign in due form, pays them their advance, takes care that they, or others in their place, are on board at the time of sailing, and sends in a bill for the whole to the owner. In other cases, the master selects his crew, and occasionally the
owner does it, if he has been at sea himself, and understands seamen ; though a shipping-master is still employed, to see them on board, and for other purposes. In the British service, the practice is for owners of vessels going on voyages round the Cape of Good Hope to employ an agent, generally called a crimp, to engage the greatest part of the crew. If forty or fifty men are wanted, double that number are brought on board, out of which the chief-mate selects a sufficient company; the agent then receives a note for two months' wages, which he has, for the most part, advanced to the seamen, either in cash or slops (clothes,) and also his procuration fee, varying from 5s. to 20s. per man, if he have not engaged to provide the crew for a specified sum. In the ordinary course of short voyages, where crews are shipped frequently, and there is not much motive for making a selection, the procuring a crew may be left entirely to the agency of a faithful shipping-master; but upon long voyages, the comfort and success of which may depend much upon the character of a crew, the master or owner should interest himself to select able-bodied and respectable men, to explain to them the nature and length of the voyage they are going upon, what clothing they will want, and the work that will be required of them, and should see that they have proper and sufficient accommodations and provisions for their comfort. The master or owner should also, though this duty is often neglected, go to the forecastle and see that it is cleaned out, whitewashed, or painted, put in a proper habitable condition, and furnished with every reasonable convenience. It would seem best that the master should have something to do with the selection of the provisions for his men, as he will usually be more interested in securing their goodI will and comfort than the owner would be.
"By the master or owner's thus interesting himself for the crew, a great deal of misunderstanding, complaint, and ill-will may be avoided, and the beginning, at least, of the voyage be made under good auspices."
"The entire control of the navigation and working of the ship lies with the master. He gives the course and general directions to the officer of the watch, who enters upon a slate, at the end of the watch, the course made, and the number of knots, together with any other observations. The officer of the watch is at liberty to trim the yards, to make alterations in the upper sails, to take in and set royals, topgallant sails, &c.; but no important alteration can be made, as, for instance, reefing a topsail, without the special order of the master, who, in such cases, always comes upon deck and takes command in person. When on deck, the weather side of the quarter-deck belongs to him, and as soon as he appears the officer of the watch will always leave it, and go over to leeward, or forward into the waist. If the alteration to be made is slight, the master usually tells the officer to take in or set such a sail, and leaves to him the particular ordering as to the braces, sheets, &c., and the seeing all things put in their place. The principal manoeuvres of the vessel, as tacking, wearing, reefing topsails, getting under way, and coming to anchor, require all hands. In these cases the master takes command, and gives his orders in person, standing upon the quarter-deck. The chief-mate superintends the forward
part of the vessel, under the master, and the second mate assists in the waist. The master never goes aloft, nor does any work with his hands, unless for his own pleasure. If the officer of the watch thinks it necessary to reef the topsails, he calls the master, who upon coming on deck takes command, and, if he thinks proper, orders all hands to be called. The crew, officers, and all, then take their stations, and await the orders of the master, who works the ship in person, giving all the commands, even the most minute, and looks out for trimming the yards and laying the ship for reefing. The chief-mate commands upon the forecastle, under the master, and does not go aloft. The second mate goes aloft with the crew."
The ship-master has the entire control of the discipline of the vessel; nor is it possible with any great exactness to describe the nature of what that discipline ought to be, especially on long voyages. But it is quite evident from what is stated in a variety of passages of the Manual, and was touchingly as well as powerfully illustrated in the "Two Years before the Mast," that if the following suggestions were practically adopted they would furnish an excellent guide in the exercise of almost unlimited as well as undefined authority:
"The master has the entire control of the discipline of the ship, and no subordinate officer has authority to punish a seaman, or to use force, without the master's order, except in cases of necessity not admitting of delay. He has also the complete direction of the internal arrangements and economy of the vessel; and upon his character, and upon the course of conduct he pursues, depend in a great measure the character of the ship and the conduct of both officers and men. He has a power and an influence, both direct and indirect, which may be the means of much good or much evil. If he profane, passionate, tyrannical, indecent, or intemperate, more or less of the same qualities will spread themselves or break out among officers and men, which, perhaps would have been checked, if not in some degree removed, had the head of the ship been a man of high personal character. He may make his ship almost anything he chooses, and may render the lives and duties of his officers and men pleasant and profitable to them, or may introduce disagreements, discontent, tyranny, resistance, and, in fact, make the situation of all on board as uncomfortable as that in which any human beings can well be placed. Every master of a vessel who will lay this to heart, and consider his great responsibility, may not only be a benefactor to the numbers whom the course of many years will bring under his command, but may render a service to the whole class, and do much to raise the character of the calling."
The chief mate is the subject of a number of details and observations. For example,
"While in port, the chief-mate stands no watch at night, but he should always be the first to be called in the morning, and should be up early and order the calling of all hands. In cleaning the ship, as washing down decks, &c., which is done the first thing in the morning, each mate, while
at sea, takes charge of it in his watch, in turn, as one or the other has the morning watch; but in port, the second mate oversees the washing down of the decks, under the chief-mate's general orders.
"While at sea, in tacking, wearing, reefing topsails, &c., and in every kind of 'all hands' work,' when the master is on deck, the chief-mate's place, as I have said, is forward. To give a further notion of the manner of dividing the command, I will describe the evolution of tacking-ship. The master finds that the ship will not lay her course, and tells the chiefmate to see all clear for stays,' or 'ready about.' Upon this, the chiefmate goes forward, sends all hands to their stations, and sees everything clear and ready on the forecastle. The master asks, 'All ready forward?' and being answered, 'Ay, ay, sir!' motions to the man at the helm to put the wheel down, and calls out, 'Helm's a-lee!' The mate answering immediately, 'Helm's a-lee,' to let the master know he is heard and understood, sees that the head sheets are let go. At 'Raise tacks and sheets!' from the master, the mate, and the men with him, let go the fore tack, while he looks after the overhauling of the other tack and sheet. He also sees to letting go the bowlines for Let go and haul,' and to getting down the head sheets when the ship is about, and trims the head yards, calling out to the men at the braces the usual orders' Well the main yard!' Topsail yard, a small pull!' Topgallant yard, well!' &c. The master usually trims the after yards.
"In reefing topsails, the chief-mate should not go aloft, but should keep his place forward, and look out for the men on the yards. I am aware that it has been the custom in some classes of vessels, as, in the New York liners, for the chief-mate to take the weather earing of a course, especially if a topsail or the other course were reefing at the same time; yet this practice has never generally prevailed, and is now going out of date. I think I may say it is the opinion of all, masters, officers, and men, that it is better for the chief-mate to remain on deck. There is always a good deal to be looked after, ropes to be let go or hauled, rigging to be cleared, and the like, beside the importance of having some one to oversee the men on the different yards; which the mate, standing at a little distance, can easily do. He is also the organ of communication between the yards and the deck, and can look after the reefing to more advantage than the master can upon the quarter-deck, where he must stay to watch the helm and sails.
"The chief-mate is not required to work with his hands, like the second mate and the seamen. He will, of course, let go and belay ropes, and occasionally pull and haul with the men when working ship; but if there is much work to be done, his time and attention are sufficiently taken up with superintending and giving orders."
Then as to seamen,
Seafaring persons before the mast are divided into three classes,―able seamen, ordinary seamen, and boys or green hands. And it may be remarked here that all green hands in the merchant service are termed boys, and rated as such, whatever may be their age or size. In the United States navy, an able seaman receives twelve dollars per month, an ordinary VOL. IV. (1841.) NO. IV. 2 Q