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“ They lead the bulls before them all covered o'er with trappings ;
The little boys pursue them with hootings and with clappings;
Amidst troops of captive maidens with bells and cymbals dancing. “ With antics and with fooleries, with shouting and with laughter,
They fill the streets of Burgos—and The Devil he comes after;
And there he goes, with hoofs for toes, to terrify the ladies.
And the Queen ; and, all in fur and pall, the nobles of the land.
But the King lifts off her bosom sweet whatever there is lying. “ Quoth Suero, when he saw it (his thought you understand),
• 'Tis a fine thing to be a King, --but Heaven make me a Hand !' The King was very merry, when he was told of this,
And swore the bride, ere eventide, must give the boy a kiss. “ The King went always talking, but she held down her head,
And seldom gave an answer to anything he said ;
Than utter words so meaningless as she did when she spoke." This ballad, Mr. Lockhart observes in the prefixed note, contains some curious traits of rough and antique manners.' There is a jollity in it that is genial and highly amusing.
But what is to be said of the grand features of this edition of the Ballads? We confess that the longer and oftener we have gazed upon the Illustrations, the unique fashion of the volume, even the outside of it merely, we have felt the more at a loss to give a brief and intelligible description of its peculiarities. However, we must try our hand, although our observations may have no claim to the definite criticism which the art expended upon the book challenges. The variety of talent which has been lavished on it—the combination of what is gorgeous with what is exquisitely chaste-of the ancient with the modern--of Moorish luxuriant fancy with classical gracein short, of what the poetic imagination can produce with the pencil, and mechanical invention with the hand, which has been maintained with firmness throughout its pages-requires a deeper acquaintance with the several and diversified
spheres and characteristics than we pretend to. There is not a page which does not display rich or tasteful adornment. Not only do fine engravings from masterly designs illustrate the ballads, sometimes as head and sometimes as tail pieces, but the glories of illuminated missals appear to have been stolen, and all that is curious and elaborate in arabesque work. The colours of the rainbow, the blazing beauties of precious stones and metals, have been squandered upon borders and margins with a fantastic and captivating power; the devices being
as various as are the stories, the occasions, the actors of the verse. Even the initial letters are superb as well as descriptive. Green and yellow of deepest or most delicate tint, massive scarlet and gleaming gold, are in great but skilful profusion ; they commingle, they vie with one another.
We have by no means exhausted the description which might be given of the designs and the execution of the ornaments that enrich this volume. Nor would anything but an examination of them in detail, as well as in their combined state, convey an accurate idea of the whole. It must be added, however, in our general and vague notice, that not only do the marginal scrolls frequently consist of fantastic embellishments, but illustrative pictorial designs sometimes perform an equivalent duty; while there are instances of graphic processions which traverse the page, interlacing and encircling the stanzas,-an adornment and a comment. A comment ? Indeed, such is the character of the devices throughout; rendering more lively or deepening the impression intended by each ballad by their appropriateness.
The artists who have furnished the illustrations are William Allan, R. A., David Roberts, R. A., William Simson, Henry Warren, C. E. Aubrey, and William Harvey. The coloured titles, borders, and ornamental letters and vignettes, by Owen Jones, architect; names which are sufficient, without further information, to set expectation on tiptoe. No doubt there is some inequality, as well as diversity, in their productions. It may not be difficult to point out superior freedom in one design, boldness in another, propriety in a third. Distinctions, too, by a close and nice examination may sometimes be drawn between the skilfulness of the execution, and the happiness of the design. But we must not trust ourselves so far as to offer positive opinions on matters which require matured connoisseurship; nor can any fastidiousness of taste affect the general and imposing character of the superb work, which may in a word be characterized as something that might have been plundered from a cherished chamber of the Alhambra.
One observation more. The illustrations of our Annuals have all along been rather of a sickly order, and their sameness has grown tiresome. Mr. Murray has not only outdone them all, but he is the leader in a new path; and we suspect he will not have many worthy followers.
Art. XV.-The English Hexapla. Bagster.
This work consists of the Greek text of the New Testament, with the six_important English Versions, known as Wicliff's, A. D. 1380; Tyndale's, 1534; Cranmer's, 1539; the Geneva, 1557; the Rhemish, 1582; and the Authorised Version, 1611. The various versions are printed in the orthography of their respective periods.
The great prototype of this work, not only in regard to title, but to plan, is the Hexapla of Origen, which appeared about A. D. 285. That ancient Polyglott, of which only a few fragments remain, embraced the Hebrew text of the Old Testament, with that text rendered into Greek characters, and four different Greek translations of it, arranged at a view in parallel columns: a truly wonderful idea and achievement, when every copy must have been the production
of the pen.
The mode of arrangement in the English Hexapla is, placing the Greek text at the top of each page, the six translations taking position below, in the parallel columns, according to chronological order. It must be obvious that this is not only a very great undertaking, but one which ought to command the gratitude of every lover of divine truth. The Messrs. Bagster have well said in their address to the public, that "readers in general of the word of God are little aware of the treasures of illustration which are unfolded by the varied expression of the same truth by the different translators; and in addition to the mutual illustration afforded by parallel versions in the same language, their substantial accordance in sense, while varying in phraseology, tends to strengthen the confidence of the English reader in the competency and fidelity of these concurrent witnesses to the true import of the inspired originals. A work such as the present must prove of the highest possible value, because while its rich materials will assist and delight the scholar, its stores being in the English language, will ever be in the reach of every one; and it will serve to throw scarcely less light upon the original text by the varied renderings, than a comparative view of versions in different languages. Such a work is likewise of great value to any who wish to trace the progress of our language; presenting, as it does, the modifications and changes of a period of about four hundred and sixty years.” To this we may append, that the English Hexapla might be studied advantageously by the student of the Greek tongue.
The present great work is well calculated to afford the blessings and benefits just now mentioned; and, not to pass unnoticed other features which a reviewer must speak of, the book is got up in a noble style, forming one of the most handsome and desirable quartos, at a very low price, that we have seen. The typography of the Greek perhaps has never been equalled; it is bold and beautiful, and harmonises admirably with the entire arrangement and dimensions of the pages. The English, in respect of mechanical superiority, is also remarkable.
There is, to return to matters of literary and biblical importance, an “ Historical Account of the English Versions" prefixed, which sheds very considerable light over the subject, and which the general reader will peruse with deep interest. A critical mind, however, may not be quite so well satisfied; for, without wishing to touch upon purely theological opinions, or even to dip into questions that concern ecclesiastical history as well as that of the sacred records, we must say, that the style of the Account is often incorrect as well as level and verbose ; while the facts have not apparently been elaborately collected, and the sentiments want that choiceness and force which should have been elicited when “ The English Hexapla” was to be heralded.
With much pleasure we now direct our attention for a few moments to the six versions, the character and history of which are briefly described by the publishers in terms that may here be introduced :
“I. The earliest of the English Versions, that of Wiclif, which was made about the year 1378, or 1380, long prior to the invention of printing; transcripts of which were so costly, that portions only of the Scriptures could be multiplied. The value of one of Wiclif's New Testaments, in his own time, was about £40 of the money of the present day. His Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex has graciously permitted the use of a very valuable MS. copy in his possession, which will be most carefully followed.
-“II. The faithful and excellent Version by William Tyndale (his own revised edition, 1534), which the illustrious martyr finished in November of that year, at Antwerp. In this edition, Tyndale took advantage of friendly and hostile criticisms, and with great care endeavoured to make his version a still more faithful transcript of the original. He says, in the commencement of his prologue, 'Here thou hast (moost deare reader) the new Testament or covenaunt made wyth vs of God in Christes bloude. Which I have looked over agayne (now at the last) with all dylygence, and compared it vnto the Greke,' &c.
“ Almost the whole of the first edition of Tyndale's New Testament was bought up on its appearance in England, and committed to the flames at St. Paul's Cross, by Bishop Tonstal. Two copies only have been preserved. One of these, which is imperfect, is in the Library of St. Paul's Cathedral ; and the other, the only perfect copy, is in the Library of the Baptist College at Bristol; and from this the before-mentioned reprint of the edition of 1526 was executed.
“III. That of Cranmer's Great Bible,’ long time by authority chained in our churches. The edition of 1539.
“ To obtain the many advantages of superior workmanship and better materials, the printing of this edition was carried on at Paris, by the per
mission of Francis I. ; but notwithstanding this patronage, the Inquisition interfered to prevent such a 'catastrophe' as the spread of the truth, and summoning the French printers and their employers, prohibited further progress, and the whole impression was seized, confiscated, and condemned to the flames. However, through the cupidity of the person who was intrusted to destroy them, some copies of the Bible, and much of the printing apparatus, were preserved and were sent to England, where the saved copies were distributed, and the presses and types were used to produce another edition. But few of these copies have been preserved to this day, and those few are consequently extremely rare and very valuable.
“ IV. The Translation so highly esteemed, called the Geneva version, 1557. The Geneva edition of the New Testament, originally published by Conrad Badius, is a pocket volume. The anonymous editor (supposed to be one of the English reformers, who had been driven to Geneva during the persecution under Queen Mary) states that he has diligently revised the text ' by the moste approued Greke examples (copies), and conference of translations in other tonges as the learned may easely iudge, both by the faithful rendering of the sentence, and also by the proprietie of the wordes, and perspicuitie of the phrase. ....... And because the Hebrewe and Greke phrases, which are strange to rendre in other tonges, and also short, shulde not be to harde, 1 haue,' he adds, sometyme interpreted them without any whit diminishing the grace of the sense, as our langage doth vse them, and sometyme haue put to that worde, which lacking made the sentence obscure, but haue set it in such letters as may easely be discerned from the commun text.' This version is much more literal than the preceding translations, and at the same time a very free use is made of italic supplements. It forms an important part of the apparatus for collation.
“V. The Rhemish New Testament. The first edition of the AngloRomish New Testament, undertaken by the English College at Rhemes, was there printed in 1582, and is hence called the Rhemish Testament. It is, to quote the words of its title, 'translated faithfully into English out of the authentical Latin, according to the best corrected copies of the same diligently conferred vvith the Greeke and other editions in diuers languages:' And it is added, 'We presume not in hard places to mollifie the speaches or phrases, but religiously keepe, them vvord for vvord, and point for point, for feare of missing, or restraining the sense of the holy Ghost to our phantasie.'
“ VI. The Authorized Version, which has now for two centuries maintained its high ground as the received English Translation. This Version was undertaken by command of King James I. in compliance with the suggestion of the puritan divines, in the Hampton Court Conference, held in 1603. The work was commenced in 1607, and was finished in three years; and the first edition was published in 1611, which, differing as it does slightly from the copies now in general use, has been chosen for the present work, and will be exactly followed."
It is, we believe, universally admitted that Wiclif may as justly be regarded to be the father of English Biblical Translation, as Chaucer is of English poetry. No doubt the Scriptures, as well