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striving to keep the image of death from the contemplation of the dying. In the course of the disease under consideration the kindest thing generally that can be thought of is to begin with explicitness, and proceed with candour; and if this is done with tenderness, and with as little of gloom as possible, a fine species of sentiment is generated, -a sort of poetic religion, which is absolutely lovely and engaging. But it may seem, if we continue thus to speak, that we are stepping beyond our depth, and usurping the priesthood's office; and therefore we shall conclude the homily by stating that it was rather with a view to mark the philosophy in a moral sense of one of the most frequent fatal maladies to which the inhabitants of our clime are subject, than to become the ghostly lecturer, that we uttered these sentences.
The Third Part of Dr. Catherwood's treatise is devoted to a consideration of the diseases of the Pleura ; acute pleurisy being the subject of the first chapter.
first chapter. The points more particularly noticed are the Anatomical Characters, False Membranes, Membranous Bands, Fibro-Cartilage, Gangrene of the Pleura-General, Functional, and Local Signs, &c. We extract what he delivers on some of these topics, and with this conclude:
“ Anatomical Characters. The inflamed serous membrane is either studded by a great number of red points, which occupy its entire thickness, or appear seated immediately under it, the intervening spaces retaining their - normal hue, or it is of a diffused red colour. The maculated appearance is the result of a transudation of blood after death; for when an inflammation of a serous membrane has been produced artificially, the redness has been invariably uniform. Sometimes, though rarely, the inflamed membrane is slightly thickened.
“Inflammation of the pleura is always followed by an effusion of a transparent fluid, generally of a slightly yellow tinge, but occasionally of a reddish hue; this arises from an admixture of blood. The quantity of fluid secreted depends on the severity of the attack : in mild cases, the amount of fluid is trivial; in cases of the opposite description, it is frequently sufficiently great to alter the form of the chest on the affected side.
The lung is then compressed and flattened, almost completely destitute of air, and of course unable to perform its functions. The heart, if the effusion be on the left side, may be forced towards the right; if however, the effusion have occurred on the right side, it may be forced still further to the left. The diaphragm has often been impeded in its action by the abundance of the effused fluid, and the stomach and liver have occasionally been forced downwards.
“ The yellowish coloured transparent fluid described above, after a little time becomes turbid, and minute albuminous filaments make their appearance: these gradually coalesce, and are at last precipitated on the surface of the pleura ; a false membrane, as it is termed, is thus formed, its extent always bearing a proportion to the intensity of the inflammation. While
these precipitations are going on, the effusion frequently becomes perfectly opaque, and assumes a puriform character.
“ False Membranes.-False membranes are usually of a yellowish-white colour, soft, and vary in thickness from half a line to two lines. When first deposited, their thickness is always inconsiderable; but they gradually become thicker by subsequent precipitations. Their surface is by no means smooth and uniform; this arises from an unequal deposition of albuminous filaments in different places; sometimes it has an irregular reticulated appearance, and occasionally it seems studded by large granulations.
“ Membranous Bands.- Membranous bands frequently unite the false membrane covering the pulmonary pleura to the false membrane investing the costal pleura. These bands are perfectly similar in appearance and properties to the false membranes themselves, and like them, after a time, usually become organised, and are finally converted into a substance identical with cellular tissue.
“ Fibro-Carlilage.—When the false membranes and bands do not pass into the cellular or serous tissue just described, they are for the most part converted into a substance denominated fibro-cartilage, and it is during this transition that the ribs approach each other, and the chest becomes narrowed.
“ Gangrene of the Pleura.—Inflammation of the pleura sometimes, but very rarely, terminates in gangrene. For the most part, this disease arises from the bursting of a gangrenous abscess of the lung into the pleura ; occasionally, it has supervened to a chronic pleurisy.
“ Gangrene of the pleura is generally of small extent, but cases are sometimes met with, showing the disease to have been very diffuse. It usually presents itself under the form of circumscribed spots or stains of a dirty brown or green colour, emitting an intolerably fetid odour, closely resembling that of brain in a state of decomposition. The parts involved in the gangrene are soft and pliable, and easily break down under the fingers when handled.
“ The gangrene is not confined to the pleura, but attacks the false membranes and bands. Sometimes, on the separation of a gangrenous eschar from the pulmonary pleura, a communication is formed between the cavity of the pleura and one or more bronchial tubes; and occasionally, when the costal pleura has been the seat of the disease, the entire parieties of the chest have been perforated.
" General, Functional, and Local Signs.- Acute pleurisy is ushered in by febrile symptoms of greater or less intensity, in proportion to the severity of the attack. The shivering at the onset of the disease is usually well marked ; this is followed by a severe inflammatory fever.
" Pain.-Elapsis pauculis horis (to use the words of the immortal Sydenham) licet aliquando multo serius ingruat symptoma hoc, æger vehementi dolore, eoque punctorio, in laterum alterutro circa costas corripitur, qui nunc versus omoplatas, nunc spinam, nunc ex adverso versus anteriora pectoris se propagat.' There is no doubt that the description just quoted is extremely accurate, but it must not be supposed that pain is a constant symptom in pleurisy. Läennec met even with acute cases where it was wanting, and I have repeatedly seen the effects of intense
pleurisy in my post-mortem examination of persons who during life had never complained of any acute pain in the chest.
“Whenever pain is present in pleurisy, it is invariably augmented by inspiration, notwithstanding, as Dr. Berends has correctly observed, it is principally performed by the diaphragm. The pain is also aggravated by coughing ; so much so, indeed, that the patient always represses his cough as much as possible ; and when he can no longer avoid coughing, he places his hands instinctively on his chest, to render it as immovable as possible ; his sufferings are thereby much mitigated.
“ The pain in pleurisy is generally confined to the seat of the inflammation ; it sometimes, however, migrates, and occasionally is met with on the side opposite to that involved in the disease. Cases of the latter description are extremely rare, and can only be accounted for by reference to the sympathy which exists between tissues similarly organized.
“ “ Pain is sometimes caused by pressure in the intercostal spaces ; this, according to Läennec, arises from a rheumatic complication.
The learned Forbes differs from Läennec, and informs us that his experience leads him to consider a tenderness of the intercostal spaces on pressure as far from unusual in acute pleurisy.
“ It is generally easy to distinguish pleuritic pain from either rheumatic or nervous pain. Rheumatic pain seldom attacks the chest without attacking other parts at the same time; it is also very much increased by calling into action the muscles of the part affected ; moreover, it is superficial. Nervous pain is of a darting kind, occurs in paroxysms of very variable duration, and is unaccompanied by fever."
Art. X.– The Pictorial Ilistory of England during the Reign of George
the Third. By George L. Craik and Ch. MACFARLANE. Knight
and Co. The present is the first volume of the supplementary section of this excellent and beautiful history. It brings the narrative down to 1785. The six preceding volumes commenced with the earliest times of which any historical records exist, closing with the death of the Second George; a good and well-defined resting-place, and leaving off at the opening of a remarkable era in our annals, and in the history of the world.
The plan of the work, in so far as the letter-press is concerned, is to divide the history into books, and each of these, again, into seven chapters,--the first being a narrative of civil and military events--the second, a disquisition on religion-the third, a review of the laws and constitution of each period--the fourth treats of the state and progress of industry-the fifth takes up literature and the fine arts--the sixth gives the manners of the people—and the seventh the condition of society.
Each one of these chapters is cxecuted with ability ; exhibiting
much care, and, when necessary, the results of patient research. In some of them very eminent talent appears. For example, the strictly historical narrative of affairs in the former volumes, as well as in the present supplementary portion, is not only an original piece of writing, but of a sterling quality, -full, liberal, and candid. We should say that in several respects this is the best narrative of the events which exists in our language. The chapter on literature will strike any competent judge as being of first-rate value; certain branches appearing to be peculiarly suited to the habits and studies of one or other of the authors. In the course of the work the aid of several gentlemen has been called in. Thus architecture, music, manners, and costume have each found a writer who is particularly familiar with the branch allotted to him.
But the great feature of this history is its pictorial illustrations, which are multitudinous and excellent as specimens of art; in short, in the style of the best and most celebrated of Mr. Knight's num rous illustrated works. And a slight consideration will lead any person to the conviction that pictorial art can hardly be more fitly applied than towards the illustration of history. Let it not be thought that these means are beneath the dignity of history, or that the philosophy of this exalted branch of literature has no need of such helps. Without such aids many things cannot be described so as to convey a lively and true impression to the mind; and what sort of dignity and philosophy is it that would refuse instruction and information ? Nay, the pictorial representation of something that was of quite an ordinary and not very important character in its day, and which has gone quite out of fashion, may enable a person not merely to form a perfectly correct notion of its nature, but other weighty and concomitant objects or facts may derive valuable light by such means. The writing and the engraving reciprocate this light. How, for instance, can an accurate popular idea be formed of the architecture and the furniture of past periods by merely reading a technical description of such things? The same question applies to machinery, to dress, to amusements, to implements of war, and so forth. Every one is not an antiquarian; all have not access to museums and expensive collections. And does not the eye reap satisfaction when it scans the likeness of historical characters, and also acquire through such means more distinct notions than any description can yield. The pencil not only individualizes, but in a moment reveals what the pen can never su clearly convey. The very fac-similes of the writings of distinguished persons gratify the mind; even a signature accomplishes this. When, then, we state that besides a vast number and variety of these illustrations, constituting a fine and intelligible commentary upon much that would be otherwise obscure, we have, in the present publication, also a written history, in which the authors have
anxiously availed themselves of the mass of memoirs, letters, and other materials that have in recent years accumulated amazingly, and that they have also with remarkable diligence and candour sisted and weighed the narratives of former historians, our readers may perceive that the Pictorial History of England is both excellent and beautiful; while to the general reader it supplies instruction and entertainment which are accessible to a comparative few only.
There is no period in our annals which demands more urgently a good history than the reign of George the Third. That reign was so protracted, the events which marked it were so mighty, and so many great men arose during its vicissitudes, not to speak of the deep questions of policy which were agitated, and the new doctrines entertained, that a sterling and temperate work, embracing the entire field, was as much to be desired as it was difficult to do it justice. Such a work, we are satisfied, is now in the course of completion; the writers of it approaching the task with the advantages which the preceding elaborate volumes necessarily furnished.
A work of the present description does not admit of an account or an analysis much more particular than what we have already given. Neither need we draw upon it at any considerable length for extracts. We shall merely in an anecdote or two, containing at the same time some notices which indicate the habits of society at particular times, fill up a page or so.
The first concerns Sir Joshua Reynolds :
“ He returned to England in 1752, and the first reception of his works speaks volumes on the perversion of taste with which he had to combat, and which he had the glory of combating so successfully. The artists were of course the foremost to denounce the heresy against the established and orthodox mode of portrait-painting which was implied in the boldness and freedom of his conceptions and the brilliancy of his colouring. His old master, Hudson, was the first to exclaim. Having looked for some time at a portrait which Reynolds had painted, and seeing probably nothing of his own manner left, he cried out, “ By GM, Reynolds, you don't paint so well as you did ! Ellis, a face-maker who had studied under Kneller, remonstrated on his imprudence : 'Ah! Reynolds, this will never do : why, you don't paint the least like Sir Godfrey !' The painter argued the point with his senior, who at length walked out of the room in astonishment, exclaiming, 'Shakspeare in poetry, and Kneller in painting,-damme !'”
The two passages which we now copy out have Dr. Johnson for their hero:
“A list of the friends and familiar associates of Dr. Johnson furnishes a lively idea of the variety of characters who might have been mixed together at this time in the ordinary intercourse of middle-class society ; some of them properly belong to the upper classes, yet, as they mingled with