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is not more charitable than was the burthen of the woman's
question. There have been many praying soldiers.
Large places of worship,-Tabernacles,—were erected in the principal cities of Scotland, and at the expense of Mr. Robert Haldane. The ministers who officiated at first in these houses were Independents from the south side of the Tweed. Mr. Campbell, too, although an ironmonger at the time, as well as Mr. Haldane and others, began to preach, or to exhort, as they termed it, in an itinerant way; for they at first trembled at the idea of taking upon themselves the character of ministers; although it ought to have been quite clear to them, as it was to many others, that their proceedings not only involved dissent from the Establishment, but were the same nearly as assuming the ministry. Accordingly, great offence was given to many of the members of the Kirk, lay as well as clerical; and immoderate anger and dislike were engendered. One person is said to have prayed every sabbath morning that a “ red-hot poker might be stuck into Johnnie Campbell's throat that day, if he presumed to minister in word or doctrine." other hand, the new Scottish sect took credit to themselves for effecting a far greater amount of good than numbers of considerate and pious people, who had not seen fit to become regular attendants at the Tabernacles, were ready to acknowledge or able to perceive. But to proceed.
It is manifest from the accounts before us that Mr. Campbell was on the straight line to the independent ministry; and, having been in correspondence with Mr. Newton, he consulted that pious and zealous Englishman relative to such a step and result in his progress. The answer is worth quoting:
“I know not,” says Newton," how you draw the line in your country between preaching and exhorting. If I speak when the door is open to all comers, I call it preaching; for to preach is to speak publicly. Speaking upon a text, or without one, makes no difference ; at least, I think not.
“I am no advocate for self-sent preachers at large ; but when men whose character and abilities are approved by competent judges, whose motives are known to be pure, and whose labours are excited by the exigency of the occasion, lay themselves out to instruct the ignorant and rouse the careless, I think they deserve thanks and encouragement, instead of reprehension, if they step a little over the bounds of church order. If I had lived in Scotland, my ministry, I suppose, would have been in the Kirk, or the Relief, or the Secession; and if Dr. Erskine had been born among us, and regarded according to his merit, he might perhaps have been the archbishop of Canterbury long ago. Much of our differences of opinion on this head may, perhaps, be ascribed to the air we breathed and the milk we drank in infancy. Thus I have given you my free opinion upon your knotty point. I leave others to judge whether the husk or the shell of the nut be the better of the two.
“But while you have a secular calling, it is your duty to be active and accurate in it. Self likes to be employed in great matters—grace teaches us to do small and common things in a great spirit. When you are engaged in business, in a right frame of mind, you are no less serving the Lord than when you are praying, exhorting, or hearing."
It is probable, before Mr. Campbell withdrew himself from business, in order to receive instructions and education preparatory to the ministry, that he was an effective exhorter as well as sabbathschool teacher. One thing is certain, that he had been wonderfully successful as a writer for the young; and as his commencement and progress in this way were not only extraordinary, but on account of his being the originator, as it may be asserted, of a species of publications now numberless, we shall quote his own modest and graphic detail of the circumstances.
Mary Campbell, a young girl and a relative, had been entrusted to his care ; and one day, after dinner,
“I laid down my desk upon the table to write a letter, and desired her to sit forward to the table, and I should give her a nice book, published entirely for the sake of young people like herself. She took it into her hand with great pleasure, and began to read it with avidity. When she had turned over the second leaf, I saw she was surprised that there was not the end of a chapter in sight. She then turned the third leaf, evidently to see if there was an end there. On observing this, I said, 'Go on, Mary, it's very good.' After a little I saw her slily turn over the fourth leaf, and seeing no end of the chapter, she raised up her arms above her bead, saying, ' Am I obliged to read all this at one sitting ?' I said,
No, Mary, you may go to play.' She ran like a prisoner set free from bondage. I was satisfied that long addresses would be of no use to children, for God has evidently studied the taste of his creatures in the Revelation he has given to them ; for almost the whole of it is given in the form of narrative, here a little instruction of one kind, and there a little of another, mixed up with the narrative."
Mr. Campbell resolved on trying whether he could blend gospel truths with short narratives, so as to chain the attention of young people :
“On Mary going out to play, I commenced writing the first life in Worlds Displayed,' without the most distant idea of its ever appearing in print, and finished it that evening. Next day, after dinner, I desired Mary to stop, for I had something for her to read; on which I put this life into her hand, and commenced writing at my desk; but, unknown to her, watching her conduct. She read to the end without once looking off the paper, and when done asked me if I had any more? “No,' said I, that is enongh for one reading; but if you behave well you shall have such another to-morrow, after dinner.' She asked for it the next day, when I had the second life ready. We went on this way for some time,
till at length I felt like a cask that once had been full, but now emptied of all its contents; when I told her she must begin now and read them all over again. What gave rise to the publishing them I cannot now recollect; perhaps it was her showing them to some of her acquaintance. However that was, an edition of 1500 was printed as a little volume, which, in boards, was sold at eightpence; and so hungry were parents and others for something of a religious cast to present to their children, that the whole edition went off in a very short time. I suppose such publications were equally scarce in America ; for in about a year after Worlds Displayed' was published in Edinburgh, the venerable Dr. John Erskine, minister of Old Greyfriars parish, called and read me a letter that he had received from an old minister in Massachusetts, stating that my • Worlds Displayed' had come out there, and a large edition has been published, and requesting Dr. Erskine to inform the author for his encouragement. Also a very short time after its publication in Edinburgh, I received a letter from a bookseller in London wishing permission to print an edition of it there. I did not know till about ten years after how it was so early noticed there ; when I was invited to dine with Dr. Adam Clarke, in a friend's house in London, who told me that he was the first introducer of the Worlds Displayed' to London. Though I have published many volumes since that time, I have heard more beneficial effects produced by that little Tom Thumb volume than all the others put together."
We have already mentioned that we will not go into Mr. Campbell's missionary labours. Neither do we trace his history and his works after his settlement at Kingsland, which took place in 1803. We must, however, let him be seen in the last scene of all, his death having occurred in April, 1840. The account is given by his colleague and successor :
“On Thursday, March 12th, he felt very ill, and wrote for advice to his medical friend, Dr. Conquest, who kindly and promptly attended to his request. He rallied a little before Sunday, and although much pressed to remain at home, he attended public worship in the morning, fearing, he said, “lest his flock should be alarmed about him.' That service was the last at which he was present.
“ The following week his debility again returned, and gradually increased ; and I believe he had then a kind of presentiment that he would not recover. I enjoyed many conversations with him during his illness, and noted down some of his expressions as he gave them utterance. They were indicative of extreme self-abasement and humble reliance on the Saviour of sinners.
“I told him his people prayed very earnestly and affectionately for him. The tears came into his eyes, and he said, “Oh, Sir, I need it! I'm a poor creature,' He said his mind was much harassed by Satan, who told him he had not done half what he ought for his Master; and when I said, * Depend upon it, Sir, he would have been very glad if you had not done half what you have,' he replied, • Ah! but I have not done what I could.' Such were the low views he entertained of his labours in the service of
Christ. This harassment, however, which in a great measure was attributable to his infirm state of body, speedily ceased.
“On one occasion, speaking of the preciousness of the Saviour, he said, Oh! I love to be near the blood of sprinkling;' and talked in an animated manner of the happiness drawn from the consideration of the unchangeableness of Christ. 'All I want,' said he, after we had been speaking of the Saviour's atonement, 'is to feel my arm round the cross.' I told him I doubted not it was, and asked him if his heart was not there. He smiled and said, 'Yes.' I told him then, that I believed his arm was too, although a little benumbed with grasping hard. He smiled again, and then spoke of the wonderful love of God in saving sinners by such a sacrifice as that of his Son.
“On Wednesday, April 1st, he took to his bed; and on my saying to him, when I visited him, that I hoped he was happy, he turned to me and said, ' The debt is all paid ; the sufferings of Christ have discharged it, and therefore I am free, and have peace with God.' From this time not a cloud obscured his mind. He steadily declined towards the grave, but nothing hung around his setting sun, or cast a shodow upon his hopes for the future."
It will be seen that this statement is in perfect harmony with the convictions and the belief described in our first extract by Mr. Campbell himself. If some may treat such language and opinions as merely sectarian cant or gross delusion, not a few, we believe, of the readers of the Monthly Review will hesitate to disparage the faith of the subject of the present volume, or to doubt his words uttered at the most solemn hour of human existence. rate we consider it to be our duty to quote them fairly, and without any diminishing or refining purpose, in order to accommodate either sickly or sceptical sentimentalists. We conclude with an anecdote that has a literary value as well as an interest that belongs to Biblical studies. It concerns the perfection of the New Testament:
“I remember distinctly," says Mr. Campbell," an interesting anecdote referring to the late Sir David Dalrymple (better known to literary men abroad by his title of Lord Hailes), a Scotch judge. I had it from the late Rev. Walter Buchanan, one of the ministers of Edinburgh. I took such interest in it, that, though it must be fifty years ago since he told it, I think I can almost relate it in Mr. Buchanan's words."
Mr. B. said that, having been shortly before dining with a literary party at old Mr. Abercrombie's, the father of General Abercrombie, a question was put which puzzled the whole company, It was this,—“ Supposing all the New Testaments in the world had been destroyed at the end of the third century, could their contents have been recovered from the writings of these first centuries?” It
appears that no one at the time was prepared even to hazard a guess; but Lord Hailes snatched at the idea, and about two months
afterwards, having invited Mr. B. to breakfast, inquired if he recollected the question. The answer was in the affirmative, when the celebrated antiquary thus proceeded :
“Well," said he, " that question quite accorded with the turn or taste of my antiquarian mind. On returning home, as I knew that I had all the writings of those centuries, I began immediately to collect them, that I might set to work on the arduous task as soon as possible.' Pointing to a table covered with papers, he said, “There have I been busy for these two months, searching for chapters, half-chapters, and sentences of the New Testament, and have marked down what I have found, and where I have found it ; so that any person may examine and see for themselves. I have actually discovered the whole New Testament from those writings, except seven or eleven verses (I forget which), which satisfies me that I could discover them also. Now,' said he, here was a way in which God concealed or hid the treasure of his word, that Julian, the apostate emperor and other enemies of Christ, who wished to extirpate the Gospel from the world, never would have thought of; and though they had, they never could have effected their destruction.?"
It is then remarked that the labour of such a feat must have been immense ; for the gospels and epistles were not, in the early centuries of our era, divided into chapters and verses as they are now; although much must have been effected by the help of a concordance. The antiquarian habits of Lord Hailes, as well as those of diligent and minute investigation as a lawyer and a judge, must also in part account for the extraordinary achievement.
ART. IX.-1. The History of British India. By James Mill, Esq. 4th
Edition, with Notes and Continuation, by H. H. Wilson, M. A., &c.
London: Madden and Co. 2, The History of the British Empire in India. By EDWARD THORNTON,
Esq. London : Allen and Co. Mill's History of British India has been held, from its first appearance, to be a standard work on a great and complicated subject. It ranks next to the most celebrated productions of Gibbon, Hume, and Robertson; yet differs very considerably from each of these, both as to style and philosophy. He is logical, close, and vigorous in respect of thought; lucid and cogent in respect of manner. He is also distinguished on account of his comprehensiveness and able arrangement, at the same time that he brings out the essential features of a character, a scene, or an event with ease and rapidity. He always writes with strong earnestness and as one whose mind was perfectly independent, so as to impress the reader with the idea that he is an original thinker, and altogether guiltless of imitation.