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detail through many books of the Odyssey. Gathering these descriptions together and keeping before us the accounts already given of

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PLAN OF TEMPLE-PALACE AT KALAPSCHE—THE ANCIENT TALMIS.

(From J. B. Lesueur's Ilistoire et Théorie d'Architecture.)

other Homeric houses, we shall arrive, I trust, at a ground plan and view that will bear at least the stamp of likelihood. First, then at the ball feasted-accepting the poet literally-109 princely wooers besides strangers ; the household included fifty maids, twelve mill women, and ten serving men, to say nothing of the many other attendants necessary, and the host of unnecessary hangers-on'; when besides all this we have to make room for an enormous live stock of poultry, mules, goats, and kine—although I do not know Ithaca nor whether any foundations remain of this famed palaceI think that we should not be doing justice to its dimensions if we put down the enclosure at anything much less than 200 by 400 feet. This enclosure was fenced by a lofty, well-built'stone wall surmounted by a battlement (xvii.) The great courtyard probably occupied about one-half the site; the entrance to this was by folding doors in the centre of the end wall, and the three sides of the court formed by the outer walls—perhaps also the side against the housewere occupied by a corridor covered possibly by a flat roof, serving on three sides as a walk behind the battlements and reached by a postern gate from the hall. This corridor would towards the court present the appearance of a series of pillars and lintels enclosed by skins or thick curtains when the beds were set up. Fenced in by hurdles or whitethorn, the live stock would be tethered in those portions of the corridor nearest the gateway. Here too, taking up their lodging with the beasts, would be found the herdsmen, the labourer and the old Greek equivaleut to the modern frequenter of the tap room and stable. Such a corridor would possibly be from ten to twelve feet wide, and from eight to twelve feet high.

The great gateway does not appear to have been large enough to drive a chariot through, for we have seen that even in the luxurious palace of Menelaus the chariot was tilted like an Irish car against the piers of the gateway.

The doors, we are told, were folding or double, and for the general form of the outer entrance we may well accept the gate of the lions at Mycena. Outside this gate, piled against the walls, were heaps of manure and house refuse, and on one side or in front of the gate on the other side of the road so to speak—was an open green sward where the wooers took their pleasure in outdoor games, and when wearied retired to the cool shelter of corridor or awning, where they played at draughts, sitting on hides of oxen spread on the great threshold. This threshold of the ball or inner entrance was no doubt large and well paved, and the gates turned on pivois, but the rest of the foor of the court and corridors, except under the altar, was only of earth.

• The usual threshold of an Irish cabin is an enormous slab of stone with a good fall outwards. The Greek word oùdós in Homer means something more than a mere door-cill, as the word threshold in its modern usage implies. I take it to mean the whole of the floor or paved space in the doorway or passage whereon the door is set. Thus the oùdós of the gate of the lions at Mycenæ is about 10 feet by 8.

In the centre of the quadrangle stood a well-wrought altar dedicated to Zeus. This, I conclude, was fenced in, for we read that boars freely roamed the courtyard, feeding on what scraps they could find, and the altar, it is fair to assume, would scarcely be exposed to them.

Opposite the great gates, and forming the fourth side of the courtyard, rose the house itself, consisting, broadly speaking, of two parts— first, the lofty and pillared hall, and second the private apartments at the rear of it in two stories, “ building upon building. At one side between the house and the wall of enclosure were low buildings devoted to the different offices—the mills, the bakehouse, &c. The great room or hall was entered from the court by wide folding doors (xvii.), and may have had a corridor or portico in front. All the pillars were squared of cypress wood and supported lintels or beams of pine, and on these rested cross beams to the aisles jutting out into the central space which was covered by a flat roof at a higher level than the aisle roof.

This central space had no better floor than the bare earth, but the aisles, which I believe extended all round the four sides of the hall, were evidently fairly floored and raised a step or two above the earthen floor, the spaces in the doorways being of stone and the rest possibly of ash. “The fair spaces between the pillars,' more than once mentioned, can, I think, be nothing else but the fair floor space of the aisles or inmost parts of the hall as distinguished from the wide central earthen space.4

The high seats or couches of the wooers would thus be placed against the walls, as in the palace of King Alcinous, and before them would be set small circular, square, or oblong tables easily moved and convertible at a moment's notice into shields or bucklers. We shall find also in the treasury a raised floor on which the coffers stand ranged against the walls, like the seats of the wooers in the hall.

I cannot recognise in the descriptions taken together any arrangement like that of a college hall, with a daïs at one end for the “ high seat,' such as Messrs. Butcher and Lang take for an illustration. At the further end of the ball—that is, in the wall opposite the entrance

-a door led into the inner chamber or the women's room, the stairs leading to the upper story being close inside this door. In the body of the hall three braziers were lighted towards evening, to give warmth and light. Beyond the inner chamber was yet another room, called the inmost chamber; this was the bedroom of the chief or master. Here in Ithaca it was a curious and somewhat exceptional room, possibly circular and detached, or semidetached, built of stones set round about an olive tree that grew in the inner court, well roofed over and having close-fitting doors. How far this was removed, if at all, from the house proper does not appear, but it is quite an exceptional way of constructing the room which in other Homeric houses is described as the innermost or the back room of the house.

* The negóduar may be only the wrought wooden steps between the pillars. Any. how, as in Od. xx. 354 they appear with the walls to be sprinkled with blood, I am disinclined to regard uerósuai as overhead or roof beams. The cross plank of a ship (the ueo duns of Od. ii. 424) in relation to its mast is more like the step on which the columns rest than the beam they support.

The vanlted treasure chamber at Ithaca, like that in the palace of Menelaus, is approached by descending or stepping down. Menelaus is described as going down to his fragrant treasure chamber, and Telemachus steps down into his father's vaulted treasure house. Whether this spacious store-room was entirely underground or only partly so is a question, but, as a place of security, it ought perhaps to be regarded as wholly below the surface. It was entered by closefitting folding doors with well-fitted doorposts set in a threshold of oak planed cunningly; and its general form is possibly to be seen in the treasure or tomb house of Atreus. At the back of the palace was a garden or private court for the use only of the master and the women of his household.

Going back to the hall, we find that against one of the pillars is a polished spear stand; but spears were also sometimes set against the tall pillars or piers of the entrance doorway (xvii.) In the hall too was the usual place of the weapons of war : the spears bristled in their stands, whilst the shields, bows, and helmets were probably suspended from pins in the pillars. These, by order of Odysseus, his son removed before the day of slaughter, on the pretence that they were being damaged by the vapour of the fire, a most natural excuse, seeing the proximity of the pillars to the braziers. And here I would note the air of severe economy that obtains in the hall of Odysseus. The cypress wood of the pillars is deftly planed and made straight, but not overlaid with bronze or plates of silver, or inlay of gold, amber, or ivory, as in the house of Menelaus. We have here nothing of the costly metallic sheen that Homer spreads over the house of Alcinous. The hall of the great Odysseus is spacious, is well and truly built, but, with the exception of a few thresholds of stone, there is nothing to show that it is built of aught but the simplest materials--e.g. cypress for the piers, pine for the roof and walls, ash for the floors of the raised aisles, and earth for the central floor. Indeed, throughout the whole account of the palace there is a very noticeable absence of words denoting display of wealth. There is a silver handle to the door of the chamber of Telemachus, on the upper floor of the house. For the treasure chamber there is a kev of bronze with an ivory handle (the ivory overlaid, I fancy), and the folding doors are shining -i.e. either of polished wood or overlaid with metal in bands arranged like the Balawat gates. For the rest

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In the centre of the quadrangle stood a well-wrought altar dedicated to Zeus. This, I conclude, was fenced in, for we read that boars freely roamed the courtyard, feeding on what scraps they could find, and the altar, it is fair to assume, would scarcely be exposed to them.

Opposite the great gates, and forming the fourth side of the courtyard, rose the house itself, consisting, broadly speaking, of two parts first, the lofty and pillared hall, and second the private apartments at the rear of it in two stories, ' building upon building. At one side between the house and the wall of enclosure were low buildings devoted to the different offices—the mills, the bakehouse, &c. The great room or hall was entered from the court by wide folding doors (xvii.), and may have had a corridor or portico in front. All the pillars were squared of cypress wood and supported lintels or beams of pine, and on these rested cross beams to the aisles jutting out into the central space which was covered by a flat roof at a higher level than the aisle roof.

This central space had no better floor than the bare earth, but the aisles, which I believe extended all round the four sides of the hall, were evidently fairly floored and raised a step or two above the earthen floor, the spaces in the doorways being of stone and the rest possibly of ash. The fair spaces between the pillars,' more than once mentioned, can, I think, be nothing else but the fair floor space of the aisles or inmost parts of the hall as distinguished from the wide central earthen space.

The high seats or couches of the wooers would thus be placed against the walls, as in the palace of King Alcinous, and before them would be set small circular, square, or oblong tables easily moved and convertible at a moment's notice into shields or bucklers. We shall find also in the treasury a raised floor on which the coffers stand ranged against the walls, like the seats of the wooers in the hall.

I cannot recognise in the descriptions taken together any arrangement like that of a college hall, with a daïs at one end for the high seat, such as Messrs. Butcher and Lang take for an illustration. At the further end of the hall—that is, in the wall opposite the entrance

-a door led into the inner chamber or the women's room, the stairs leading to the upper story being close inside this door. In the body of the hall three braziers were lighted towards evening, to give warmth and light. Beyond the inner chamber was yet another room, called the inmost chamber; this was the bedroom of the chief or master. Here in Ithaca it was a curious and somewhat exceptional room, possibly circular and detached, or semidetached, built of stones set round about an olive tree that grew in the inner court, well

The ueró dual may be only the wrought wooden steps between the pillars. Anfhow, as in Od. xx. 354 they appear with the walls to be sprinkled with blood, I am disinclined to regard ueró duar as overhead or roof beams. The cross plank of a ship (the uerósuns of Od. ii. 424) in relation to its mast is more like the step on which the columns rest than the beam they support.

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