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expertness shown by the inhabitants in the use and management of their canoes. They contain between thirty-four and thirty-five thousand inhabitants.

The discovery of Samoa, according to Dr. Turner, one of the pioneers of the London Missionary Society, is due to the Dutch, who, under Roggewein in 1722, were the first to notice these islands. Forty-six years later they were visited by the French navigator Bougainville, and in 1768 La Pérouse appeared upon the scene. Meanwhile Captain Cook had heard of their existence from the Tongans, and in 1791 H.M.S. 'Pandora' put in an appearance; but it is not till many years afterwards that Samoa begins to play any real part in the political history of the world.

The more important islands of the group are Savaii, Upolu, Tutuila, Ta‘u and Manu'a-tele. Savaii, the most westerly, is the largest and contains an area of 700 square miles, which, at a rough estimate, is very nearly equal to ten times that of the Channel Islands. Commodore Wilkes, in his Report of the exploring expedition sent out by the United States Government in 1839 for the purpose of surveying these islands, writes thus :

Savaii is not as populous or as important as several of the other islands. It differs from any of the others in its appearance, for its shore is low, and the ascent thence to the centre is gradual, except where the cones of a few extinct craters are seen. In the middle of the island a peak arises, which is almost continually enveloped in clouds, and is the highest land in the group. On account of these clouds angles could not be taken for determining its height accurately, but it certainly exceeds 4,000 feet. Another marked difference between Savaii and the other large islands is the want of any permanent streams, a circumstance which may be explained, notwithstanding the frequency of rain, by the porous nature of the rock (vesicular lava) of which it is chiefly composed ; water, howerer, gushes out near the shore in copious springs, and when heavy and continued rains have occurred streams are formed in the ravin but these soon disappear after the rains have ceased. The coral reef attached to this island is interrupted to the south and west, where the surf beats full upon the rocky shore. There are in consequence but few places where boats can land, and only one harbour for ships, that of Mataatua : even this is unsafe from November to February, when the north-westerly gales prevail. The soil is fertile, and was composed, in every part of the island that was visited, of decomposed volcanic rock and vegetable mould.

From this description it will be seen that Savaii, although the largest, is by far the least valuable island of the group commercially or politically.

U polu, which is separated by twelve miles of sea from Savaii, contains an area of 560 square miles. A range of mountains runs east and west, from which slope down at uncertain intervals a number of smaller ridges that graduate to a low shore, encircled, says Mr. Seed, in his Report to the New Zealand Gorernment'

| This Report was laid before the Australian Convention, 1883, and is embodied in the Victorian and New South Wales Blue Books, which were kindly placed at my disposal by the Hon. James Service, of Melbourne, and the Hon. Bede Dalley, of Sydney.

(dated Custom House, Wellington, 13th of February, 1872'), “by a coral reef interrupted by channels which form the entrances to safe and convenient anchorages for small vessels. At Apia the reef extends across a good sized bay, thus forming a good and safe harbour for large ships, which is entered through a deep and clear channel formed by a break in the reef.'

Between Savaii and Upolu are the smallest islands Apolima and Manono. The shape of the former is not unlike the human hand with the fingers contracted. Hence its name. The latter, on the contrary, is triangular, and has been somewhat poetically described as 'one entire garden, in looking at which the eye can never tire'; it is three miles in circumference. This island held a very extensive political supremacy over Upolu till the native war of 1847–54, when it lost power and was obliged to rank on a level with those over whom for a long time it had exercised much despotism. We now come to the two uninhabited islands so insignificant as to require no description, while a little distance off is the little island of Nuū-tele, thirty-six miles from which lies Tutuila, an important island containing an area of 240 square miles. The land here is mountainous and ascends in one place to 2,327 feet above the level of the sea. This peak affords a good landmark for vessels making Pangopango harbour, which is not unlikely to play an important part in the future of Samoa.

Let me here give Captain Wakeman's ? description of Pangopango harbour, which is relied upon by the New Zealand Government as an authoritative source of information.

At daylight, I found myself in the most perfectly land-locked harbour that exists in the Pacific Ocean. In approaching this harbour from the south, either by night or day, the mariner has unmistakable landmarks to conduct him into port: one on the port hand, a high, peaked, conical mountain 2,327 feet high, and on the starboard hand, a flat-topped mountain 1,470 feet in height, which keep sentinel on either hand. These landmarks can never be mistaken by the mariner. The entrance to the harbour is three-quarters of a mile in width between Tower Rock, on the port side, and Breaker Point, on the starboard hand, with soundings of thirty-six fathoms. A little more than one mile from Breaker Point to Goat Island, on the port hand, we open out the inner harbour, which extends one mile west, at a breadth of 3,000 feet abreast of Goat Island to 1,100 feet at the head of the bay, carrying soundings from eighteen fathoms to six fathoms at the head of the bay. The reefs which skirt the shore are from 200 feet to 300 feet wide, almost a

Captain Wakeman is an experienced master.mariner, who visited Tutuila at the request of a private shipping firm in order to ascertain the suitability of Pangopango harbour for a coaling station. The information was laid before the Australian Convention, 1883, by the New Zealand representative. The trade between Samoa and New Zealand is rapidly increasing, and the merchants of that colony are constantly pointing out to their Government the advantages that would accrue to both if a more intimate connection than at present exists were to be established between the two. They have even hinted at annexation, but this the Samoans do not wish. During the scare last year the New Zealanders were always on the alert and most anxious to aid the mother country in taking over the islands.

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wash at low water. They have, at their edge, from four fathoms to five, six, and eight fathoms, and deeper in the middle of the harbour. The hills rise abruptly around this bay from 800 to 1,000 feet in height. . . . There is nothing to prevent a steamer, night or day, from proceeding to her wharf. About half way from Breaker Point to Goat Island, and near mid channel, is Whale Rock, with eight feet of water over it at low sea. It has a circumference of about fifty feet and breaks frequently. A buoy renders this danger harmless. The services of a pilot can never be required by anyone who has visited this port before, as the tradewinds from E.S.E. carry a vessel from near Breaker Point with a free sheet in a N.N.W. course into the harbour. It follows that vessels under canvas will have to work out, which, in the ebb tides with the trades, will generally be accomplished in a few tacks. The trouble is that a ship close into the reefs goes in stays, and frequently the whirlwinds off the high land baffle her a few points and prevent her tacking properly aback, whence a boat is kept at hand ready to tow her round upon the right tack. Mr. Powell, a missionary, has been a resident of this place twenty-two years, and never knew of a longer detention than nine days to any ship in that time, and of but one gale, which came from the eastward and uproofed a wing of his kitchen. Even the trades themselves are frequently liable to haul from the E.S.E. to E.N.E., giving a ship a chance to get out with a leading wind. At the different quarters of the moon the tide rises four and a half feet. On the top of the little island of Apnu'u, to the east of Tutuila, at an elevation of 600 feet, a site for a lighthouse has been secured. As it can be seen alike from the north or south, and is right in a line with the ship's course in passing, being only seven miles from the entrance to Pangopango bay or harbour, the ships could pick up the port-lights, and go in immediately to the wharf on the darkest night. There are several fine harbours for schooners on both sides of Tutuila.

The Americans were not slow to recognise the importance of this 2 harbour as a naval station, and in 1878 Captain Meade, commanding

the U.S.S. Narragansett,'entered into an agreement with Manga, the representative chief of Tutuila, by which it was arranged that Pangopango should be given up to the American Government on condition that a friendly alliance existed between that island and the United States. Pangopango harbour has thus passed for ever from the hands of the British.

The question here that naturally arises, is, why did not England secure its possession ? "Tutuila did not want England's protection,' replies a would-be critic. Such an assertion is, however, untrue. So long ago as 1843, the chiefs of this island petitioned for British protection. Two years later a reply was received from Lord Clarendon, who refused to protect, but promised through the British Consul that no other Power should be allowed greater authority in the island than Great Britain. How that promise has been kept, I shall leave my readers to judge. In March 1872 the following commercial regulations relating to the port of Pangopango were drawn up, signed by Manga and recognised on the part of the United States Government by Captain Meade.

1. All foreign Consuls duly appointed shall be protected and respected both in their persons and property, and all foreigners settling on the island, as far as under the jurisdiction of the chief and conforming to the laws, shall receive the protection of the Government.

2. The fullest protection shall be given to all foreign ships and vessels which may be wrecked, and any property saved shall be taken in charge by the Consul of the country to which the vessel belongs, who will allow salvage on the property so saved ; no embezzlement will be permitted. The effects of all foreigners deceased will be given up to the Consul of the nation of the person so deceased.

3. Every vessel entering Pangopango shall pay a port charge to the chief, to be regulated by agreement between the chief, the agent of the California and Australian Steamship Company and the foreign Consuls. Pilots shall be appointed by the same persons, the agent of the Steamship Ccmpany to be the Pilot Commissioner ex officio, and the charge for pilotage for men-of-war and merchant vessels to be $1 per foot of draft and $1 per day for detention on board. Where pilots are declined, half-pilotage will be paid. Each pilot to be furnished with a copy of Pilot Regulations, and to show the same to the master of each vessel which he may bring into port.

4. No work shall be done on shore, nor shall any natives be employed on board vessels, on Sunday under a penalty of $10, except under circumstances of absolute necessity, such as aid in case of the wreck of a vessel, or the coaling of steamships obliged to proceed on time on the voyage north or south.

5. All trading in distilled or spirituous liqnors, or any kind of intoxicating drink, is absolutely prohibited ; any person so offending shall be fined $100 on conviction before a mixed court, composed of U.S. Consul, H.B.M. Consul, and the Chief of the bay. All such liquors found on shore and kept for sale or barter in any way shall be seized and destroyed. If any native be found intoxicated and riotous he sball pay a fine of $10.

6. Any person found guilty of offering inducement to a native female to prostitute herself to a foreigner to pay a fine of $10.

7. Deserters shall be apprehended by the Chief on application to bim through the Consul, to whom they must be delivered. The usual rewards required by regulation to be paid by merchant-men; one-third to go to the Chief.

8. All fines to be paid in specie or its equivalent, or be commuted at the rate of one month's labour on roads, &c., for $10.

9. Should any master of any merchant vessel refuse complying with the local regulations the case to be referred to the Consul of the nation to which the vessel belongs and redress sought thence.

(Signed) O AU 0 Manga. (Witness) RICHARD W. MEADE, Commander.

The foregoing rules have been signed by the Chief in my presence. I shall forward a copy of the same with my approval to the U.S. Government for the information of all masters of vessels visiting Pangopango.


Commander U.S.S. Narragansett.' A mile south-east of Tutuila is the diminutive island of Annu'u, with a coast line of barely five miles.

The Manu'a group, consisting of three islands, lies about sixty miles east of Tutuila. Ta‘u, the largest of these, about sixteen miles round, has a most uneven surface, owing to a number of extinct volcanoes. Its highest peak is 2,500 feet. Ofu, the smallest of the three, is separated from Ta‘u by the island of Olesenga, a narrow strip of land, three miles long, and 1,200 feet above the level of the sea.

The climate of Samoa is good. June and July are the coolest, and September and October the hottest, months in the year. March is the

most variable. A breeze is generally blowing, so the temperature is never actually unpleasant. It ranges between 70° and 80°. Hurricanes are the exception, and vegetation continues without intermission all the year round. Nearly every kind of tropical fruit is produced. Cotton and copra 3 are the chief exports. Formerly the natives used to prepare the cocoa-nut oil themselves, but now they send the copra to Europe direct, where it finds an easy market.

The word Samoa is derived from Moa, the hereditary Dame of the King of Manu“a, and the supposed progenitor of all these islands, and the particle Sa, which prefixed to a proper name means in the Samoan language the family of, from which we may conclude that it means the family of Moa.'

The constitution of the Manu'a islands is monarchical, the royal title being 'King of All Samoa. Tutuila, on the other hand, has an aristocratic form of government, which is vested in a council of ten chiefs called Fale-Anga-fulu, or the ten houses. The remaining islands had always been under the dominion of two royal dynasties called respectively Malietoa and Tupua, which are the surnames in use to this day. Previous to 1873 these rival royalties were constantly fighting against each other for supremacy, but in May of that year, by the good offices of the missionaries, hostilities ceased and peace was proclaimed. It is to the missionaries that Samoa owes its present state of civilisation. They have done more actual good for the natives than any other body of men. Not only have they Christianised a people who formerly knew not God, but, by mastering a language hitherto unknown to Europeans, they bave initiated an education which has had the effect of vastly increasing the commerce of these islands. While steering clear of political squabbles they are ever ready in the interests of peace and justice to act as mediators in native quarrels, or to aid the representatives of foreign Powers in maintaining law and order. No wonder they view with alarm the increasing influence of Germany, and the probable sacrifice of their energies to a nation that has sown no seed, yet is endeavouring to reap the harvest.

During the civil war the natives bartered land to the German traders for arms and ammunition. And in some cases the price given was only equal to one shilling and sixpence an acre. The Polynesian Land and Commercial Company effected some very good bargains also.

In May 1873, by the aid of the European residents, a new form of government was set up on the lines of the British Constitution--consisting of a House of Representatives called the Faipule, corresponding somewhat to our House of Commons, and a House of Nobles called the Taimua, resembling the House of Lords, with the two kings Malietoa and

* The kernel of the cocoa-nut cut into small pieces and dried in the sun.

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