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Protection of Cornea in Sightless Stumps.

In Knapp's Archives for March, Gifford has an article, and begins by saying, "For all who believe that all sightless stumps should be enucleated, this paper can have no interest." He does not propose his operations as substitutes for evisceration or enucleation in actively infected globes, but in the class of patients who come with a quiet stump, over which a glass eye cannot be worn on account of irritation of the cornea; or on account of the danger of irritating and infecting exposed iris tissue; or when the stump is irritable solely from the degeneration of the corneal epithelium; or in patients who refuse evisceration or enucleation.

When sufficient conjunctiva is available he excises the membrane around the lower border of the cornea for an area of an inch wide at the sides, and below. Above this zone the membrane is dissected free from the globe as far as the upper fornix, where he makes a cross cut through the membrane to allow it to be slid down over the cornea without putting much tension on it. These sutures are inserted below, well into the episcleral tissue. When the conjunctiva is atrophic or scanty he dissects the conjunctiva up for inch around the cornea, scrapes the latter, and applies a thin flap shaved from the lip with a razor, or a Thiersch flap. The flap is tucked under the conjunctiva on all sides, and both eyes bandaged for 24 hours. The lip flap is preferred to the Thiersch graft.

Parascleral Tenotomy for Strabismus.

As a result of the disastrous secondary deviations that followed Diffenbach's operation of myotomy, it has since been strongly insisted upon that in tenotomy the tendon must be shipped as close as possible to the sclera. Delamare, of Rouen, in the Recueil d'Ophtalmologie for November, describes his operation, in which he leaves a tag of tendon about 2 mm. long attached to the sclerotic. He claims by this method to overcome deviations of from 2 to 6 mm. (10 to 30 degrees) in adults, whereas even double tenotomy, done in the usual fashion, rarely corrects a squint of 4 mm. (20 degrees) in persons over fifteen. Tenotomy, with advancement of the antagonist, can produce as great an effect (and the particular method he commends is that of de Wecker), of tenotomy with capsulo muscular advancement by folding (plissement) of the antagonist (without cutting it); but, in addition to the objections that this operation necessitates two wounds instead of one, as well as the presence of a stitch, which is sometimes irritating, besides being more tedious and painful, there is the further consideration that it requires a considerable amount of skill and experience to get good results, whereas he claims that his operation of parascleral section can be performed by the average surgeon. The steps of his operation are similar to those of the usual tenotomy, with the exception of the position of the section of the tendon. Cocaine is used. The conjunctiva is divided over the position of insertion of the tendons, Tenon's capsule is snipped through, above, below, behind, and in front of the tendon, the attachment being carried behind and in front, back to the caruncle, above to midway between the internus and the superior rectus below to midway to the inferior rectus. The tendon is then hooked up and cut with one snip 2 mm. from the sclera. The operation is applicable to divergent as well as to convergent squints, though in the divergent form the results are not so satisfactory.

NEUROLOGY.

General Paralysis of the Insane.

Schaffer (Neurologisches Centralblatt, 1902, No. 2) has a very interesting article on the results obtained from the

investigation of three brains of general paralytics. The article seems to have two chief points of interest. The first is that it brings pathological evidence in support of Flechsig's developmentally investigated association areas. Schaffer finds that it is just those areas which Flechsig indicates as association areas which are affected in general paralysis; he finds a constant immunity of the motor, visual, auditory, etc., areas. The second point of interest is the assertion that general paralysis is a disease of a definitely marked out area of cortex; he does not find that in one case the frontal convolutions are involved and in another the parietal, but he finds that in every case the whole of the association area is involved. Should these conclusions prove correct they will mark a distinct advance in our knowlege of the disease, and they appear to support the theory of primary nervous degeneration rather than the theory of primary vascular disease. The paper further confirms the theory advanced by Cajal (histologically), Flechsig (developmentally), and Sherrington (experimentally) that the posterior central convolution is an association and not a motor area.

Epilepsy.

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Clark and Prout (The Medical Review, 1901) having examined 13 cases of epilepsy, and having found in all a nuclear degeneration of the second layer of the cortex, a condition of chromatolysis of the whole cortex, and an overgrowth of the neuroglia, Clark proceeds to criticise the usual modern surgical and medical treatment of epilepsy. He comes to the following conclusions:1. Idiopathic epilepsy with typical fits of the grand mal character should never be trephined with a view to improvement. 2. Idiopathic epilepsy with fits of the Jacksonian type should only be trephined if infantile cerebral paralysis is excluded, and if there is not a marked amount of family or individual degeneration. In the case of an operation the cortical area from which be fits originate must as freely as possible removed; even when this is done only about 1% of the cases are freed from fits. 3. Cases of traumatic epilepsy should only be trephined if the accident stands in direct causal relationship to the fits, and if the accident has occurred not more than two years previously. The prognosis, then, will depend on the amount of nervous predisposition present, and it is the more favourable the earlier the operation is performed. 4. All trephined epileptics should be treated for at least a year with bromides. In regard to the hygienic, diatetic, and medicinal treatment of idiopathic epilepsy, the writer lays stress on the following points :1. The bromides give the best results when combined with correct diet, regular employment, and personal hygiene. 2. Bromide is our best drug for the status epilepticus. Young patients can undergo a lessening in the number of fits, and even eventually be cured thereby the old will at least be benefited to the extent of a lessening in the number of fits and an increase in the feeling of bien être. 3. If the bromides are to do any good they must be given in such quantity that the number of the fits is decreased. Warm and cold baths are recommended, and attention paid to all the systems of the body.

The Posterior Columns of the Cord.

A publication from Bechterew's laboratory describing the results of an investigation on 14 dogs whose posterior columns were divided goes to show that only sensations connected with the muscle sense pass up these columns. The dogs showed marked inco-ordination, but there was no sign of anesthesia, analgesia, etc. It was only when the grey matter of the posterior horns was

injured that anæsthesia was produced. If the posterior column of one side only was divided there resulted marked inco-ordination on the side of the lesion and slight inco-ordination on the other side. This the writer explains by supposing a decussation of a few fibres of the posterior columns.

The Bath Treatment.

W. Alter, an assistant-physician at one of the provincial hospitals for the insane in Germany, has an article on The Bath Treatment of the Insane (Centralblatt für Nervenheilkunde u. Psych, March, 1902). In bearing testimony to the efficacy of this method of treatment he confims what so many others have asserted who have used it. The writer seems to have been placed under rather unusually favourable conditions for the carrying out of his investigations since he had one nurse or attendant to every 24 patients, whereas in most hospitals the ratio is something like one to seven or eight. The temperature of the baths varied from 34° C.-36 C., and the patients were kept in for from 2 hours up to 24 hours, or longer. Usually the patients rested on a sheet suspended beneath the water, and another sheet covered the whole bath excepting at the head end. Their meals were served to them in the bath. It was found that on an average one attendant to every four patients in baths was required. The results described were such as are seldom obtained by any other method. At the commencement there were 54 patients almost all in single rooms, and after a few months none occupied single rooms; and whereas previously most were noisy, and restless the whole or part of the night in spite of the administration of drugs, after the institution of the bath treatment it was a rare thing to find a patient noisy at night. The baths also seemed to improve both the mental and physical condition of the patients. Dr. Alter is of the opinion that if the difficulty as regards number of attendants and sufficient bathing accommodation could be overcome, the bath treatment should be introduced into every hospital for the insane.

Forel (Zeitschrift für Hypnotismus) has an article in which he points out how the treatment of mental cases by means of gardening, etc. has degenerated into a method whereby only the physical condition of the patient is to some extent improved. He remarks that patients are very often set to do such simple work that they do it, as it were, automatically, at the same time directing practically their whole attention to their delusions. He insists that where the best results are obtained the patients are given work which requires a considerable amount of care and attention on their part, and by this means the patients' minds are trained to think and act along normal lines. Such work is not only a physical but a mental gymnastic.

UNIVERSITY INTELLIGENCE.

University of Sydney. The following candidates were successful in the final examination for the degrees of Bachelor of Medicine and Master of Surgery, held in the commencement of Trinity Term :-Arthur Anderson, Gother R. C. Clarke, Wilfred B. Dight, Charles D. Halcomb, Rees F. Llewellyn, Walter L. Rees, Frank S. Tange, John W. Tarleton, Evan TudorJones.

University of Adelaide.-The foundation stone of the Elder Anatomical and Pathological School was laid by the Governor on July 14th, in the presence of a large and representative attendance.

OBITUARY.

LAURENCE GEORGE MALLAM, M.B., C.M. (Edin.), M.R.C.S. (Eng.).

The death of Dr. Mallam, which occurred at Armidale on 19th May, has robbed the profession of a worthy and highly esteemed member, and has caused a deplorable gap in a wide circle of friends and patients. The cause of death was pneumonia, followed by heart failure. For some weeks he had suffered from a cold, and had been working at high pressure, so that he could not lie up, as his friends begged him to do. He was out nearly every night. He intended resting on the Saturday night and Sunday, but had several urgent calls on Saturday night, including one to an aged paralytic club patient some miles out in the bleakest part of his district, and on this drive he caught the chill that resulted so disastrously. Drs. Little, Samuelson, and Harris were unremitting in their attentions; and though at first little danger was apprehended, for he had a robust constitution and fine physique, alarming symptoms set in on Wednesday, and Drs. Walley, of Tamworth, and Scot Skirving, of Sydney, were telegraphed for. Before the latter could leave, however, he was stopped by a second wire saying the patent had died on Thursday afternoon. Born at Maitland in 1859, Mallam went with his parents to Armidale when four years old, and, except while away studying in the old country, his life was spent there. He received his primary education at the public school, and was afterwards at the Armidale Grammar School. In 1880 he went to Edinburgh, graduating in 1884, and in the same year took the M.R.C.S. diploma. He was a prominent member of the Australian Club in Edinburgh, and for some time acted as its honorary treasurer. As a student he was a diligent, honest worker, and had an excellent record. He took honours in several subjects, and was a demonstrator in anatomy at the University. For family reasons he had to decline Professor Turner's request that he should stay in that capacity, and returned to Armidale, where he immediately took up the practice of his profession; and by solid merit overcoming the suspicion with which a prophet is apt to be regarded in his own country, gradually but steadily built up one of the best country practices in the State, and relinquished the intention he had, before starting, of returning to anatomy teaching in Edinburgh.

Mallam was a fine type of man and practitioner. Straight and honourable in all his dealings, he was trusted by colleagues and patients. He was an estimable husband and father, a genial companion, a good comrade, and a staunch friend. Along with a kind and gentle disposition he had a hearty, cheery manner, and an ever-ready joke and laugh. Cautious and careful in his judgment and expression of opinion, he was never known to say an evil word of anyone, though to one he would speak out with a manly candour, but yet in a way that could not be resented. He was a good, allround man at his work, and possessed of that resourcefulness that characterises the best of our country practitioners, who are so often called upon to act with skill and promptness and assume immense responsibilities under very adverse conditions. His fine sense of duty was remarkable, and though it is to be regretted that this led to his death, he died as he wished, in harness, and doing his duty to the last. Like most prudent and busy doctors, he found no time for active part in public affairs, though always interested and helpful in deserving local objects. He was for many years on the staff of the Armidale and New England Hospital, and gave a large share of his time to that institution. He was also a promient Freemason, a member

of the Public School Board and Public Schools' Athletic Association. Though a strong supporter of the Anglican Church and a member of the Cathedral Council, he had the friendship and confidence of persons of all denominations, and was the doctor to the A.H.C. Guild for 16 years, and to the Convent. His funeral was probably the largest ever seen in Armidale (the cortege being over a mile in length), and was attended by processions of school children and public bodies, and people of all denominations, while all the shops and business places in the city were closed; and on the following Sunday eloquent tribute to his worth was paid by preachers in both cathedrals and all the churches.

Dr. Mallam was twice married; in 1888 to Miss Nellie Bradley, of Armidale, who died in 1891, leaving two daughters and one son; and in 1893 to Miss Agnes Wardrop, daughter of the late Robert Wardrop, of Mudgee, by whom he had also two daughters and one son, and who survives him. The sincere sympathy of a great number of friends goes out to the widow and children and other relatives in their loss. We are pleased to know, as was to be expected of the man, that he was mindful of his duty to his family as well as to others, and though a comparatively young man, has left them fairly well provided for.

We regret to record the death of Dr. REES LLEWELLYN, M.R.C.S. (Eng.), L.S.A. (Lond.), of Braidwood (N.S.W.), which took place on July 4th, after a lingering illness. The funeral was largely attended. All the business places were closed as a mark of respect for the deceased, who had been Government medical officer at Braidwood for 30 years.

Peter Stewart, M.D., C.M. (Glas.), died at his residence at Milton (N.Z.), on May 21st. He was seized with a stroke of paralysis on returning from a visit to a patient, and died after a few days' illness. He arrived in the colony about 28 years ago, coming straight to Milton, and started in practice. Deceased had a very varied career in his younger days, and spent many years on the Californian goldfields, graduating afterwards when well on in life. He was 75 years of age. He leaves a family of three sons.

PUBLIC HEALTH.

Tasmania.

Vital Statistics -During the month of May 131 births-71 males and 60 females-were registered in the registration districts of Hobart and Launceston. This is nine more than in the corresponding month last year, and an increase of 6.2 as compared with the average of the births registered in May during the last five-yearly period. The deaths registered in May in Hobart and Launceston numbered 65-30 males and 35 females; 21 deaths, or 32-30% of the whole took place in public institutions. The total number of deaths registered in the two districts is five less than in the corresponding month last year, and shows a decrease of 13.6 as compared with the average number of deaths registered in May during the last five-yearly period. The deaths under five years of age numbered six, or 9.23%, all of which were under one year of age; the deaths between five and 65 years of age numbered 28, or 43.08 %, and the deaths 65 years and upwards numbered 31, or 47.69 %. In the country districts the total was 284. The total deaths during May were 62.

Tuberculosis. Dr. C. Crosby Walch has

furnished to the Honourable the Premier an exhaustive report upon the modern treatment of tuberculosis in the sanatoria now found in many parts of the British Isles and the Continent of Europe. Dr. Walch attended the British Congress on Tuberculosis held in London last July, as the Tasmanian delegate, and since then he has visited many of the open-air sanatoria, and for a time acted as resident medical officer to the Rossclare Sanatorium in Ireland.

New South Wales.

Sydney Vital Statistics.-During the month of May, 1902, 1,181 children were born in the metropolis of Sydney, being 161 greater than the average for May during the previous five years. The deaths during the month numbered 506, or 30 less than the quinquennial average for May; the excess of births over deaths being 675. The birth rate was 2.35 per 1,000 of the population, and the deaths were 1.06 per 1,000. The true infantile mortality, or deaths under one year, the rate was 110 per 1,000. Of the 506 persons who died, 166, or 32-8 %, were under 5 years of age, and 130, or 25.7 %, were less than 1 year old; 69 deaths were of persons aged 70 years and upwards. The birth rate is the highest since 1896. The death rate is slightly above the average of the last five years. The chief causes of death were from zymotic diseases, 46 (diarrhoea 16 deaths, bubonic plague, diphtheria and typhoid 5 each). The returns of the Department of Public Health show that 54 cases of illness from typhoid and 69 cases of diphtheria were notified during the month; there were also 22 persons attacked with plague. From constitutional diseases there were 114 deaths (phthisis 49, cancer 43). The deaths from phthisis comprise 9.6% of all deaths. Developmental diseases produced 38 deaths (premature births being responsible for 20 cases, and senile decay for 13). In the class of local diseases 257 deaths were recorded, or nearly 51 % of the death list (diseases of the nervous system contributed 46 deaths); diseases of the circulatory system, 51; of the respiratory system, 64 (pneumonia 43, bronchitis 14); of the digestive system, 56 (enteritis 33).

Newcastle Vital Statistics.-During the month of May, 1902, 175 births were recorded in the Newcastle district, or at the rate of 3·14 per 1,000 of the population. the deaths numbered 73, or 1-31 per 1,000 of population. Of the deaths, 21 were due to zymotic diseases; constitutional diseases, 9; developmental diseases, 8. There were 23 cases of typhold fever and 5 cases of diphtheria notified during the month.

Victoria.

Melbourne Vital Statistics.-During the month of April, 1902, 1,102 children were registered in greater Melbourne; this number being higher than in any previous corresponding month since 1894, and it was 34 above the average of the month during the previous 10 years, but 39 below it if allowance be made for the increase of population. The deaths in the same month numbered 589, the births thus exceeding the deaths by 513, or 87%, as against 86% in April, 1901, and 84% according to the average. The number was the highest recorded for the month during the previous 10 years, except 1892, 1893, and 1898. Children under five years of age contributed 24% to this mortality. The deaths of infants under 12 months numbered 111. The chief causes of deaths were:-Zymotic diseases, 50; constitutional diseases, 120; developmental diseases, 44; local diseases, 322.

Vital Statistics.-The births of 1,126 children were registered in Melbourne and suburbs during the month of May, 1902. This number is higher than in any previous corresponding month since 1894, except 1898, but 58 below the average of the month during the previous ten years, and 139 below it if allowance be made for the increase of population. The deaths registered in May numbered 575; the births thus exceeded the deaths by 551, or 96 per cent., as against 72 per cent. in May, 1901, and 109 per cent. according to the average. The number of deaths was the highest recorded! for the month during the previous ten years, except 1892, 1898, and 1901. It was also 9 above the average of May during that period, but 30 below it allowing for the increase of population. To every 1,000 of the population of the district the proportion of births registered was equivalent to 26-43 and of deaths registered to 13.50 per annum, as compared respectively with averages of the same month in 1901, of 25.48 and 14.80 with averages of the month during the last ten years of 28.61 and 14:22. The deaths of infants under twelve months numbered 100, as with 97 in May, 1901. The rate of infantile mortality was 88 per 1,000 births registered in the month under review, as compared with 72 in May, 1900; 85 in May, 1899; 108 in May, 1898; 84 in May, 1897; 106 in May, 1896; 88 in May, 1895; 79 in May, 1894; 91 in May, 1893; and 76 in May, 1892. The chief causes of deaths were-Zymotic diseases, 31; constitutional diseases, 127 (cancer 42, phthisis 61); developmental diseases, 58 (premature birth 26, old age 25); local diseases, 302 (diseases of the nervous system 65, diseases of the circulatory system 71, diseases of the respiratory system 66, diseases of the digestive system 57).

Queensland.

Bubonic Plague. The total number of cases reported to date is 81; total number of deaths, 25; total discharged recovered, 56. No case of plague has occurred within the State since May 31st last.

Vital Statistics.-During the month of April, 1902, 148 births were registered in the district of Brisbane, the number being 62 less than in the previous month of March. During the same month 112 deaths have been recorded in Brisbane, the excess of births over deaths being 36. The number of deaths was 56 more than was registered in the previous month of March; 55.00% of the deaths within the municipality of Brisbane were of children under five years. The chief causes of deaths were-Zymotic diseases, 20 (plague 8, typhoid fever 2, diarrhoea 6); constitutional diseases, 25 (phthisis 11, tubes mesenterica 6, cancer 4); local diseases, 79 (diseases of the nervous system 12, diseases of the respiratory system 12, enteritis 21).

Vital

South Australia. Statistics.-There were 759 births registered in South Australia, exclusive of the Northern Territory, in the month of April, 1902. This was the greatest number during the last six years, the years 1897 and 1899 excepted. The deaths during the same month numbered 355, the greatest number during the last six years, the year 1899 excepted. The chief causes of deaths were -Zymotic diseases, 63 (enteric fever 11, diarrhoea 17); constitutional diseases, 54 (cancer 18, phthisis 25); developmental diseases, 34 (old age 37); local diseases, 152 (diseases of the nervous system 17, diseases of the circulatory system 43, pneumonia 14, enteritis 19).

City of Adelaide Vital Statistics.-There were 102 births registered in Adelaide during the month of April, 1902, the highest rate during the last six years, the year 1900 excepted. During the same month 82 deaths were recorded, the highest mortality during the past six years, the year 1898 excepted. The chief causes of deaths were-Zymotic diseases, 15; constitutional diseases, 11; developmental diseases, 9 (old age 8); local diseases, 37 (diseases of the circulatory system 13, pneumonia 6).

HOSPITAL intelligence.

Melbourne Hospital-At a board meeting held recently the hon. medical and surgical staffs conferred with the committee in reference to tenure of office and increase of the numerical strength of the staffs. Dr. Springthorpe presented the following resolutions carried by the honorary medical and surgical staff on the 18th June, 1902:-"1. That the retiring age for indoor physicians be 65 and for indoor surgeons 60; but that as regards the present indoor members, their appointment be for thirteen years from expiry of present term of office in the case of those members who shall not have reached the age of 65 as indoor physicians and the age of 60 as indoor surgeons. 2. That vacancies for the indoor staff be filled by promotion from the out-patient staff by seniority, according to hospital rule. 3. That vacancies in the out-patient staff be filled by the subscribers. 4. That the number of beds be increased. 5. That there be five in-patient physicians and five inpatient surgeons, and that the number of the out-patient staff be the same as at present." In submitting the resolutions arrived at, Dr. Springthorpe said that the present method of electing medical officers by the subscribers was most unsatisfactory. It had been the cause of a good deal of public scandal, and was recognised by the profession as carrying with it a great deal of professional disgrace. It was also unsettling to the staff, and militated against the performance of the best work. If security of tenure were assured the members of the hon. medical staffs would, he felt sure, disassociate themselves from other institutions, and work only for the Melbourne Hospital.

Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney.—Dr. S. H. Hughes having resigned his post as honorary assistant surgeon in the ophthalmic department, applications have been invited from candidates for the position. The appointment of Mr. William Epps as secretary has been confirmed.

The Sydney Hospital-Plans for the erection of new casualty rooms and large waiting-room for casualty patients are being prepared, and it is probable that tenders will be called shortly for the erection of the buildings, which it is estimated will cost about £1,500. It is proposed to place the new buildings at the rear of the hospital, and the entrances will be from the Domain. When the new buildings are completed it is expected that no casualty cases, unless of a very urgent or serious nature, will be taken in at the Macquarie-street entrance to the hospital.

Hospital for Sick Children, Sydney.-The plans for the erection of the new hospital have been under consideration for some time, and are promised by the architect within six weeks from the time when the land given by the Government as a site for the new hospital is transferred, and a portion of land adjoining the site purchased. In the meantime, the accommodation for out-patients at Glebe Point has become totally inadequate to the requirements, and the Board has

secured a suitable position for a new building for an out-patients' department, near the Redfern Railway Station. This will be up to date in all its arrangements, and will be worked for the present in connection with the old hospital, and with the new hospital when it is built. It is expected that it will be completed in six months.

Hobart Hospital.-At the meeting of the board last month, a report from the building committee relative to the building of an isolation hospital was considered. The Chairman, in moving the adoption of the report, explained that the new hospital would be for the reception and isolation of patients suffering from infectious diseases. When erected, it would leave the hospital block at the rear fully available as a women's hospital, which was very desirable. The new buildings would meet all general requirements as a reception and isolation hospital, and would be the means of relieving the general hospital of the treatment of patients with such dangerous diseases, which were a menace to other patients in the same building. In case of an epidemic, the patients suffering from it would be taken away from the city by the Government. The committee hoped the board would agree to their report, so as to secure a commencement of the work with as little delay as possible. The motion was unanimously agreed to.

Women's Hospital, Melbourne.-The receipts

for maintenance for the first eleven months of the current financial year are £1,236 4s 10d less than for the corresponding period of last year, and the expenditure is £671 11s 10d greater, making a total difference of £1,907 168 8d. The proposed effort to raise funds for the erection of additional accommodation has been postponed, and an immediate special effort is to be made to raise money to put the maintenance fund in credit. Failing this, some of the wards must be closed. Dr. Martell, who has been temporarily discharging the duties of resident medical officer of the midwifery department, has resigned her position. At the meeeing of the committee the resignation was accepted with deep regret. The question of appointing a successor was discussed, and it was suggested that the committee should at once invite applications for the position from medical men outside Victoria. In the absence of a full attendance of members, however, it was deemed best to defer consideration of the mattter.

The Coast Hospital, Little Bay-The annual report of the chief medical officer to the Government on this hospital states that the number of patients in the institution at the end of December, 1900, was 233; during 1901 there were admitted 2,688; the total number under treatment having been 2,921. Of this total 2,469 were discharged and 169 died, the mortality being 5.75 %. The average daily number of beds occupied for the year was 255-5. The annual cost per bed was £64 178 8d. The gross expenditure for the year was £16,577 19s 6d. From the medical officer's report it appears that there was an increase in the number of patients during 1901 as compared with 1900 of 345, while the mortality in 1901 was 5.75%, and 5.2% in 1900. The number of enteric fever cases admitted during 1901 was 214, as against 247 in 1900; of measles, 146, as against 29; of chicken-pox, 11, as against 9; of scarlet fever 192, as against 125; and of diphtheria 72 last year, as against 10 in 1900.

North Shore Hospital, Sydney.-The foundation stone of the new building was laid by His Excellency Sir Harry Rawson, K.C.B., the State Governor, last month. The site of the new hospital is in close proximity to the St. Leonards railway station. The estimated cost

is about £20,000 for that portion now in course of construction, consisting of two wards for male and female patients, and two isolation wards providing accommodation for about 44 beds. The block plan shows pavilions on an axial line bearing north-northeast, so that all sides shall have the advantage of the sun during the day. The pavilions are so arranged as to provide for completion in three distinct stages. The completed hospital will cost about £50,000. The buildings will be carried out in brick, with stone dressings, the design being Renaissance. The whole will be roofed with slates. The ventilation is to be carried out on the Tobin system, and an exhaust fan will be provided to pump all vitiated air from the wards.

PERSONAL ITEMS.

Dr. HAROLD BROWNE, of Summer Hill, wishes us to announce that he is not leaving his district, but only removing to another house in the same street.

Dr. T. A. GRIEVES, who was engaged by the New South Wales Board of Health as an expert for the diagnosis of plague cases, has resumed practice at Wahroonga.

Dr. S. T. KNAGGs has gone on a trip to Japan.

Dr. O. H. REDDALL, who recently resigned as medical officer of the Foresters' Lodge at Randwick after 14 years' service, has been presented, on behalf of the members, with an electric battery and instruments used in connection with operations for the nose, throat, and ear.

Dr. WOLFHAGEN, of Hobart, has been appointed Consul for Germany in Tasmania.

Last month Dr. W. G. ARMSTRONG, medical officer of health for the metropolitan district of Sydney, was presented with an illuminated address by the sanitary inspectors as a mark of their appreciation of the friendly relations which had existed between them. The presentation was made by Dr. Ashburton Thompson, president of the Board of Health.

Dr. FISHER has been appointed a temporary hon. medical officer at the South Brisbane Dispensary (Brisbane Hospital).

Dr. SUTTON has resigned the position of hon. medical officer to outpatients, Brisbane Hospital.

The University of Dublin has conferred upon Dr. J. J. POWER, of Sydney, the degrees of Master of Arts and Doctor of Medicine.

While out riding recently, Dr. LEO KENNY, of Melbourne, was thrown from his horse, and had his thigh fractured.

J. MORISON GARDINER, M.B., Ch. B., D.Ph. (Camb.), has succeeded to the practice of Dr. ROBERT SCOTT, of Ballarat (Vic.).

Dr. REID, late of Palmerston North (N.Z.), has gone for a trip to Japan.

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