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George W. Kaan (Annals of Gynæcology and
Pediatrics, December, 1901) advocates the pessary in

cases in which the displacement is capable of replace. GYNÆCOLOGY AND OBSTETRICS.

ment or can be made so by treatment, and in which Curetting Patients attending the Out-patient worn with comfort. The case must be watched with

the pessary is capable of holding it in place and can be Department.

particular care and the pessary removed with the onset Bookoemskavo (Vratch, 1901, No. 39) says that in

of the slightest pain. The ability to do without the the year 1901, 6,593 patients attended his out-patient pessary within a year or so occurs in about 25 or 30 room, and curetting was performed 154 times. In 116 per cent. of the cases. Ordinarily the error is made of

Kaan makes a plea cases it was for fungous endometritis, and endometritis choosing too large a pessary. following upon abortion ; in 35 for recent abortion ;

for the more careful treatment of displacements by aud in 3 for diagnostic purposes.

The endometritis suitable applications and by pessaries betore resorting was completely cured in 116 cases ; in 14 cases some

to operative measures, which are by no means uniformly metrorrhagia remained, which was cured by the successful in their results. injection of a solution of io:line (grammatiki solution). Uterine Displacements. The presence of salpingo-oöphoritis when the tubes were not thicker than a finger and ovaries not larger Henry C. Coe (New York Medical Journal, Norem. than a pigeon's egg, was not accepted as a contra

ber 9th, 1901) offers the following deductions :indication against curetting. In 2 cases, after curetting Muscular atony is an important factor in the causation for abortion, the hæmorrhage recurred, but a second of uterine displacements, either alone or associated curetting put everything right. The abortions were with the usual factors, overweight of the uterus and operated upon immediately, but the cases of endo- weakening of its ligaments and the pelvic floor. Mere metritis were prepared for the next day, a piece of restoration of the organ to its normal position with iodoform gauze being introduced for twenty-four regard to the axes of the pelvis is not sufficient to hours. In half the cases Hegar's dilators, up to sizes cause permanent relief of symptoms, provided ad9 and 10, were introduced to enable the curette to be ditional support is not afforded by firm pelvic and used. Every possible antiseptic precaution was taken. , abdominal muscles. The prognosis as to the cure of The iodoform gauze was not passed into the uterus, malpositions by operations is influenced by the general except in inflammatory cases for purposes of drainage.

muscular tone of the individual. Hence it should be The patients, after curetting, were kept on a couch for the aim of the physician to endeavour to restore such three to four hours, and a bladder of ice placed upon a healthy condition of the muscles, either before or the abdomen. They were driven home, and went to after operation, by appropriate treatment-baths, bed for four days, when they returned to the clinic. massage, electricity, gymnastic movements, out-of-door The results were so good that the author has continued cxercise, tonics, and such regulation of the patient's his practice, and has done several dozens already this dress and mode of life as seems best titted to the indi. year.,

vidual case.

In short, the work of the physician often

begins where that of the surgeon ends, if the result is Gonorrhea.

to be complete and permanent. T. W. Eden (Clinical Journal, September 18th, 1901) uses a I in 1,000 solution of bi-chloride or biniodide of

Retention of the Menses. mercury thoroughly applicd to the vaginal mucous Christopher Martin (British Gynæ cological Journal, membrane. This solution must be applied un er an November, 1901), contributes a paper on this subject, anæsthetic and by means of a stiff brush. This treat- and reports twelve cases. In two cases the atresia was ment must be carried out early, that is, before the at the hymen, in four in the vagina, and in six in the Bartholinian glands are involved. When the disease cervix. In one case there was a bicornate uterus, in involves the urethra, this must be dilated and the canal two cases the uterus was double, and in two cases both swabbed out with a l in 2000 perchloride solution. When the uterus and vagina were double. In three cases the the above treatment is refused, the best method of retention cyst consisted of the vagina alone, in three of treatment is by pessaries of cocoa butter containing the uterus alone. The uterus and tubes were distended twenty grains of iodoform and ten gruins of oil of in six. The retained fluid was blood in seven cases, eucalyptus. A pessary is passed into the vagina pus in three, and blood in the uterus with pus in the when ihe patient goes to bed ; it melts, and the tubes in two

In discussing treatment he solution flows over the vaginal walls and into the folds says : The cases vary so much that no one line of and depressions. Douches are used in addition to the treatment can be laid down as applicable to all cases ; above. . A douche should always be given with the but there are certain general principles which should patient in the dorsal position

guide us. (a) Whenever it is possible, the collection Hæmaturia due to Uterine Fibroids.

should be opened and drained per vaginam. The vulva

and vaginal cul-de-sac must be rendered aseptic, and a H. Hartmann (Annale de Gynæcologie et d'Obstetrio, free horizontal incision made in the roof of the cul-deSeptember, 1901) calls attention to the possibility of a sac, and carefully deepened by dissecting up between fibroid of the uterus simulating a tumour of the the bladder and the rectum (if they be in contact). bladder. His patient had had persistent hæmaturia When the wall of the retention cyst is reached a free for six weeks, and examination of the bladder showed a transverse incision should be made into it, and the tumour projecting from its posterior wall. Supra-pubic viscid treacly fluid washed away by prolonged irrigasection proved that the tumour was a fibroid projecting tion. If it be possible the mucous membrane of the from the supra-vaginal portion of the cervix, and sac should be drawn down and sutured to that of the merely pushing in the posterior wall of the bladder, vaginal cul-de-sac, and the cavity packed with jodoform which was red and granular at that point. Recovery gauze. (b) Should the Fallopian tubes be felt dis. followed curettage and cauterisation of the granulations. iended on either side of the uterus, an abdominal



section should at once be performed, and the tubes į kidney, and chyluria, followed by hæmaturia of proemptied of their contents by free incision. Should they bably parasitic origin. These five cases are instances contain pus they ought to be removed. (C) In those of hæmaturia during pregnancy.

The remaining cases where it is impossible or dangerous to reach the seven are admitted by the author as genuine cases of retention cyst from the vagina, the abdomen must be hæmaturia of pregnancy, and he adds a note of a peropened and the uterus and tubes extirpated. (d) Where sonal case, making eight cases recorded in all.

As & there is a septate condition of the uterus or a double working hypothesis of the cause of this condition the vagina, the septum should be divided as far as possible author suggests that it may be due to a gravid and the two cavities thrown into one. (c) In many toxæmia, brought about by hepatico-renal insuf. cases where an artificial opening is made, especially in ficiency. Prognosis is not unfavourable. Treatment the cervix, there is a marked tendency for it to reclose is expectant, for ordinary styptics appear to be of little by cicatricial contraction. This must be preventeil by value. If the loss of blood is grave, the membranes the regular passage of bougies, or by the wearing for should be punctured or labour induced. An excellent months or years of a flanged rubber or vulcanite tube. resumé of published cases is appended to the paper. (/) In all these operations there is a great danger of

Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia. septic infection, and therefore the most scrupulous antiseptic precautions, not only in the operation, but

Porak and G. Duranti (Comptes-Reud. de la Soc. during the after treatment, are of vital importance,

d'Obst. de Paris, May, 1901) describe a case in which the child did not breathe and rapidly became cyanotic. The presence of the apex beat in the right mammary

line suggested transposition of the viscera, but intesUnusual Perineal Rupture in a Primipara. tinal tympany over the whole left half of the thorax Erwin Kehrer, of Bonn (Cent. für Gynäk., No. 38; Autopsy demonstrated the situation in the left pleural

showed the presence of a diaphragmatic hernia. 1901) describes the case of a primipara (age not stated) cavity of the left lobe of the liver, the stomach, who was delivered in the obstetric ward of the hospital. duodenum, ascending and descending colon, spleen, The presentation was L.0.A. The vagina was very narrow and rigid ; it presented numerous wart-like

pancreas and the entire small intestine. elevations and a muco-purulent discharge, but no

The Influence of Pregnancy and Childbed on gonococci were found. Twenty-two hours after the Phthisis. pains began the anus was observed to be widely di. Bernheim (Annals of Gyn, and Paed., June, 1901), in lated, but retained its round contour, and presenting an article on the above subject, comes to the following through it was seen the nose and upper lip of the fætus, conclusions :and later the mouth and hair on the forehead, whilst In those predisposed to such infection pregnancy the occiput presented at the vulva. The perineum was does not necessarily lead to phthisis, but is the more thinner in the middle, and a typical central rupture likely to do so the younger the subject may be. Latent was expected, but it tore at its two extremities, in or ancient tuberculosis is not necessarily aroused by a spite of all efforts to keep the head back. When all single pregnancy. Where ultimate infection is to be hope of saving the perineal floor was lost, it was cut feared marriage should be delayed ; in case of past through centrally with scissors. The lower third of tuberculosis, prognosis as to the results of maternity the posterior vaginal wall was torn, the rectovaginal must be reserved. septum was torn, and the rectum only in its postero- The more extensive the tubercular lesions the greater lateral walls remained attached to the sphinctor. The the danger of pregnancy; in miliary tuberculosis it is split anterior rectal wall was drawn up to a great dis. almost certainly fatal. tance from the sphincter, which, until the perineum A single pregnancy may not aggravate dormant ruptured, was intact. The vaginal wall was sewn up tuberculosis ; repeated pregnancies are almost always with catgut, the perineum with silkworm sutures, and dis istrous, even in the curable forms of phthisis. the last two stitches passed through the sphincter ani Childbed and convalescence are particularly trying and then through the retracted rectal wall on the one to the phthisical ; lactation should be prohibited. side, and again through the rectal wall and sphincter If existing tuberculosis be aggravated from the first on the other side of the tear. This closed the sphincter, weeks of pregnancy, induced abortion, with due pre and' at the same time brought down the retracted cautions, is justifiable. The influence of paternal tuberbowel by a kind of purse-string suture. A rubber culosis on pregnancy is nil. tube, wrapped in gauze, was inserted through the re- Young Primiparæ. paired sphincter. The healing of the wound was com.

H. Paunetier (Paris, Thesis.) has collected 281 cases plete ; there was no rise of temperature. The bowels

of labour in women below the age of 17, at the Tarnier were opened on the tenth day, sutures removed on the

Clinic. eleventh day, and an enema given. The patient was

His statistics go to prove that labour is not discharged from the hospital on the twenty-first day, usually reached term. There were no abnormal pre

unusually hazardous for very young women. Pregnancy and the sphincter action, both for fæces and flatus,

sentations. The average duration of labour was only was completely restored,

fourteen hours and nine minutes. Forceps were emHæmaturia of Pregnancy.

ployed in 16

cases. Chiaventone (Ann. de Ggn, et d'Obstet., September, At the meeting of the executive committee 1901) defines this complication as “a hæmaturia with of the Queen Victoria Home for Consumptives on out hereditary or individual pathological antecedents, April 9th, Dr. Purser, hon. secretary, stated that which supervenes during pregnancy, and passes off he had advertised for a resident medical officer with its termination, which is marked by the absence for the new sanatorium at Wentworth Falls in the of ordinary lesions, and is entirely and exclusively various medical journals in Australia and throughout brought about by pregnancy.” Albarran had collected the United Kingdom. The salary for the position twelve cases of hæmaturia during pregnancy, but in was £300 per annum, with board and residence. Of five of these, as Chiaventone shows, the hæmorrhage the 24 applications received, none were from Australia. was due to pathological conditions other than preg. They were as flows :-Great Britain 15, Germany 4, nancy, viz., hæmophilia, nephritis, cystic tuberculous United States of America 4, and Fiji 1.


Physiology and Pathology of Muscular Tone,

of Reflexos, and of Contractures. The Supra-Orbital Reflex.

At the recent Congress of French Alienists and Prof. V. Bechterew (Neurologisches Centralblatt, No. Neurologists (Archives de Neurologie, No. 70), M. Crocq 20) has investigated the reflexes to be elicited in the read an interesting paper on the above subject, which region of the face. Beside the conjunctival and the he treated by the methods of comparative neurology. pharyngeal, he mentions four others which are present He gives the condition of muscular tone, the reflexes, with greater or less frequency. The “ Eye Reflex" is etc., as found in the rabbit, the dog, the monkey, and demonstrated by striking with a percussion hammer on man, under various normal and pathological conditions. any part of the fronto-temporal portion of the skull or As regards muscle tone in man, he finds that a complete on the malar bone. The result produced is a slight transverse lesion of the cord in the cervical or upper contraction of the orbicularis ocuti. He finds the dorsal region produces total and permanent abolition reflex present in the majority of the cases investigated. of the tone of voluntary muscles and exaggeration of Since the reflex arc consists of the trigeminus, its tone in the sphincters. From this he concludes that sensory nucleus, and the upper branch of the facial, in man the long conducting paths are alone charged the reflex should be of interest in lesions of the brain. with transmitting the impulses regulating the tone of stem, and the parts of the brain lying above it. Q. the voluntary muscles, and that the centre for this tone McCarthy (Neurologisches Centralblatt, No. 17) con- is exclusively cortical. The tone of the sphincters is sidered that this reflex, which he named the “Supra regulated by means of the short paths, but cortical Orbital," was only elicited by direct percussion over

influence is more marked in man than in the other the position of the supro-orbital nerve. Bechterew animals. In the new-born the pyramidal tracks are now points out that the area of excitability is much not functionally present, and in them, as in the lower larger. Another writer (Carl Hudovering) holds

that animals, voluntary muscular lone is regulated by the it is not a true reflex at all, since he found it intact short paths. Concerning the reflexes, he points out after removal of the gasserian ganglion, in a case in that section of the posterior roots produces the abolition which complete hemi-anästhesia and hemianolgesia of all reflexes ; that in man complete section of the cord of the face resulted from the operation,

in the cervical or upper dorsal region produces per

manent and entire abolition of tendon and cutaneous Tabes Dorsalis and General Paralysis.

reflexes ; that destructive lesions of the corten cerebri

cause in all animals an exaggeration, more or less A very interestingdiscussion on the unity of the patho marked, of tendon reflexes, and in some animals a logical process in these two diseases took place at the

diminution of cutaneous refleses ; that destructive Pathological Society of London (Transactions vol. 51).

lesions of the cerebellum produce an exaggeration of Mott expressed his well-known opinion that both

tendon reflexes. His conclusions are that in man the diseases were due to a primary degeneration of the

centres for tendon reflexes are basilar, and are subject neurone due to a poison, most probably that of syphilis; cerebellum, and that the centres for cutaneous reflexes

to the inhibitory action of the cerebrum and of the in the case of tabes it is the enogenous spinal neurones which are affected, while in general paralysis the stress

are cortical. In this connection, he pointed out how falls on the association system of neurones of the common it is to find clinically a disagreement between cerebral hemispheres, especially on those of the frontal

the tendon and cutaneous reflexes, and further showed and central convolutions. He said, “A striking instance that, if his suppositions were correct, such disagreement of the selective action of the syphilitic poison is shown

would be of high diagnostic value. Contracture, he in the fact that only in persons affected with acquired

inted out, was indissolubly bound up with muscle or inherited syphilis is the symptom known as the

tone, it being the expression of hypertonicity ; irritaArgyll-Robertson pupil found, indeed it is sometimes

tive lesions of the corten cause in man and the monkey the only symptom. Seeing that this is the most

(as opposed to other animals in which muscular tone is common objective pbenomenon in the two diseases

maintained irrespective of the corten) marked contracmentioned, it strengthens the presumption, based on

tures, since with them the tonus mechanism involves experience, that the syphilitic poison is the cause of the

the cerebral corten. True muscular contraction is disease in the majority of instances.” Among bis produced on the one hand by alterations in the central reasons for considering the diseases identical were the motor neurones, and on the other by the laws of following facts : (1) a certain number of cases of tabes muscular antagonism. present mental symptoms ; (2) a certain number of cases of general paralysis present tabetic symptoms, and

Intra-spinal Injection of Cocaine. after death atrophy and sclerosis of the posterior Pitres and Abodie, of Bordeaux (Archives de Neucolumus are frequently found in these cases ; (3) a rologie, No. 70) write on the physiological effects of certain number of cases of tabes develop subsequently intra-spinal injection of cocaine. The most important mental symptoms, and die of general paralysis. It had of these effects is analgesia of the lower limbs, and we been contended, he said, that the degeneration have thus an elegant method of producing surgical of the posterior columus in general paralysis was anesthesia, and of relieving painful crises, such as those endogenous and not enogenous ; his own observations of tabes. Their conclusions are drawn from observations led to quite the contrary conclusion. He had further on about fifty cases. In each case they injected 5 to observed that characteristic tabetic symptoms such as 2 c.c. of a 2 per cent. sol. cocaine. They consider the grey atrophy of the discs were not uncommon in general effects are due, not to a direct action on the cord, as paralysis, and he had even met with symmetrical maintained by other writers, but to an alteration in perforating ulcers and Charchob's disease of the joints. the conductibility of the posterior roots. The analThe meeting was almost unanimous in considering gesia comes on gradually and in patches.

These syphilis as the chief if not the only cause of both patches spread, and become continuous. The analgesia diseases. Alex. Bruce combatted the idea of a primary is preceded naturally by a condition of hypoalgesia. neurone degeneration, but Mott was supported by such Seosibility to pain disappears first, next that for men as Gowens, Ferrier, Buzzard, Head, etc.

temperature, and, lastly, that for pressure is lost.

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When the effect is complete the patient is unable to in favour at the present time, viz., those of Schmidt. distinguish differences in pressure amounting to several Rimpler, and Manz, Leber and Deutschmann, and kilogrammes-only experiencing a sensation of contact. Parinaud. According to Sourdille, the fundamental The sensibility of the deeper parts disappears pari change is cedema of the optic nerve, spreading downwards passu with that of the skin. When the action of the from the proximal end, and producing its maximum drug is being fully exerted, energetic pressure of the effect at the level of the optic foramen. His explanamuscles, severe blows on the bones, and even almost tion is briefly as follows: The chiasma is, anatomically, brutal traction on the joints, produce no sensation of an appendage of the third ventricle, with which it is pain. The cocaine has no effect on the deep visceral closely incorporated. The whole of the perifascicular, sensibility (testicular, epigastric). The cutaneous re- and intrafascicular neuroglia of the optic nerve is in flexes are, as a rule, abolished ; the tendon reflexes are direct continuity with that of the chiasma, and exaggerated ; the sphincters are unaffected ; in a few ventricle, Edema of the wall of the third ventricle, cases slight turgence of the genitals was observed ; in leads to cedema of the chiasma, which descends, along some cases profuse sweating of the upper parts of the both optic nerves. As the nerve swells from ædema it body, bat no secretory or vaso-motor troubles in the is compressed in the optic foramen, and the strangula. analgesic areas. In about two-thirds of the cases a tion can be easily demonstrated in fresh specimens. trembling of the limbs was observed ; it was usually As a result of the compression the venous return in tine slight, but occasionally intense and persistent; it had optic nerve, and also the lymphatic circulation is no direct relation to the exaggerated tendon reflexes. impeded. The interstitial ædema of the nerve is thug The power of movement was not lost-the patients increased at the same time, and the pial veins are being able to walk-but they complained that the dilated, and allow a serous exudation into the sublimbs felt heavy. Romberg's sign was not present in arachnoid space. This fluid cannot flow back to the any of the cases. An intense feeling of nausea often brain, because the swollen nerve completely fils the supervenes. The writers assert that the headache which bony foramen, and prevents its return. The sheath this procedure is said to cause is not due to the becomes distended, giving rise to the classical ampul. cocaine, since it occurs after simple lumbar puncture, lary dilatation. (In this process, pressure of the with the removal of a few cubic centimetres of cerebral spinal fluid plays no part). The circulation in cerebro-spinal fluid.

the central artery and vein is obstructed; but, the

obstruction being gradual, the capillary network in the OPHTHALMOLOGY.

lamina cribosa becomes dilated, and the circulation is

carried on collaterally with the vessels of the choroid Testing for Colour Blindness.

and scleral ring. Vision and retinal circulation are

thus preserved, but the swelling of the papilla is the In ibe Ophthalmic Review for February, Dr.

clinical expression of the collateral circulation, which Edridge Green, who is widely known for his special takes the place of that of the central vein. There is study of the subject, contributes an article on the re

no essential difference between descending neuritis, quirements of a test for colour blindness. He gives and choked disc. Atrophic processes start at the optic reasons for objecting to the Young-Helmholtz theory foramen, and are due to strangulation of the nerve in of colour vision, and criticises the Holmgren test, show

the bony canal. ing that by it, no less than six varieties of colour chiasma, and down to the disc. The motor and sensory

The atrophy extends up to the blindness may escape detection, while a very large functions of the nerves of the limbs are preserved for percentage of normal-sighted persons are rejected by

a very long time in spite of considerable ædema, but it, no less than 38 per cent, in one year, and 42 per | they have not the same anatomical cause for comcent. in another, baving been shown to have been

pression and strangulation as the optic nerve has. wrongly rejected by the Board of Trade by this test. He contends that in a test for colour blindness, colour

The Treatment of Chronic Glaucoma is a names should be used, arguing that ignorance of the colour names of red, yellow, green, and blue, is as fatal question that continues to excite interesting discusas colour blindness. He tests by means of a lantern, in

sion amongst ophthalmologists. The subject was again a dark room, at a distance of at least fifteen feet, with thrashed out at the recent meeting of the Ophthalmoslides of red, and green, blue, purple, and yellow, logical Society of the United Kingdom, and also in the which can be fogged" by placing before them slides Ophthalmic Section of the New York Academy of of ground or ribbed neutral glass. The purple, blue, Medicine. There was a general agreement that early yellow and green slides are necessary to prevent indicting is the proper treatment, but it should be done guessing. With this test, though persons with colour

before the sight is much affected, or the field greatly sense sufficient for every practical test do not fail, contracted, especially the field for colours. A sine qua colour-blind persons make one or more of the following non is the existence of increased tension with narrowed mistakes, viz., calling red "green,” or green "red," or

angle of the anterior chamber. In advanced cases white “red” or “green,” or vice versa; or red, green

with great contraction of the field, marked impair. or white light “ black." One incorrect answer suffices

ment of vision, decided plus tension, and deep cupping for rejection. The candidate may be convinced of his of the disc, operation was considered to be contra in. defect (of which he may have been really unconscious) dicated, and said to be often followed by immediate by removing the “ fogging ”glass, and allowing him to further impairment or loss of vision. Anterior or come closer to the lantern when he will, often to his posterior sclerotomy was not viewed with much favor utter amazement, recognise his incapacity.

save in certain exceptional circumstances. Differences

of opinion existed as to the necessity for the iridectomy The Pathology of Optic Neuritis in cases of being a large one, and also as to the propriety of trying Cerebral Tumour.

to secure a cystoid cicatrix by leaving the iris or a

portion of it incarcerated in the wound. The majority In the Archives d'Ophtalmologie, Sourdille, of of the speakers favoured the careful clearing of the iris Nantes, contributes an article on this subject. He from the angles of the wound, Excision of the superior

describes three cases, clinically, anatomically, and cervical ganglein of the sympathetic was referred to, | pathologically. He traverses the three theories' most but was generally regarded with great suspicion.



Allan James Campbell, M.B., B.S., Adelaide.

New South Wales. Dr. a. Campbell. M.B., Ch.B., M.R.C.S., eldest son of the late Hon. Dr. A. Campbell, M.L.C., died in

Metropolitan Vital Statistics. During the I'retoria of enteric fever on March 19. Deceased was

month of February, 1902, 922 children were born. This educated at St. Peter's College, and graduated M.B., and Ch.B., at Adelaide University in 1896.

For some

total is 11 greater than the average for February during time he was house surgeon at the Adelaide Hospital, numbered 425, or five greater than the quinquennial

the previous five years. The deaths during the month and afterwards at the Children's Hospital. Some years

average for February. Balance of births over deaths, ago he went to England with a view of taking the

497. The birth rate was l•83 per 1,000 of population, F.R.C.S. degree. He obtained his M.R.C.S., and the war breaking out he went on one of the hospital ships. under 1 year, compared with the births for the month,

and the deaths were 85 per 1,000. Infantile mortality He was surgeon in charge of the military hospital at

was at the rate of 108 per 1,000 for the city, and 115 Harrismith for some time, and subsequently went to

for the suburbs. Of the 426 persons who died, 143, or Pretoria, and while there contracted the disease to

33.6 per cent, were under five years of age, and 105, or which he succumbed. Deceased married (on May 14, 1901) Miss 6. Durrant, a daughter of the late Major diseases caused 54 dtaths, whooping cough, 11 deaths ;

24.7 per cent., were less than one year old. Zymotic General Durrant, and neice of Lord Roberte.

diarrhea, 10; typhoid fever, 1 ; bubonic plague, 7; Robert Denham Pinnock, M.D., C.M. Glas., diphtheria, 4; scarlet fever, 2. From constitutional Ballarat, Victoria.

diseases there were 88 deaths ; phthisis, 38 ; cancer, 32. We regret to read the sudden death of Dr. Pin- Developmental diseases produced 25 deaths; senile

decay, 12. Local diseases caused 212 deaths ; nervous nock, the well-known practitioner of Ballarat. Dr. Pinnock was born at Hawthorn, Melbourne, in 1849,

diseases, 48 ; apoplexy, 14 ; meningitis, 8; pneumonia, and was the son of Mr. J. D. Pinnock, a well-known

lt; enteritis, 47. Marriages, Births and Deaths in public man in the early days of the State.

each Registry Division and District of the State, 1901 :

He received his primary education at a school in East

Marriages, 10,538 ; births, 37,875; deaths, 16,021 ;

excess of births over deaths, 21,854. Melbourne, and in 1873 he graduated bachelor in medicine and surgery at the Glasgow University, from Newcastle District Vital Statistics.—During which he subsequently received the degree of doctor of the month of February, 1902, there were 153 births, or medicine. Da returning to the State he practised for a

at the rate of 2.75 per 1,000 of the population. The time at Beaufort, and finally settled in Ballarat in

deaths numb red 61, or 1:10 per 1,000 of population. 1869, where he soon established a very lucrative prac. Of the deaths, 31 were due to local diseases, 10 to tice. He took a prominent part in public affairs, and developmental, 8 to zymotic, 8 to constitutional. Of for many years held a commission in the local military the persons who died 31, or 56 per cent. were under five forces. He was a member of the honorary staff at the years of age, and 28 were less than one year old. Ballarat Hospital. He left Ballarat in apparently the best of health and spirits on Monday, for a shooting

The Bubonic Plague in Sydney.-The total excursion at Nerrin Nerrin Station, Streatham, when number of cases to date is 97. There have been 30 his demise occurred. He had just shot a hare, and was patients cured, and 26 have died. There are still rereloading his gun, when he fell forward and expired. maining under treatment at the Coast Hospital 36. The remains of Dr. Pinnock were interred in the One case has occurred at Newcastle. family vault in the Melbourne General Cemetery. He

Appointment of Female Sanitary Inspectors. leaves a widow and two children.

-A deputation from the Women's Progressive AssociaArthur Oakes, M.D., Edin. et Syd., Bexhill- tion recently waited on Dr. Ashburton Thompson, the on-Sea, England.

President of the Board of Health, to urge the appointDr. Arthur William Oakes, youngest and only sur- ment of female sanitary inspectors. Dr. Ashburton viving son of the late Hon. George Oakes, died at his Thompson said he was thoroughly in accord with the residence, Bexhill-on-sea, England, on March 23, at ideas advanced by the deputation. He considered no the age of 51. Dr. Oakes, who was a native of Parra- sanitary staff was complete without female inspectors. matta, was educated at Newington College, after which He had a knowledge of what success had followed the he went to Edinburgh University, where he obtained appointment of lady inspectors in England and other the degree of M.D. Returning to Sydney he settled parts, and he would gladly place the whole matter down in private practice at Woollabra for a time, but before the Board of Health with a favourable endorseon the death of his father he returned to England, and ment to the proposal. there practised his profession. He leaves a widow and two daughters.

Victoria. Dr. Sydney H. Schrader, of Waverley, died on March 24th. after a long illness. The deceased was a West Melbourne Corporation Tip.—The connative of Walcha, N.S.W. He took his M.D. degree dition of the City Corporation tip at West Melbourne in 1893, in California. He leaves a widow, but no was again referred to at a meeting of the Board of Public family.

Health on April 1st. The chairman (Dr. Gresswell) We regret to record the deaths of Dr. John Gray, of stated that the tip was overrun by rats and other verMelbourne, retired medical practitioner, aged 84 ;

min, and constituted a menace to the bealth of the and of Dr. Charles Johnson, a retired medical


metropolis. titioner, an old resident of Parramatta, aged 74 years.

Infectious Diseases. The number of cases He took the degree of M.R.C.S. Eng., in 1850, M.B. of typhoid, diphtheria, and scarlet fever reported to Dub., in 1869, and M.D. Dub., in 1872. He practised at the Board of l'ublic Health for the fortnight ending Goulburn, at Penrith, at Picton, at Burwood, and then 29th March last show that they are much less numer. for many years at Parramatta,

ous than during a similar period last year. In 1901

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