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condition, that, after his own death, and that of his only sister, who is without children, the interest should continue to be annually paid to the Mineralogical Academy; so that this, his only daughter, as it may be called, obtains an additional annual income of 1600 crowns.

Werner's literary studies, like his mind, embraced every branch of seience. Every thing excited his thirst of knowledge, and thus it often happened that he dedicated all his attention to researches which seemed to lie entirely out of his sphere. His inquiries into the direction of the inountains of the first and second formation, led him to the seat and the migrations of the aboriginal tribes and their branches. To this were soon joined inquiries into their original languages and radical syllables, which he prosecuted with the greatest acuteness, and reduced into tables. Soon arose an universal glossary of all the radical syllables and characteristic sounds, in all the languages with which he was acquainted; which he studied with ardour, and to complete his knowledge of which, he purchased the most expensive works; thus he gave sixty crowus for Hickes' Thesaurus, and but lately eighty crowns for Walton's great Polyglot. His antiquarian researches into the mineralogy of the ancients made bim a passionate friend of archæology, and the most costly works on that subject were purchased by hiin. One branch of archæo. logy, the numismatology of the ancients, had become so favourite a pursuit with him during the last eight years of his life, that he purchased entire collections of medals, and in a short time was in possession of above 6000 ancient Greek and Roman coins. This enabled him to make interesting researches into the different mixtures of the metals, and on the arts of adulteration; and in order to make all more clear, he arranged entire series of false coins. An unedited silver coin of his collection, which he gave to the great connoisseur Catauro, in Milan, is still the subject of a numismatic controversy between the Vienna and Italian connoisseurs. The examination, which was to be printed, was intended to be dedicated to Werner. The practice which he had of studying the direction of the mountains and the surface of the earth, made him an excellent judge of ground, and inspired him with a great fondness for military tactics. He studied the art of war with great diligence, read the accounts given by masters in this branch, and acquired a fine collection of military books. Officers of the engineers and general staff were surprised to hear him speak of the mistakes committed by the allies from want of due knowledge of the ground, in their attack upon Dresden in August 1813, where lie happened to be present. His name was mentioned at the head-quarters of the allied sovereigns at Frankfort, and he was invited to repair thither; but his inflexible attachment to his king made him decline the invitation. Medicine also attracted his attention, at first as lying in the circle of the sciences connected with natural history, but afterwards in the latter years of his life, that he might be enabled to judge of the bodily sufferings of himself and others; so that medical books were his favourite reading, and conversation on medical subjects what he preferred to every other. Ever ready to afford assistance, he was

dy to afford assistance happy.

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happy, when he visited a sick friend, to be able to give medical ad-
vice, and also to judge of his own situation which he often thought
precarious. The danger of such an inclination, which can never lead
to any thing further than empiricism, is evident. His best friends,
among whom we may reckon the veteran of the healing art, the ve-
nerable Dr. Kapp, at Dresden, sometimes reproved him for this ;
but it remained his favourite hobby-horse. He had made a very
witty table of diseases according to the stages of human life, from
infancy to old age; he was a sworn enemy to vinegar and all kinds
of milk diet, but a determined beef-eater. In other respects lie
lived very temperately, drank but little wine, and was especially
and anxiously careful about warm clothing and warm rooms.
He first visited Carlsbad, when only fourteen years

of
age,

and had since been there forty-one tiines. Here, even in the latest part of the autumn, he always acquired new strength. Had not imperious circumstances hindered him this time from visiting sooner the salutary fountain, which had become absolutely necessary to him, he would perhaps have still lived. He was fond of travelling, and spoke with emotion and pleasure of his visit to Paris in 1802, where he was received with the greatest respect. Though not indifferent to external distinctions, to the diplomas of foreign academies and - learned societies, he never sought or asked for them, and in conversation never attached any value to them. However, he was justly, proud of being a member of the Institute of France, and of the Weriserian Society in England. Even on his death-bed he learnt with joy from his former pupil and faithful friend, the Professor of Natural History at Edinburgh (Jamieson), that not only several mineralogical societies flourished in Great Britain, but that professore ships of mineralogy on Werner's principles were founded at Oxford, Cainbridge, London, Glasgow, Cork, Dublin, and Belfast. At bis suggestion an union of friends of natural philosophy and mineralogy . was formed last winter in Dresden, where Werner himself presided.

He was in the best sense of the expression a citizen of the world. Every newspaper that he read, excited in him a pious wish for the happiness of mankind, for truth and justice. In the last days of his life, his eye was most frequently directed to the Brasils, where the excellent Oranjo was his friend, and many Germans now employed there his scholars. In his thoughts he followed every traveller, and put questions to him, in his own mind, such as Michaelis once wrote for Niebuhr and Forskael. His house was the constant rendezvous of curious travellers, from all countries and of all ranks; and be showed to them all, with uncommon patience and attention, his museum, and especially his collection of precious stones, which excites surprize by the value and variety of the specimens. He did not, however, like writing letters, because he preferred personal intercourse to every thing, and dreaded a loss of time. This disinte. rested participation, in whatever promoted in any country the interests of knowledge and humanity, did not hinder him from being the most faithful son of his own country, the most loyal reverer of liis king. He refused every invitation from abroad, (and he reNO, 225. 3 F

ceived

ceived at an early period several very brilliant and enticing ones,) and was for many years contented with a very moderate salary, supporting himself by private lectures. He made presents to all the academies and public schools of Saxony, and endeavoured by this njeans every where to excite a..predilection for natural philosophy.

Those who were most intimately connected with him, enjoyed his tenderest interest and care." In his house,” said Boettiger, in his farewell address on the eminence of Gorbitz, “company daily assembled for his advice; and the same band with which he felt the pulse of nature, raised and supported every unfortunate. His simple manners, his cordial cheerfulness, and his social playfulness, made him the favourite of his fellow-citizens. When Werner entered, every countenance brightened; the women, too, loved the company of a man who, without insipid compliments, always had something delicate and entertaining to say to them. In his earlier years his feeling heart would doubtless have made him highly susceptible of enjoying the sweets of domestic life; but he did not find what he sought. In later years he renounced the idea of them, out of love to science, and was fully indemnified by the cordial attachment of his pupils and friends. Penetrated with that true devotion which worships God in spirit and in truth, he often preached to his pupils the purest morality, which he confirmed by his own example; and even in bis lectures often rose with genuine enthusiasm from the miracles of nature to their Divine Author.is TS

Such was the man of whom his country will be always proud; a man equally distinguished by his rare learning, and by his goodness of heart and unspotted character, How just is the grief caused by such a loss! His fairest monument is the gratitude of his pupils, who are spread over all the countries of the world. But his doctrines and his life will not fail of public acknowledgment and praise. This tribute will be given him from France, England, and Italy, Neither must the tongue of his pupils in Germany be mute. Let Von Leonbard dedicate to him his second Lecture in the Academy at Munich! Let Steffens, Ullmann, Hausmann, Mohs, Mon, Linke, and Weiss, and, above all, the feeling Schubert, speak of him ! May Gilbert, who defended him against the violent Chenevix, erect a memorial to him in his Annals ! – Nor can we doubt bat some monument of marble or bronze will be raised to his memory, to which British gratitude and generosity will gladly subscribe, and Frieberg allot a suitable situation to be inclosed for the purpose. For the present, we hope that Böhme, or Buchhorn, will engrave the fine portrait of him, by G. Von Kugelchen, in Dresden, which was intended for his museum, for the satisfaction of his numerous scholars and friends. His most glorious monument, however, will always be the Mineralogical Academy, preserved in uninterrupted activity by his worthy scholars; that academy which he himself sometimes called his beloved daughter, and richly endowed; those who go thither on a pilgrimage, those who there receive instruction, will pay continued homage to the manes of Werner ! - Literary Gazette

180191 CRITICAL 403

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CRITICAL ANALYSIS

OF RECENT PUBLICATIONS,

IN TAR

DIFFERENT BRANCHES OF PHYSIC, SURGERY, AND

MEDICAL PHILOSOPHY,

A Picture of the present State of the Royal College of Physi

cians of London ; containing Memoirs, biographical, critical, and literary, of all the resident Members of that learned Body, and of the Heads of the Medical Boards, with some other distinguished Professional Characters: to which is subjoined an Appendix, or Account of the different Medical Institutions of the Metropolis, Scientific and Charitable, with their present Establishments. Svo. pp. 548. Sherwood and Co.

THE most interesting part of the present work is the biography of living characters. It will be urged that such can never be impartial. We would ask, Where is the impartiality in the biography of the deceased ? But, in a compilation like the present, we have one particular advantage: without any breach of candour, we may presume that the materials are furnished by the characters themselves, This affords, if not a certain, at least the best, source of correctness in some points, and shows, at the same time, how men 'wish to be described. The filling-up the Picture must, of course,' be left to the compiler; but it is not likely to be unsatisfactory to the parties." Under this impression, we shall gladly seize the opportunity of offering the amende honorable of two writers, who, it now appears, were jointly engaged in a publication which, at one time, seeined to threaten destruction to every honest endeavour at the improvement of medicine. “Dr. BIRKBECK, Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians,

and Physician to the Aldersgate Dispensary. Literary talents and strong connexions at all times command success with a professional character, and the respectable individual now before us is proceeding with rapid strides to occupy that place in city practice which a Fothergill and a Lettsom have held before.

"Dr. Birkbeck is a native of Setile, in Yorkshire, where his family resides. His father was a banker,

er, and his brother pursues the same respectable mode of acquiring wealth. They all belong to the sect of Friends, the only sect whose mode of religion is all in ternal, and forms, what all religion ought to be, the silent passing 3 F 2

interchange

interchange between the individual and the Deity, without form or ostentation, and whose general conduct in society is marked by the ineek demeanour of the humble Jesus more than any other. Dr, Birkbeck received the first rudiments of education at Digglesworth school, and, after a sufficient proficiency in general literature, having selected medicine as his professional pursuit, he was sent to Edin- . burgh. Here he took his degree, and soon after began his career in the metropolis.

As a young physician cannot, at first, have his time fully employed by real professional occupation, it is fortunate where he possesses a literary turn, as it leads, in the mean time, to real professional improvement, for it directs his attention in literature merely to professional subjects, which is acquiring the experience at a cheap rate.

Dr. Birkbeck accordingly availed himself of this, but, possessing that acumen of mind which is more apt to follow its own opinion than go by the sentiments of others, he took an active part in the London Medical Review, and commenced the bold part of a critic on his brethren. His object was particularly directed against those who aimed at what he conceived an improper desire of popularity, a conduct which, though proper in a critic in some cases, tends to stifle the best principles of action in the humani mind, if carried on indiscriminately. Indiscriminate censure, however, seemed to be the prevailing object of this work. It breathed nothing of the mild spirit of the friend, or the gentle manner of the sect, and it soon sunk a victim to its own severity, without pleasing the public, or couvincing the unfortunate authors, who felt its malignancy, of their supposed errors.

“ Soon after his settlement, Dr. Birkbeck was appointed physician to the Aldersgate Dispensary, the duties of which he discharges with much attention and talent. He is a member of several of the medical institutions of the metropolis, and, on the whole, an able and deserving character." “Dr. T.BATEMAN, Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians,

and Physician to the Carey-street Dispensary. "Though the professional character receives a dignity and consequence from literature, yet professional success is not always proportioned to the extent of such acquirements. The present indivi-, dual we consider as a learned and literary physician.

“ Dr. Bateman is a native of Northumberland, and, from his natal soil, at a fit age, was sent to Edinburgh to attain his professional knowledge. Here he continued the usual academical period, and took his degree at this celebrated seminary, with that approbation which a diligent student who looks forward to eminence in life will always deserve. He then repaired to the metropolis, and, after a course of the hospitals, commenced his career in practice, Like every young phiysician who professes literary acquirements, his first object was to employ these in the laudable improvement of his profession, and he accordingly has connected himself with the lead

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