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formed once in this case, and, as the man was considered in a very bad state, and notwithstanding got well, the cure was attributed to this remedy. It is also performed for relief in cases of general languor and inactivity of the system; but, in such instances, the only endeavour to produce irritation by passing the reed without any tliread or artificial opening: the present king had it thus performed on him for this purpose; and two days afterwards he said he felt hinıself quite light and full of spirits.
The natives of these islands are very subject to enlarged testicles, and for this they sometimes perform the operation of boca (castration). Mr. Mariner's limited observation on this subject does not authorize bim to speak with any degree of certainty in regard to the precise nature of these tumefactions.
Their mode of performing this operation is summary enough: a bandage being tied with some degree of firmness round the upper part of the scrotum, so as to steady the diseased mass, at the same time that the scrotum is closely expanded over it, an incision is made with bamboo, just large enough to allow the testicle to pass, which being separated from its cellular conn
nnexions, the cord is divided, and thus ends the operation: they neither tie the cord, nor take any pains to stop the bleeding; but, if the testicle be not very large, and the epidydiinis not apparently diseased, they perform the operation by dissecting it from that body with the same instrument. The external wound is kept from closing by a pledget of the banána leaf, which is renewed every day till the discharge has ceased, and the scrotum is supported by a bandage. A profuse hæmorrhage is mostly the consequence of this operation: it was performed seven times within the sphere of Mr. Mariner's knowledge, during his stay; to three of which he was a witness: not one of the seven died. One of these cases was that of a man who performed the operation on himself: his left testicle was greatly enlarged, being about tive or six inches in diameter, and gave him, at times, severe lancinating pains: two or three times he was about to have the operation performed by a native of Fiji, but his
courage failed him when he came to the trial. One day, when Mr. Mariner was with him, he suddenly determined to perform the operation on himself; and it was not much sooner said than done: be tied on the bandage, opened the scrotum with a very steady hand, in a fit of desperation divided the cord and cellular substance together, and fell senseless on the ground: the hæmorrhage was very profuse. Mr. Mariner called in some persons to his assistance, and he was carried into a house, but did not become sensible for nearly an hour, and was in a very weak state from loss of blood: this affair confined him to the house for two or three months. There was one rare instance of a man, both of whose testes were affected with some species of sarcoma, to a degree almost beyond credit: when he stood imp, his feet were necessarily separated to the distance of three quarters of a yard, and the loaded scrotum, or rather the morbid mass, reached to within six inches of the ground: there was no appearance of a penis, the urine being discharged from a small orifice about the middle of the tumour, that is to say, about a foot and a half below:
In cases of gunshot wounds, their main object is to lay the wound open, if it can be done with safety in respect to the larger blood-vessels and tendons, not only for the extraction of the ball
, if it should still remain, but for the purpose of converting a fistulous into an open wound, that it may thereby heal sooner and better: if they have to cut down near larger vessels, they use bamboo in preference to the shell; the same near tendons, that there may be less chance of injuring them. They always make incisions nearly in the course of the muscles, or, at least, parallel with the limb.
The amputation of a limb is an operation very seldom performed; nevertheless it has been done in at least twelve individuals. Mr. Mariner seeing one day a man without an arm, curiosity led him to enquire how it happened, and found that he had been one of the twelve principal cooks of Toogoo Ahoo, the tyrant of Tonga, and had submitted to the amputation of his left arm. This operation was performed by means of a large heavy axe used for the purpose. The bleeding was not so profuse as might be imagined, owing, no doubt, to the bluntness of the instrument and violence of the blow. This stump appeared to Mr. Mariner to be a very good one; the arm was taken off about two inches above the elbow. Ten were stated to have done very well; of the remaining two, one died of excessive hæmorrhage, and the other of mortification. There was also a man living at the island of Vavaoo who had lost a leg in consequence of the bite of a shark, which is not a very uncommon accident; but there was something unusual in this man's particular case: his leg was not bitten off, but the flesh was almost completely torn away from about five inches below the knee down to the foot, leaving the tibia and fibula greatly exposed, and the foot much mangled: he was one of those who chose to perform his own operations; with persevering industry, therefore, he sawed nearly through the two bones with a shell
, renewing his tedious and painful task every day till he had nearly accomplished it, and then completed the separation by a sudden blow with a stone! The stump never healed. Mr. Mariner had this aceount from the man himself and many others, holde
a total Téfe, or the operation of circumcision, is thus performed; a narrow slip of wood, of a convenient size, being wrapped round with gnatoo, is introduced under the præputium, along the back of which a longitudinal incision is then made to the extent of about half an inch, either with bamboo or shell (the latter is preferred); this incision is carried through the outer fold, and the beginning of the inner fold, the remainder of the latter being afterwards forn open with the fingers: the end of the penis is then wrapped up in the leaf of a tree called gnàtai, and is secured with a bandage: the boy is not al. lowed to bathe for tliree days: the leaf is renewed once or twice a day. At the Fiji islands this operation is performed by amputating a portion of the præputiuin, according to the Jewish rite.
The author describes gonorrhoea, yaws, elephantiasis, and lepra; but considers syphilis as unknown.
The following is an Account of the State of Medicine in the Eastern
Empire. From MILN's History of Mahometanism, a work just - published.
The knowledge which the Saracens possessed of medicine is a subject of curious inquiry. In the anatomical branch, they did little more than translate and paraphrase the Greek writers. The errors wbich their originals had made in anatomy became sacred; and, if the Arabs have described certain parts of the body with anore exactness than Galen, these descriptions were only conjectures, or the consequence of the study of some Greek authors who have not descended to us. The Muhammedan laws prohibit dissections, because, in the opinion of the Musselmans, the soul does not depart from the body at the moment of death: it passes from one inember to another till it centers in the breast, where it remains for a considerable time. The examination, by the angels, of the deceased person in his tomb, could not be made on a mutilated corpse. The physicians of the Arabs studied, therefore, only skeletons in the cemeteries. In most surgical cases, the Saracens implicitly followed the ancients; but one of the great disputes in the Arabic schools of medicine was, the propriety of the novel doctrine of Avicienna (a Spanish Moor), which opposed the recommendation of Galen and Hippocrates, that, in cases of pleurisy, the patient should be bled in the arm of the side which was afflicted.-- For their knowledge of chemistry, so great a part of the basis of medicine, the Saracens. have been deservedly applauded. We have no evidence that chemistry was cultivated by the Egyptians as a separate branch of science, or distinguished in its applications from a variety of other arts which must have been exercised for the support and conve. nience of human life. All of them had probably some dependence on chemical principles, but they were then, as they are at present, practised by the several artists without any theoretical knowledge of their respective employments. It is not known to what nation ought to be attributed the art of transmuting metals into gold; but, by way of distinction, this branch of knowledge was called Alchemy, as Al-Koran distinguished the sacred from other books. Chemistry, with the rest of the sciences, being banished from the other parts of the world, took refuge among the Arabs. Gebar, in the seventh or eighth, and others in the ninth, century of the Christian ära, wrote several chemical, or rather alchymical, books, in Arabic. In these works of Geber are contained such useful directions concerning the manner of conducting distillation, calcination, sublimation, and other chemical preparations, and such pertinent observafions respecting various ininerals, as justly seem to entitle hiin to the character which some bave given him of being the father of chemistry, the discoverer of the key to the richest treasures of nature, though he himself modestly confesses that he has done little else than abridge the doctrine of the ancients concerning the transmutation of metals. He mentions several mercurial preparations, such