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wors was not to be published until after the In consequence of the death of Lady author's death. When that event took Noel, the mother of Lady Byron, whick place, Mr. Moore repaid to Mr. Murray took place in the early part of the year 1922, the money advanced, and placed the manu- he assumed the title of Noel Byron, and to script at the disposal of Lord Byron's sis- most of his letters, &c. written after this peter, Mrs. Leigh ; at whose request, and in riod, that signature is affixed. accordance with the opinion of many of the At Pisa he remained until the middle of friends of her brother, and of other parties May. He then passed a few weeks at interested, it was destroyed. An unwilling- Montenero, a villa near Leghorn, returne i ness to wound the feelings of many of the to Pisa in July, and in September removed persons mentioned in it
, is said to have to Genoa, where he remained till his final been the only motive for its destruction. departure for Greece, in July 1823. During
In December, Lord Byron again left this period were written Werner, 'The DeVenice for Ravenna, where he continued to formed Transformed, The Island, The Age reside during most of the two succeeding of Bronze, and the last Cantos of Don Juan. years. He there wrote the 3d, 4th, and The Lord Chancellor had, in a case brought 5th Cantos of Don Juan, the Prophecy of' before him in the year 1821, refused to proDante, the translations from Pulci and tect the copy-right of Cain, on the ground Dante ; the Letters relating to the Contro- of its supposed irreligious tendency. For versy with Mr. Bowles ; the Letter to the this, and other unexplained reasons, Mr. Editor of Blackwood's Magazine; Ma- Murray had long declined or delayed the rino Faliero; Sardanapalus; The Two publication of several works forwarded to Foscari; Cain ; Heaven and Earth ; The him by Lord Byron,which appears to have ocVision of Judgment, and other smaller casioned for a short time a personal estrange. poems. Having disposed of Newstead ment between them. The works in quesAbbey, and secured, after a long Chancery tion, together with those above named, were suit, the possession of his Lancashire es- accordingly handed, at Lord Byron's request, tates, his pecuniary affairs had now be to another bookseller, Mr. John Hunt, by rome in good order, and he was enabled to whom they were soon afterwards published. Ave in comparative splendour. Of his yearly The Vision of Judgment, the Translation income, (nearly £4,000 sterling,) he devoted from Pulci, the Blues, Heaven and Earth, a great portion to charitable purposes, and and the Letter to Roberts, appeared in the was much beloved and respected in Ra- "Liberal,” a periodical work printed in venna, particularly by the poorer classes, London by Mr. John Hunt, but conducted by whom his residence there was deemed a principally by his brother Mr. Leigh Hunt, public blessing. He himself was strongly then in Italy. With the exception of Lord attached to Ravenna. He preferred it to Byron's contributions, and one or two from every other part of Italy, and intended to Mr. Shelley, it contained little or no merit, have made it his permanent place of abode. and was abandoned after the fourth number. But the Romagnese authorities, suspecting Lord Byron's motive in connecting himself nim, and certainly not without reason, of a with it, as well in a literary as in a pecuniary political connexion with the enemies of the point of view, was solely to aid Mr. Leigh existing government, took measures which Hunt, who was at the time suffering in illindirectly compelled him to hasten his de- health and poverty. His only reward seems parture. Count Gamba, and his son, Count to have been a querulous murmuring on the Pietro Gamba, the father and brother of the part of that person during the life of his beCountess Guiccioli, were, in July 1821, ba- nefactor, and an ungrateful volume of the mshed from the Roman States. They were most pitiful and perfidious calumnies after accused of a participation in the revolution- his death. any projects of the secret societies which, It appears from a statement published by under the name of the Carbonari, had long Mr. Murray, that during the life-time or Lord been organized throughout Italy. The Byron, he paid for the cosy-right of his Countess, who had the preceding year
&c. as follows :tained from the Pope a decree of separation Childe Harold, Cantos 1st and 20
£600 from her husband, on condition that she
1575 should in future reside with her father, ac
525 companied them to Pisa, where, in the No- Bride of Abydos rembes following, Lord Byron joined them. 'Corsair
700 tleman,) Doctor Bruno, (an Italian surgeon, Siege of Corinth
and eight servants. After touching for Parisina Lament of Tasso
315 supplies at Leghorn, where they remained Manfred
315 a few days, they sailed for Cephalonia, and Верро.
525 reached Argolosti, the chief port in that Don Juan, Cantos 1st and 2d 3d, 4th, ana bth.
island, on the 21st of July. Doge nf Venice
He there determined to wait for such inSardanapalus, Cain, and Foscari
. 1100 formation from the Greek governments as Mazeppa .
should enable him to decide as to his future l'risoner of Chillon Sundries.
450 proceedings, and despatched messengers to
Corfu and Missolonghi, the latter the then £15,455 seat of government of Western Greece, in
the hope of obtaining it. During their ab. He afterwards purchased the copy-rights sence he visited Ithaca, where he contriut all the other works, including those pub- buted largely to the relief of a great numlished by Cawthorne, the Hunts, &c. at an ber of distressed families who had fled thiexpense of nearly £10,000 more. Severa!ther from Scio. He continued on board of the above were presented by Lord the Hercules in the harbour of Argolosti for Byron to Mr. Dallas, and the later Cantos more than six weeks, but the adverse inof Don Juan to Hunt.
terests and contradictory statements and While at Pisa, Lord Byron received requests of the various rival factions, still intelligence of the death of his natural rendering uncertain the best method of daughter, Allegra, a loss which distressed benefiting Greece, he finally took up his him at the moment, almost to madness. She abode on shore in a small village called had been sent to him from Switzerland to Metaxata, about seven miles from ArgoVenice in September 1813, then nearly two losti. years old, by her mother, an Englishwoman, At length, the arrival at Missolonghi of and had continued with him until a short a Greek fleet which had been long expected, time previous to his leaving Ravenna, induced him to believe that the time had when he placed her in a convent not far arrived when his presence there could be from that city, to commence her education. useful. He accordingly on the 29th of She died of a fever in April 1822. His December embarked in a small Greek ves. friend, Mr. Shelley, who had been for some sel, called a Mistico, Count Gamba, with time residing at Pisa, and with whom he the horses and heavy baggage following in had renewed the social and literary inter- a larger ship. The latter was, the next course previously formed in Switzerland, day, brought to by a Turkish frigate, and was a few months after drowned in a vio- carried into Patras, but in an interview with lent storm in the Bay of Spezea, near Leg- the Pacha of that place, Count Gainba horn.
succeeded in procuring her release, and On the 13th of July 1823, Lord Byron reached Missolonghi on the 4th of January. lett Genoa for Greece. His preparations The Mistico, with Lord Byron and his for a visit to that country for the purpose suite on board, touched at Zante, where of offering his personal means and services they received a quantity of specie, and proto assist the Greeks in their struggle for ceeded for Missolonghi. On their way they freedom, had been for some time going on, narrowly escaped capture from the frigale a correspondence with several of their above mentioned. Fortunately the Turks chiefs, and with the Greek Committee in mistook the vessel for a Greek brulot cr London, having been commenced the pre-fireship, and were in consequence afraid to ceding April. He had obtained, through fire. With difficulty they eluded her, and the aid of his bankers in Genoa, partly by reached Dragomestri, a small seaport on anticipating his income, and partly from the coast of Acarnania in safety, where other resources, an advance of a large they were detained for some time by a viosum, and had chartered an English brig, lent gale, and did not arrive at Misso.onghi the Hercules, for the voyage, and loaded until the 5th of January. her with arms, ammunition, and hospital Lord Byron was received by Prince stores. His suite consisted of Count Pie- Mavrocordato, at the head of the magistracy tm Gamba, (the brother of the Countess and the whole population civil and miliGuiccioli,) Mr. Trelawny, (an English gen- tary, with distinguished honours, and every
loken of gratitude and delight. But the healthy, and the military quarters where he pleasure derived from such a welcome was resided were comfortless and exposed. On 100 soon embittered. He found all things the evening of the 15th of February, the in a wretched state of disorganization, the day after the abandonment of the expedition chiefs divided into numerous and conflicting to Lepanto, he was suddenly seized with a parties, each desirous of enlisting him in its convulsive fit which deprived him for seseparate views, and the soldiers and inhabi- veral minutes of his senses, distorting for the !anis imagining that he and he only could moment his features in a most fearful manquiet their unhappy dissensions, and unite ner, and leaving him exhausted and unable the efforts of all against the common enemy. to move for many days. He immediately employed himself day and He was, however, gradually recovering night in effecting this object, and partially until the 9th of April. In the interim he succeeded. He formed and equipped at his had occupied himself in repairing the forown expense a corps of Suliotes, a part of tifications at Missolonghi, and in the formawhom he had previously collected and armed tion of a brigade with a view to offensive or at Cephalonia. Their number was now defensive measures, as events might require. augmented to between five and six hundred, He had also made arrangements for visiting of whom, on the first of February having Salon, there to meet a congress of the previously received a regular commission as Greek chiefs, in the hope that his presence an officer in the Greek service, he assumed might aid in putting an end to their conthe command. They were brave and hardy tinual and fatal dissensions. But on the mountaineers, but undisciplined and unma- morning of the 9th of April, immediately pageable ; and by their riotous conduct and after his return home from a long ride with savage deportinent, as well towards the other Count Gamba, during which they had been military bodies as the inhabitants, kept the overtaken by a heavy shower, he was again garrison in a continual state of alarm, and seized with a convulsive shuddering, foltheir leader in a fever of annoyance and mor- lowed by fever and violent pain. The tification. To his command was also at-day he was better and rode out as usual, cached a corps of artillery, the necessary but on the 12th he was confined to his supplies for which arrived in the early part chamber, and his disorder continued 10 in ef February, under the care of Captain crease in strength and danger hourly ull the Parry, an English officer of engineers seni 17th, when he was prevailed upon to conby the Greek Committee from London. An sent to be bled, to which he had at all times attack on Lepanto, then in the hands of the before decidedly objected. A consultation Turks, had been for some time contemplated of his physicians was held in the afternoon by Lord Byron, and on the 14th of Febru- of the 18th, and it was then evident alike to ary the artillery corps was perfected, and all them and to Lord Byron that his end was things in readiness to start the following day, fast approaching, He endeavoured in a conwhen a sudden and fatal dispute with the versation with Fletcher his English servant Suliotes look place. They broke out into to express to him his last wishes, but his open mutiny, demanding increase of pay and voice was so faint and low, and his language emoluments, peculiar privileges of military so incoherent, that but little he said could he rank, and various other exactions. Satisfied understood. The names of Lady Byron, jf that no reliance could in peril be placed his daughter, of his sister Augusta, and a upon them, and at the sanıe time that with few others, were alone distinguishable. out their aid the Greek force was in- Early in the evening of that day, he sunk sufficient for the attempt on Lepanto, he into a slumber, in which he lay with ocvery reluctantly abandoned the expedition. casional struggles from suffocation during
His health had for a long time previous the next twenty-four hours. At a few to this period been greatly impaired. While minutes past six o'c!ock in the evening of at Dragomestri he had imprudently bathed the 19th he was observed 10 open his eyes after a day of violent exertion. A severe and instantly close them. The physicians cold was the consequence, and the inces- telt his pulse. He had expired. sant labour of mind and body to which he Immediately after his death, the followiny devoted himselsat Missolonghi, rendered him proclamation was issued by Prince Mavrofrom day to day more feeble and feverish. cordato, and similar honours were paid to The climate of that place is extremely un-l his memory throughout Greece.
“ PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT OF
The suneraı ceremony took place in the WESTERN GREECE.
church of Saint Nicolas, at Missolonghi,
on the 22d. The coffin was a rude chest “ The present day of festivity and re
of wood, covered with a black mantle. It joicing has become one of sorrow and of mourning. The Lord Noel Byron departed of his brigade, relieved from time to time
was carried on the shoulders of the officers this life at six o'clock in the afternoon, after
by others; and followed by all the troops of caused by an inflammatory fever. Such the garrison, and the whole population. In
the church a helmet, a sword, and a crown was the effect of his Lordship's illness on the public mind, that all classes had for- the Greek service for the dead was over, it
of laurel were placed upon the bier. After gotten their usual recreations of Easter, remained guarded by a detachment of sooleven before the afflicting event was appre-diers, and surrounded by crowds, who hended.
“ The loss of this illustrious individual is thronged from all quarters, to pay their last undoubtedly to be deplored by all Greece;
look of tribute, until the night of the 23d. but it must be more especia!ly a subject of
when it was privately carried back to his lamentation at Missolonghi, where his
house by his own officers. On the 2d of
generosity has been so conspicuously dis- May it was embarked under a morning sa
lute from the guns of the fortress, on board played, and of which he had even become a citizen, with the further determination of
a transport sent by the public authorities
from the island of Zante, and on the 25th participating in all the dangers of the war.
“Every body is acquainted with the of May the Florida, an English armed ship. beneficent acts of his Lordship, and none
received it, under the charge of Colone. can cease to hail his name as that of a real Stanhope, one of his coadjutors in the
Greek cause, and sailed from Zante to benefactor.
“ Until, therefore, the final determination England. Two days, the 9th and 10th of of the National Government be known, and July, the body lay in state in London, and by virtue of the powers with which it has on Friday the 16th of July, was placed in
the vault of his family, and next to the been pleased to invest me, I hereby decree. “ 1st. To-morrow niorning, at day light,
coffin of his mother, in the parish church
of Hucknell, a small village near Newstead thirty-seven minute guns will be fired from the Grand Battery, being the number which Abbey. Over the chancel of the church corresponds with the age of the illustrious is a tablet of white marble, hearing the fol
lowing inscription : deceased.
“ 2d. All the public offices, even the tribunals, are to remain closed for three suc- WHERE MANY OF HIS ANCESTORS AND HIS MOTHER cessive days.
ARE BURIED, “3d. All the shops, except those in which provisions or medicines are sold, will also GEORGE GORDON NOEL BYRON, be shut; and, it is strictly enjoined, that every species of public amusement, and THE AUTHOR OF “CHILDE HAROLD'S PILGRIMAGE." other denionstrations of festivity at Easter, shall be suspended.
JANUARY, 1788. “4th. A general mourning will be ob- HE DIED AT MISSOLONGHI, IN WESTERN GREECE,
ON THE 19T1 oF APRIL, 1824, served for twenty-one days.
" 5th. Prayers and a funeral service are to be offered up in all the churches. (Signed)
“ GEORGE PRAIDI Secretary, “ Given at Missolonghi, this 19th day of Apr., 1894.
IN THE VAULT BENEATII,
LIE THE REMAINS OF
LORD BYRON, OF ROCHDALE,
HE WAS BORN IN LONDON ON THE 220 or
ENGAGED IN THE GLORIOUS ATTEMPT TO
TO MISS PIGOT OF SOUTHWELL.
mother has laid me under great ubhgations, and you,
with the rest of your family, merit iny warmest thanks for
your kind connivance at my escape from 'Mrs. Byron " Burgage Manor, August 29th, 1804.
furiosa. Tieraised the arms, my dear Miss Pigot, and am very “Oh! for the pen of Ariosto to rehearse, in epic, the nurh obhged to you for the trouble you have taken. It scolding of that momentous eve,-or rather, let me invoke is impossible I should have any fault to find with them. the shade of Danté to inspire me, for none but the auThe sight of the drawings gives me great pleasure for a thor of the 'Inferno' could properly preside over such an double reason,-in the first place, they will ornament my attempt. But, perhaps, where the pen might fail, the books, in the next, they convince me that you have not pencil would succeed. What a group!—Mrs. B. the entirely forgotten me. I am, however, sorry you do not principal figure ; you cramming your ears with cotton, as return sooner, you have already been gone an age. I per- the only antidote to total deafness; Mrs. haps may have taken my departure for London before you endeavouring to mitigate the wrath of the lioness robbed come back; but, however, I will hope not. Do not of her whelp; and last, though not least, Elizabeth and overlook my watch-ribbon and purse, as I wish to carry Wousky,-wonderful lo relate .—both deprived of their them with me. Your note was given me by Harry, at parts of speech, and bringing up the rear in mute asto the play, whither I attended Miss Lyon and Doctor nishment. How did S. B. receive the intelligence ? S- ; and now I have set down to answer it before How many puns did he utter on so facetious an event ? I go to bed. If I am at Southwell when you retum In your next inform me on this point, and what excuse and I sincerely hope you will soon, for I very much you made to A. You are probably by this time tired of regret your absence,- I shall be happy to hear you sing|deciphering this hieroglyphical letter;=like Tony Lumpmy favourite, “The Maid of Lodi. My mother, to kin, you will pronounce mine to be a dd up and gether with myself
, desires to be affectionately remem- down hand. All Southwell, without doubt, is involved in bered to Mrs. Pigot, and believe me, my dear Miss amazement. Apropos, how does my blue-eyed nun, the Pigot, I remain your affectionate friend,
fair * * ? is she robed in sable garb of wo?!
"BYRON, " Here I remain at least a week or ten days; previous "P.S. If you think proper to send me any answer to to my departure you shall receive my address, but what this, I shall be extremely happy to receive it. Adieu.
it will be I have not determined. My lodgings must be * P.S. 2d. As you say you are a novice in the art of kept secret from Mrs. B.; you may present my compliknitting, I hope it don't give you too much trouble. Go ments to her, and say any attempt to pursue me will fail
, on slowly, but surely. Once more, adieu."
as I have taken measures to retreat immediately to Portsmouth, on the first intimation of her removal from Southwell. You may add, I have now proceeded to a
friend's house in the country, there to remain a fortnight. LETTER II.
“I have now blotted (I must not say written) a com. plete double letter, and in return shall expect a monstrous
budget. Without doubt, the dames of Southwell repro " 16 Piccadilly, August 9th, 1806.
.bate the pernicious example I have shown, and tremble "MY DEAR PIGOT,
lest their babes should disobey their mandates, and quit *Many thanks for your amusing narrative of the last
in dudgeon their mammas on any grievance. Adieu. Groceedings of my amiable Alecto, * who now begins to When you begin your next drop the 'lordship, and put feel the effects of her folly. I have just received a pe- 'Byron' in its place. Believe me yours, &c. nitential epistle, to which, apprehensive of pursuit
BYRON. have despatched a moderate answer, with a kind of promise to return in a fortnight ;-this, however, (entre nous,) I never mean to fulfil. Her soft wurblings must have
LETTER III. delighted her auditors, her higher notes being particularly musical and on a calm moonlight evening would be heard to great advantage. Had I been present as a specta
"London, August 10th, 180€ lor, nothing would have pleased me more; but to have "MY DEAR BRIDGET, come forward as one of the 'dramatis personæ;'-St. "As I have already troubled your brother with muvo Dominic lofend me from such a scene! Seriously, your than he will find pleasure in deciphering, you are the
next to whom I shall assign the difficult employment of Ho Mollier. Her recent violence of tereper had compelled bin to that no idea of Mrs. B.'s arrival had disturbed me yothie
perusing this 2d epistle. You will perceive from my love By to London,
TO MR. PIGOT.
TO MISS PIGOT.