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ARNENthe pleasaunte

i vuxnold, wonderfully Ciesswed over with sweet Le Petite entermingled wyth.

in tu chambers and privie seperti mee up, and entierlye

* Nall subjoin some further which they contain ; minutiæ squainted with the domestic

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Haci andscapes and figures, formed the

**s below, and chambers above. In line with thed to the bare walls ; but it was

Sa i quence of the damp arising from the Liivi on wooden frames, placed at such a

ve withe room, as would easily admit of any Land behind it, a facility which soon converted

irudd skermon hiding-places. million vienerius ments, has very frequent recourse to this

i wiz serwunce me behind the arras t;" pomla

* Look thou stand within the arras ♡ :" diri tihend the arras || :” “ Behind the arras I'll convey

Thus Shakspeare,

" I whipt me

66 Go

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hely' ithid shot in the Country, mottoes were often placed in Wind Inchambers, for the instruction of the domestics ; a

Modern How also adopted on tapestry for the improvement of their superiors, and to which Shakspeare refers in his Rape of


in parte de 4** of Complexions, &c.” First written in Latine by Levine Lemnie, 14 by Thomas Newton. small 8vo. bl. l. 1576. Will Windsor, act 3. Head li 4 Nothing, act i. sc. 3.

☆ King John, act iv. sc. 1. Halt 1. act ii. sc. 4.

Hamlet, act iii. sc. 3.


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and is further confirmed by Dr. Bulleyne, who, in one of his productions, says,

- “ This is a comelie parlour, - and faire clothes, with pleasaunte borders aboute the same, with many wise sayings painted upon them." +

What these wise sayings were, we are taught by the following extract from a publication of 1601:

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proverbial wisdom, which Orlando, in As You Like It, designates by the phrase “ right painted cloth.”S That “ the arras figures ll,” though in general coarsely executed, |

, had strongly impressed the mind of Shakspeare, and furnished him with no small portion of imagery and allusion, has been very satisfactorily established by Mr. Whiter, who remarks, that their “effects may be perpetually traced by the observing critic,” even

66 when the poet himself is totally unconscious of this predominating influence.” पा

* Malone's Supplement, vol. i. p. 487.

+ “ A Dialogue both pleasaunt and pitifull, &c.” by Dr, Willyam Bulleyne, 1564. sig. H 5. Reed's Shakspeare, vol. viii. p. 104.

† “ No whipping nor tripping, but a kind of friendly snipping,” 8vo.– Vide Reed's Shakspeare, vol. viii, p. 104. note by Malone. § Act iii. sc. 2.

Il Cymbeline, act ii. sc. 2. 1 "A Specimen of a Commentary on Shakspeare, &c.” on the principle of Mr. Locke's Doctrine of the Association of Ideas, p. 78. 8vo. 1794.

The manner of illuminating the halls and banquetting rooms of the Great at this period, was truly classical. We find that Homer, describing the palace of Alcinous, says -

“ Youths forged of gold, at every table there,

Stood holding flaming torches ;" *

and Lucretius, speaking of the Dome of the opulent, describes its walls with

“ A thousand lamps irradiate, propt sublime
By frolic forms of youths in massy gold,

Flinging their splendours o'er the midnight feast." +

Similar to these were the

« fixed candlesticks, With torch-staves in their hands," I

of our ancestors, which generally represented a man in armour with his hands extended, in which were placed the sockets for the lights ; and we may easily conceive how splendid these might be rendered by the arts of the goldsmith and jeweller.

Where these antique candelabras were not adopted, living candleholders supplied their place, and were, indeed, always present, when a central or perambulatory light was required : “ Give me a torch,” says Romeo,

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“ I'll be a candle-holder and look on."

The gentlemen-pensioners of Queen Elizabeth usually held her torches; and Shakspeare represents Henry the Eighth going to Wolsey's palace, preceded by sixteen torch-bearers. | At great entertainments, beside candelabras fixed against the sides of the room, torch


Pope's Odyssey, book vii.

+ Good's Lucretius, vol. i. p. 189. † Reed's Shakspeare, vol. xii. p. 447. King Henry V., act iv. sc. 2. ģ Romeo and Juliet, act i. sc. 4.

|| Reed's Shakspeare, vol. xv. p. 55.



bearers stood by the tables, supplying the light which we now receive from chandeliers. *

Watch-lights, which were divided into equal portions by marks, each of which burnt a limited time, were common in the bed-chambers of the wealthy; they are alluded to in Tomkis's Albumazar, 1614, where Sulpitia says, Why should I sit up all night like a watching-candle ? +

Every bed-chamber was furnished with two beds, a standing-bed, and a truckle-bed ; in the former slept the master, and in the latter his page. The Host, in Merry Wives of Windsor, directing Simple where to find Sir John Falstaff, says, -“ There's his chamber, his house, his castle, his standing-bed, and truckle-bed ;” and Decker, and Middleton, further illustrate the custom, when the first, alluding to a page, says, he is “ so dear to his lordship, as for the excellency of his fooling to be admitted both to ride in coach with him, and to lie at his very feet on a truckle-bed S;" and the second, addressing a similar personage, exclaims,


“ Well, go thy ways, for as sweet a breasted

page as ever lay at his master's feet in a truckle-bed." || It may be added that the standing-bed had frequently on it a counterpoint, or counterpane, so rich and costly as, according to Stowe, to be worth sometimes a thousand marks. This piece of luxury forms one of Gremio's articles, when enumerating the furniture of his city-house, a catalogue which throws much curious light upon our present subject :


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* Vide Warton's Extract from Froissart, Hist. of English Poetry, vol. iii. Dissertation, p. lxxvi.

† Ancient British Drama, vol. ii. p. 592.
# Reed's Shakspeare, vol. v. p. 181.
Ø Gull's Horn-book, pp. 22, 23.
# “ More Dissemblers besides Women,” act i. sc. 1.

The manner of illuminating the halls and bay Great at this period, was truly classical. describing the palace of Alcinous, says

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: Liste apartments, and in the halls of the nobility, Local as to turn up; being flat leaves, united by hinges,

ind lowsels, so as to fold into a small compass. Thus Handling room for the dancers in his hall, calls out

* A hall! a hall! give room, and foot it, girls,

More light, ye knaves; and turn the tables up." ||

Ilona muner, or supper, was served up, these tables were covered Hinspector ; hence Gremio exclaims, “ Where's the cook? Is supper Flindt.. - Be the carpets laid?” I


• Moodl's Shakspeare, vol. ix. p. 92. Taming of the Shrew, act ii. sc. 1.

Thul. p. 93. note by Steevens. ludvol. v. p. 376. note.

$ Act iii. sc. 4. Il Bleed's Shakspeare, vol. xx. p. 65.

9 Ibid. vol. ix. p. 124.

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