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178. An element of the second class is an infinitive or a preposition and its object. These, taken as a phrase, form, like an eiement of the first class, a constituent part of the sentence; as, “to haste; " of Boston ; " " in reading."

Note: The term phrase is properly used to denote any coin bination of words which does not form a proposition. Hence, complex or compound element of the first class is a phrase But, in this work, the term will be used more particularly to denote an element of the second class.

(a.) In an element of the second class, both the idea and its *elation (11, b.) are represented by separate words; whereas, in un element of the first class, the idea only is represented; the relation must be supplied by the mind; as, “ horses of Metico" =*" Mexican horses." Hence an element of the second class may be considered as the expansion of a corresponding ele ment of the first.

(b.) An element of the first class may be changed to one of

* In the subsequent parts of this work, it will often be neces sary tc represent equivalent expressions. For this purpose the sign of equality (=) will be used.

the second, or an element of the second to one of the first, log introducing or suppressing the exponent of the relation, making, of course, the requisite change of form; as, " a virtuous man "a man of virtue ' “ the temple of Solomon": =" Solomon's leniple."


179. The preposition is a connective used to join a noun or pronoun to the word or phrase on which it depends. The noun or pronoun is called the object of the preposition.

180. Prepositions are used to denote the various relations of time, place, cause, manner, possession, &c.

Note. For a list of prepositions, see Appendix, Lesson XIII.

181. The use of the preposition may be expressed by the following rule :

RULE XIII. A preposition is used to show the relation of its object to the preceding word on which the object depends; as, “ George went into the garden.

182. The following is the rule for the object :

Rule XIV. A noun or pronoun used to complete the relation of a preposition, must be in the objective case; as, “ They gathered around him."

183. There is another species of phrase, of a verbal nature, which belongs to th: second class of elements; as, " for complaining;' "He was guilty of stealing.

184. Of this species there are two varieties;

(a.) The preposition and present participle ; as, “for reading ; "

(6.) The preposition and perfect participle; as, " for having read.”

185. The participle, thus used, is called a parli. cipial noun, and is disposed of by Rule XIV.

(a.) Verbal or participial nouns are formed from predicated by removing the copula. They belong to the second class of elements only when they follow prepositions.

EXAMPLES, Boys write

writing .. in writing. Boys are active being active in being active. Boys are scholars ... being scholars... in being scholars.

Note. When the attribute of the predicate is an adjective or aoun, the participle of the copula must be joined to it, to form the rerbal noun.

(6.) The forms “ writing," " being active," " being scholars,' may be used as nouns in any relation, and therefore, in many respects, resemble the infinitive. They may perform the office which their position in the sentence (as subject, attribute, or ob. 7oct) requires, and, at the same time, may receive the same modi. fications which they would have received had they been completo predicates.

(c.) Hence a verbal noun may be modified first as a noun, and secondly as a derb; as, “I did not know of his understanding the Greek.

(d.) In the sentence, “I was not aware of his being the judge of the Supreme Court,” the form “being judge” is limited by ne his,” and is the object of “of;" yet “judge" retains in character as predicate-nominative, and is limited just as it would have been had the sentence stood, “ He is judge of the Supreme Court."

186. The infinitive is a peculiar form, partici. pating the properties of a noun and verb, and

when used to modify other words, should be parsed by the following rule :-

RCLE XV. The infinitive depends upon the word which it limits; as, “ We went to see you."

(a.) Since the infinitive partakes of the properties of a noun and a verb, it has the construction of both, and may be used as rubject, attribute, or object.

(6.) The infinitive differs from the substantive in the following respects : — All words used to limit the infinitive are such as limit the verb. Like the verb, it may, by a change of form, de. uote the continuance, completion, or the time, of an action; as, " to write ; " " to be writing;”“to have written; " to have been writing."

(c.) It resembles the preposition and its object in the following respects :- It consists of two parts,

— some form of the verb, and the particle “ to," which, in some respects, is like a preposition. The " to " seems, like the preposition, to perform the office of a connective, as may be seen by omitting it in the foloning examples; as,

write;" "We began .. consider."

(d.) The infinitive differs from the preposition and its ob. lect in the following particulars : - The “to” is the only preposition used with the verb. The infinitive may be used as the subject; whereas the single phrase is seldom, if ever, so used. The two parts of the infinitive are never separated by intervening words. The two parts of the infinitive are taken together, and, thus combined, may become a noun in any reetion.

“I love ...



187. Thus far, the phrase has been considered in reference to its component parts. It must now be regarded as a combination, forming, like a single word, a distinct element of the sentence.

(a.) The phrase, it will be seen, has a double co. struction. ;

1st. Each word, excepting those of the infnitive, has a construction of its own.

2d. As a whole, it forms one of the consti*uent elements of a sentence.

188. The phrase may be used to form either of the two principal, or of the three subordinate elements, (8;) and, since the materials of which any sentence is composed (setting aside connectives) are the substantive, the adjective, and the adverb, (176,) the phrase, in some of its varieties, must take the place of each of these parts of speech. Hence,

189. Phrases are divided into substantive, adjective, and adverbial, according to the office which they perform in the sentence.

(a.) No one sentence, perhaps, in the language is wholly com posed of phrases. Yet phrases, mingled with other forms, maj be used to constitute either of the five elements of a sentence.



195. When a phrase is used to form either the subject or the predicate of a proposition, it becomes a principal element of the second class.


191. The form most commonly used for tho subject, is the infinitive; as, “ To see the sun is pleasant ; " To deceive is criminal."

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