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and sensible people have certain odd tricks. Some people do little good, but much evil.

Write predicates to the following compound sucm jects :

Washington and Lafayette; sun and moon; my brother and I; Samuel or Peter; silver or gold; neither one noi the other; not Adam, but Eve; snow, as well as rain; William or his sons; Cain, and not Abel ; Jacob or his children; the members or the president; not the children, but the father; George, and Joseph also ; every man and woman; each boy and girl. MODEL. Washington and Lafayette were distinguished

generals. Write compound predicates to the following subIcuts :

Promises, murderer, emperor, picture, Bible, boys, children, grammar, Arnold, Cicero, Mahomet, coal, religion, virtue, diligence, behavior, kindness.

MODEL. Promises are often made and broken. Write fifteen sentences of your own, limiting the subjects of the first five by a compound adjective element,

the predicates of the next five by a compound objective element, and the predicates of the last five by a compound adverbial element. MODELS. A large and beautiful horse was killed.

The flood swept away trees, fences, houses, and barns.
Some mer, sin frequently, deliberately, and presump-

tuously.
Write ten sentences, making any two elements in
Lach compound.
MODEL. George and David study grammar and arith-

metic

SECTION XI.

SEI ERAL ELEMENTS OF THE SAME NAME.

RECAPITULATION.

165. We have seen (Sec. VIII.) that several dissimilar elements may unite, and form one complex element, and (Sec. IX.) that several similar elements may unite, and form one compound element. Besides these, there may be several elements which do not unite with each other, but form two or more separate elements of the same name; as, " An indolent man seldom rises early.

(a.) Such elements are always subordinate to the subject or predicate, but are neither subordinate to, nor coordinate with, each other. They may be either simple, complex, or compound.

166. There may be several different adjective elements; as, “The good parson, Mr. Wiseman, has paid us a visit.”

167. There may be two objective elements, (120;) as," I gave him a book ;“They made him president."

168. There may be several adverbial elements; as, “ The sun is always eclipsed twice annually."

Note. This condition of the elements will be illustrated more ully hereafter

RECAPITULATION, AND CLASSIFICATION OF THE

ELEMENTS. 169. The following recapitulation and classificasion of the materials which enter into the structiire of a sentence, will serve to prepare the learner for the two succe ding shapters.

170. The first and most important element is the substantive.

(a.) The term substantive is here used to denote the noun, or any word which takes the place of the noun.

171. The substantive performs three distinct offices in the structure of sentences. - ist. It may be used as the subject. (33.) — 2d. It may be used as an attribute, either predicated or assumed. (16; 60; 104, 6; 106.) — 3d. It may be used as the object. (117, 119.)

172. The verb, considered apart from the attribute, (24, note,) performs the important function of connecting the attribute to the subject. (16, 17.)

173. The adjective (including the participle, which is only a species of adjective) is used to denote a property of the substantive, either predi. cated (36, b.) or assumed. (16, a.)

174. The adverb is used to denote some circum. stance or property of an action or quality.

(a.) An adverb is used to denote some property of an attribute, and is to an attribute what an attribute is to a substantive; as, • He ran swiftly"=" His running is swift;" " She writes beautzfully"=" Her writing is beautiful.

(6.) Modal adverbs are to be excepted, since they modify the assertion, that is, the copula, and not the attribute.

175. The conjunction performs the important office of connecting the various elements.

Note. Interjections are not elements.

176. Strictly speaking, all sentences may be said to be composed of three kinds of materials, namely, substantives, adjectives, and adverbs; the copula, and all other merely connective words, forming no part of the substance of the sentence, but serving only to unite these materials into one structure

EXAMPLES.

1. Subject; | The substantive, used as, 2. Attribute ; 2. Modifier.**

| 1. Predicate; 3. Object.

1. Predicate; The adjective,. used as .

I 2. Modifier. * III. The adverb, . . used as

Modifier. 177. These materials, arranged in a general formula for a sentence, stand thus :

Attribute ; {

[blocks in formation]

Analyze and parse the following miscellaneous examples. Tell the office of each SUBSTANTIVE, (noun or pronoun, 171;)- of each ADJECTIVE, (adjective and participle, 173.)

We have learned our lessons. Joseph was sold. You Inight have crossed the stream. He will sell some figs. She should have been studying her lesson. The earl is our guest. Be sober. Live contentedly. Break not your promise. Be thou a schv.ar. Be firm. Do be quiet The soldiers must have been drilled. The ship ploughe the sea.

The
emperor

Antoninus wrote an excellent book. Edward the Confessor abused his mother. Queen Chris. sina resigned her crown.

Edward the Black Prince wore

An assumed attribute is a modifier

+ See | 173

black armor.

I am, dear sir, your affectionate friend. My son, give me thy heart. The earth and the moon are planets. The creation demonstrates God's power and wisdom. Anarchy and confusion, poverty and distress, follow a civil war. Avoid arrogance and servility.

The verdant lawn, the shady grove, the variegated landscape, the boundless ocean, and the starry firmament, are beautiful and magnificent objects. True religion gives our behavior a native and unaffected ease. Plain, honest truth wants no artificial coloring. Wise and good men are frequently unsuccessful. True worth is modest and retiring. Ulysses was a wise, eloquent, cautious, and intrepid hero. Good nature mends and beautifies all objects. The liberal arts soften and harmonize the temper. A philosopher should examine every thing coolly, impartially, accurately, and rationally. I shall go myself, or send some

He is not sick, but discouraged. She sings, as well as plays. He has caught a pike or a perch. O, how cold it is! His fate, alas ! was deplorable. Coming events cast their shadows before.

Complete the following sentences by writing answers 60 the questions in parentheses :

(How many ?) (What kind ?) birds Ay (How?) (Whose ?) dog caught (What?) (When?) - - (How many ?) fishes were caught (When ?) - (Which ?) horse kicked (Whom?) (How ?) (When ?) (What?) tree stands (Where?) (How many ?) ined dresie (Whom?) (How ?)

ack birds fly swiftly

one.

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