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necurd must either be both principal or both subordinate, and, :: either case, they must be of the same name, that is, both subject. both predicates, both adjective elements, &c. So, again, then adjective or adverbial elements thus connected' must be of lbo name species; both must express quality or possession, &c.

155. Connectives are divided into two genera classes - coördinate and subordinate; so named from the elements which they unite.

156. Coördinate conjunctions are used to con. nect similar elements, (149;) subordinate connectives are used to connect dissimilar elements.

Note. Subordinate connectives will be treated of in their proper place.

157. Coördinate conjunctions are divided into three classes :

(a.) Copulative, or those wh ch add the parts to each other; as, and, also, as well as;

(6.) Adversative, or those which show that the parts are opposed or contrasted in meaning; as, but, still, yet, nevertheless.

(c.) Alternative, or those which offer or deny a choice between two things; as, or, nor, else.

158. Coördinate conjunctions may be used to connect,

(a.) Two or more similar principal elements ; subjects ; as, “Mercury and Venus first appear; predicates ; as, “ This ancient city was captured and burned.

(6.) Two or more sim.ilar subordinate elements ; -- adjective elements ; as," A wise and virtuous prince iscended the throne;' -- objective elements ; as · Hercules killed a lion and a boar ;- adverbial

lements; as, “He lal ored faithfully and success. fully."

159. The parts of a compound element inave a common relation to the rest of the sentence.

NOTE. Coördinate conjunctions, used to connect subordinate elements, must always unite those of the same degree of subordination (145, 6.); as, “ He sent Samuel, his first and only son.” » Son” is subordinate to “ Samuel," and "first" and "only" are alike subordinate to “son; that is, they are of the same degree of subordination.

160. The following is the rule for parsing coördinate conjunctions:

Rule XI. Coördinate conjunctions are used to connect similar elements.

MODELS FOR ANALYZING AND PARSING. Socrates and Plato were distinguished philosophers

It is a sentence having a compound subject.* Socrates and Plato form the compound subject, because

they are united by “and,” and have a common (159) predicate, were phi

losophers.” The subject . ... is not limited. The predicate .. is limited by “distinguished," an ad

jective element of the first class, used

to describe " philosophers.” And

is a coördinate conjunction, (copula. tive,) and connects the two simple subjects; according to Rule XI.

A sentence having but one of its elements compound, is no properly a simple sentence, (27) nor is it strictly a compound (29) sentence. It may, not improperly, be called a partial compound, since one of its parts is compound. All such sentences may de converted into complete compounds, as will be shown hereafter

Note. Two subjects united by a coördinate conjunction, do pot form a compound subject, unless the predicate niay belong to each when taken separately; as, “Socrates was a distinguishea philosopher,” and “ Plato was a distinguished philosopher." But not so with the following propositions : – "Two and two are four;' “ Vice and misery are ins«parable.” We cannot say, “ Two are four and two are foar;" " Vice is inseparable and misery is inseparable.”

The same distinction should be observed in any element. " The buat sails between Brooklyn und New York :" not. hatween Brooklyn and between New York."

The soldier was weak, but courageous.

It is a sentence having a sinple subject and com

pound predicats. Soldier ..... is the subject. Was weak and was courageous form the compound predi.

cate, because they belony in common to the

same subject — "soldier." The subject .. is limited by “th," an n ije tive element

of the first ciass, usiu to “soldier.” But ... is a coördinate conjunction, (auversative,)

and connects the two predicates by con trasting the latter with the forver, ancien ing to Rule XI.

You may buy books or slates.

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It is a sentence having a compound objective elemeni. You

is the subject. May buy ... is the predicate. You. is not limitej. May buy. is limited by “ books or slates," a compound

objective element, of the first class showing what may be bought.

Or.... is a coördinate conjunction, (alternative,) show

ing that a choice is offered between “ books' and “slates,” which are connected by it; ac

cording to Rule XI. 161. Since a compound elemer.t may have a ocrb or pronoun agreeing with it, the following rule should be observed :

RULE XII. When a verb or pronoun relates to two or more nouns connected by a coördinate conjunction,

1st. If it agrees with them taken conjointly, it must be in the plural number;

2d. But, if it agrees with them taken separately, it must be of the same number as that which stands next to it.

3d. If it agrees with one, and not the other, , it must be of the same number as that with which it agrees.




Charles and his sister were absent.
Charles or his sister was absent.
Neither Charles nor his sister was absent.
Charles or his sisters were absent.
Either his sisters or Charles himself was absent.
Not Charles, but his siste , was absent.
Charies, and not his sister, was absent.
Charles, as well as his sister, was absent
Not Charles, but his sisters, were ansent.
Charles, and not nis sisters, 104s absent.


(a.) When the connected parts are preceded by each, every, and no, the verb or pronoun should be in the singular number,

162. When the parts connected by a coördinate cor junction are of lifferent persons a verb should agree with the first person, rather than the second or third, and with the second rather than the third ; as, “ John and I are coming ;

" Thou or John art guilty.”

163. A compound predicate generally contains similar attributes, each being a verb, a participle, an adjective, or a noun.

(a.) The parts generally, though not always, agree in mode and tense.

164. When two or more nouns in the possessive case are connected, - 1st, if the object possessed belongs to the two conjointly, the sign of possession should be applied to the last only; as, Little and Brown's store;- but, 2d, if different objects, hav. ing the same name, are possessed, the sign of pos. session ('s) should belong to them separately as. " Greenlea 's and Emerso



Analyze the following sentences, parsing the confunctions and the verbs :

The sun and moon stood still. Abraham, Isaac, and Ircob, were Jewish patriarchs. Exercise ferments the humore, throws off redundancies, and assists nature. The plain and simple style recommends and heightens the sublime. Education expands and elevates the mind. Religinn refines and pur'fies the affections. Mans very wortho

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