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Oh! father, I want that lily. 1.... is the subject. (Why?) Want. is the predicate. (Why?) Want. is limited by " that lily,” denoting what is wanted Oh! . is an interjection, having no dependence upon the

other parts of the sentence ; according to Rule X. Futher is a common noun, of the second person, singular

number, masculine gender, and nominative case independent; according to Rule X.


Write ten sentences, each containing a nominative case independent, an interjection, or both. Analyze and parse according to the model.



142. It has already been shown, that the subject and predicate may become complex by adding other words to them, giving rise to the distinction of grammatical and logical subject or predicate.

(a.) It should be distinctly understood, that all the other ele ments of a sentence, however long it may be, must depend upon the subject and predicate.

143. The subordinate elements, also, may be come coinplex, giving rise to a similar distinction of gram.matical and logical.



SUB. Daveless .... boys| Complex Subject.

Simple Elements.


Ado. will finish .... lessons ... quickly

Complex Predicute.

Complex Elements. Comp. Adj. SU. PRED. Comp. Obj. Comp. Ado. (Very careless .. bcys will finish .. their lesson .. too quickly Complex Subject.

Complex Predicate.

144. In a complex element, the simple element, on which the others depend, is the basis of it. Thus “careless" is the basis of "very careless ;" lessons" is the basis of their lessons ;” and (quickly” is the basis of “very quickly.”

145. The simple element which is joined to the basis is dependent upon it, and hence is said to be subos dinate to it; as, "He purchased a good farm.”

(a.) “ Good," in this example, is subordinate to “ farm " This element, in turn, may become the basis to another elemen subordinate to itself; as, “ He purchased a dery good farm."

(0.) This connection of elements may be continued indefinitely, forming different degrees of subordination.

146. Complex elements are formed by uniting two or more dissimilar simple elements; the one being principal, and the other subordinate to it.

Besides being dissimilar in rank, (.e. one principal and the othe: subordinate,)

(a.) Two e.ements, dissimilar in name, may be united,

An adoerbal to an adjective element; as, “ An exceedingly beautiful river ornaments the town; “ One treated hospitably should return the favor;

An adjective to an objective element; as, “My uncle drovo a spirited horse."

(b.) Two elements, similar in name, but dissimilar in office, may be united,

An adverb of quantity or degree to an adverb of time, place, or manner; as, “We dined unusually late ;“ He has gonė too far;" “ The boat moves very rapidly;'

An adjective element denoting quality, number, order, &c., to another adjective element denoting office (104) or possession, (106;) as, “John, the beloved disciple, was banished;"

“ The good man's hope will not disappoint him."

(c.) Two elements, similar in name and office, but dissimilaj in their particular application, may be united,

A noun in the possessive case to a noun in the possesside; as, " Jacob's brother's son;.

A noun in apposition to a noun in apposition ; as, “ His brother David the painter."

In the first example, - brother's " limits “son," and “ Jacob's" imits “ brother's." In the second, “ David " limits “brother,' and painter " limits “ David.”

147. The basis of a complex element determines its name and class; as, “Birds fly very swiftly."

(a.) “Swiftly,” the basis of “very swiftly," shows the com plex element to be an adverbial element of the first class.

148. An adjective is often made subordinate, not to another adjective or noun, alone, but to both united; as, “An active young soldier."

(a.) When a limiting and a qualifying adjective both belong to the same noun, the former should be placed first; as, “all grod men;" “ this little book;" “ the besieged city.”

(6.) The articles a and the should stand first with all adjec tives, es cept many and such; as, many a flower ;": "pacho book'


The king issued his decree.

It is a simple sentence. King ....

is the subject. Issued is the predicate. The subject is limited by “the.” “The king" is the

complex subject. The predicate is limited by “his decree," — a complex

objective element, of the first class, denoting what was issued. “ Issued his decree”

is the complex predicate. Decree, .... the basis of the complex objective element,

is limited by “his," - a simple adjective element of the first class, denoting whose decree. Parse “decree” by Rule VIII.,

and “ his " by Rule VII. NOTE. Each subordinate element may be complex, and should se analyzed in the same manner.


Analyze the following sentences according to the model.

His oldest brother's son was sick. Alfred the Great subdued the Danish king. Peter the hermit preached the first crusade. William the Conqueror defeated Harold the Saxon king. Excess produces premature old age. Touch it very lightly. Avarice often produces contrary effects. Interest speaks all languages. It acts all parts. Guard well your own heart. The shade protected the weary pil. grim. Labor disgraces no man. Joseph, Jacob's favorite son, was sold. Moses received the ten commandments.

Write ten sentences of your own, making either element compler.

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149 In the preceding section, it has been sh jwn that dissimilar elements may be unital ly moking one subordinate (146) to another. It is often necessary to unite similar elements by making them coördinate with each other.

150. Two or more elements are said to be coördinate with each other, when they sustain the jume rank in the sentence, and are placed in the same relation to si me other element; as,

16 John and James attended school."

(a.) “ John” and “ Jaines are both subjects of « attend; " they hold the same rank (hoth subjects) in the sentence, and are similar in construction; they are hence called coordinate, which means, of the same rank in the sentence " John's brother James attended school," " John's" and “ James” are subordi. nate to “ brother."

151. When two elements are coördinate with each other, they form one compound element; as, “George reads and writes."

152. An element may be both complex and compound; as, “George reads the papers and writes letters."

153. A subordinate element of the first class is joined to its basis immediately. (14, a., 144.)

154. Coördinate elements of any class joined to each other by a peculiar class of words called Conjunctions.

1 a.) It will be readily perceived that two elements thus con


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