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(a.) There are properly no adverbs which lenote a causa they rather inquire for one.

IV.-ADVERBS DENOTING MANNER.

133. The predicate may be limited by adverbs denoting manner; as “The water flows gently.

(a.) It has been seen that mode is that property of the verb, (70) which shows the manner of an assertion. The manner of the attribute asserted is shown by means of adverbs.

(6.) Adverbs of manner embrace a large class, ending in ly, formed from adjectives denoting quality. They generally an. swer the questions, How? How much :

(c.) Adverbs answering the question, How denote quality, those answering the question, How much : denote quantity or degree.

134. Besides those enumerated, there is another class of adverbs which show the manner of the assertion, not the attribute. Hence they are called modal adverbs, since they affect the manner of the assertion, (70, a.) and not that of the attribute : as, “Astrology is not a science;" “ The sun had scarcely set.

(a.) Adverbs of mode affect the degree of certainty with which an attribute is affirmed. Beginning with denial, there are modal adverbs applicable to the several degrees of doubt, uncertainty, possibility, probability, and certainty; as, “My brother will not come ; ” “ Perhaps he will come; Possibly he may come; " He will probably come; “ He will assuredly come.”

(6.) The predicate adjective or par iciple, following copulativo verbs, generally indicates the manner of the action, while, at the same time, it denotes some property (35, 6.) of the subject; as, The boy was made sick."

Note. For a list of the different la es of adverbs see .Ap nendix, Lesson XII.

COMPARISON OF ADVERBS.

135 When it is necessary to show that one predicate represents a quality or an action in a higher or lower degree than another with which it is compared, the comparison is effected by means cf an intervening adverb; as, “George learned his lesson sooner than James learned his."

(a.) A comparison of one predicate with another may also he indicated by means of connectives denoting comparison.

136. Adverbs should be parsed by the following rule:

Kule IX. Adverbs are used to limit verbs, participles, adjectives, and other adverbs.

MonELS FOR ANALYZING AND PARSING.

Light moves rapidly. It is a simple sentence, because it contains but one

proposition. Light .. is the subject, because it is that of which

the action " moves " is affirmed. Moves ...... is the predicate, because it is the action

affirmed of " light." Mrves rapidly is the complex predicate, because it is the

grammatical predicate, with all its limita

tions. Moves ...... is limited by “rapidly, ' an adverbial ele.

of the first class denoting how light

moves.

Rapidly ... is an adverb of manner, of the positive de gree, (compa red, rapidly, more rapidly, most rapidly, and limits roues ;” according to Rule IX., “ Adverbs lanit, &c."

EXERCISE 24. Analyze tie following sentences, and parse the adverbs :

Human prudence should be rightly understood. The stage started early. Mary writes beautifully. The wind plows fiercely. We easily forget our own misdeeds. W6 cannot view the sun steadily. One can easily imagine himself a prince. The sun shines brightly. The water flows there. Perhaps he will do it. He cannot do it Write carefully. Study attentively. Come here.

Write fifteen sentences, and limit each predicate by an adverb.

MODEL FOR ALL THE ELEMENTS UNITED.

Contsant boasting always betrays incapacity. It is a simple sentence, because it contains but one

proposition. Boasting is the subject. (Why?) Betrays.

is the predicate. (Why?) The subject. .... is limited by “constant," an adjective

element of the first class, denoting a

continued habit. Constant boasting is the complex subject. (Why?) (95.) Betrays

is limited, first, by "incapacity," and objective element of the first class, de

noting what is betrayed. Betrays

is also modified by “always," an adverbial element of the first class, denot.

ing time absolute. (See 130, a.) Always betrays incapacity.. is the complex predicate. (113.) Order of Parsing the Elements. 1st. The subject. --- 2d. The predicate, 3d. The adjective element. — 4th. The objective ele ment. - 5th. The adverbial element.

.

BETRAYS

137. The five elements of the sentence (8) may be thus represented :

Constant .. First Subordinate.
BOASTING

Principal.
incapacity Second Subordinate.
always..

Third Subordinate. (a.) To exhibit the class and connection of the elements in a general way, they may be best represented by a formula in which 8 shall stand for the subject, P for the predicate, and Adj., Obj., and Ado. for the adjective, objective, and adverbial elements. The connection of the subordinate elements with the principal is indicated by the sign of addition, and the class of each by the figure underneath. Thus..

Adj. + 5 : P + Obj. + Adv.
Class.

1 1 1 1

EXERCISE 25.

Analyze the following examples, and parse each word. Show which have five elements, and which kave not.

The pupil performed the task correctly. The ambitious often deceive themselves. The slothful seldom respect themselves. No man should return an injury. Idleness begets poverty. Animals run. Some animals run swiftly. The birds devour the cherries greedily. Virtue is often neglected. Socrates the philosopher was condemned.

IPrite five sentences containing five elements; –

and

five, containing four ; - five, containing three ; five others, containing only two

SECTION VIII.

INTERJECTIONS, AND THE CASE INDEPENDENT.

138. There are certain words used simply to express the emotions of the speaker, which do not form any part of a sentence; as, oh! alas ! ah ! such words are called Interjections, because they are thrown in between the parts of a sentence.

(a.) Interjections have no dependence upon other words, and therefore need no further illustration.

139. It is often necessary to designate the person to whom language is addressed. When this is done, his name or title is introduced, generally, at the beginning of the sentence, but has no grammatical relation to the parts of it; as, "Father, I have returned ; " "Sir, defeat is impossible.

140. A noun or pronoun thus used is said to be in the nominative case independent.

141. The interjection and the nominative case independent may be parsed by the following rule:

Rule X. The nominative case independent, and the interjection, have no grammatical relation to the other parts of the sentence

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