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ment of the first class, denoting w.lom

Cæsar defeated. Defeated Pompey is the complex predicate. Pompey is a proper noun, cf the third person,

singular number, masculine gender, objective case, and is the object of "de. feated : ” according to Rule VIII.



The dog

Analyze the following sentences, and parse the object :

Brutus killed Cæsar. Heat overcomes me. pursued a fox. The lion ate a sheep. He views the stars We built a house. The ink soils the carpet. Josephus wrote a history. William conquered England. Alfred defeated the Danes Bring a book. Repeat the lesson. He might have been leading the army.

Write subjects and objects to the following verbs :

Lead, praise, restrain, know, fear, see, love, admonish, bring, correct, frighten, pursue, break, torment, perplex, annoy, betray, sing, open, displace, equip, defend, punisk, leave, desire.

Change the verbs of you written sentences from the active to the passive form. MODEL. Abraham led Isaac. Isaac was led by Abra



Object and Attribute 120. Some verbs are followed by two objects, -one denoting some person or thing, and the other some artribute (15) of it; as, “ They a; puinted him president.

(a.) “ President” is an attribute of “him," denoting office. (See note at the bottom of page 17.)

121. Instead of a substantive, an adjective or verbal attribute may follow the object of such verbs.


an officer,. . (substantive attribute.) They made the man jealous, ... (adjective attribute.)

labor,* .... (verbal attribute.) 122. When such verbs assume the passive form, the object generally becomes the subject, and the attribute remains as a predicate.


an officer, . . (substantive attribute.) The man was made jealous, . (adjective attribute.)

to labor, ... (verbal attribute.) (a.) It not unfrequently happens, however, that the attribute, or second object, becomes the subject; as, “ An officer was made of the man.”

(6.) A few verbs only can take, besides an object, a substantite attribute in the objective. These are, make, appoint, elect, create, constitute, render, namo, style, call, esteem, think, consider, regard, reckon, and some others.

(c.) The number which may take an adjective or derbal attribute is much greater.

(d.) It should be observed, respecting either form of the above attributes,

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• The verbal attribute may take the form of the infinitide; as, " I heard him speak - or that of the participle; as, “ I heard niin speaking'

(1) That they are predicated, (not assumed.). Compare with the example (121) the following, ir. which the same attributes are assumed:- " They made the man, an officer," i.e.

6 who was an ntlicer; They made a jealous man; " " They made a laboring man."

(2.) When the verb is in the active voice, they are predicated of the object, not the subject, of the verb.

(3.) That the verb (in the active voice) performs the office of i transitive verb, governing the first object, and, at the same time, becomes a kind of copula, making that object a subject, and the second object its predicate. This latter function of the verb is retained when it takes the passive form. See examples, (122.)

(e.) The infinitive to be, or the participle being, with as, 's often placed between the object and its attribute; as,

« We 'rnsidered him to be too young,” or as being too young."

Direct and Indirect Ohjects.

123. There is another class of verbs followed y two objects, -one denoting some person or hing, and the other, that to or from which the action tends. The former is called the direct, and the latter the indirect object; as, “He taught me [indirect] grammar” [direct]; “He asked me a question.

(a.) The indirect object is generally said to be governed by some preposition understood. It will be more fully discussid under the corresponding head in the next chaster.

124. When the verb assumes the passive form} - she direct object should become the subject, the indirect object remaining in the objective case; as, “Grammar was taught me by him.” (a.) Sometimes, however, the indirect object becomes the subject, lea ing the direct object in the objective case after the passive verb; as, “ I was taught grammar by him."

(6.) Some intransitive verbs take after them an object of a kindred signification; as, “ He sang a song ;

“ He played a game.” Such verbs may take, also, an indirect object; as, “I played him a tune;” “ We struck him a blow."

(c.) The following are some of the verbs which take a direct and indirect object:- buy, sell, play, sing, find, gct, lend, draw, send, make, pass, write, pour, gide, teach, leade, bring, tell, do, present, throw, carry, ask, show, order, promise, refuse, deny, provide.


Write thirty sentences, taking any of the verbs for predicates mentioned in 122, (5.) or 124, (c.)

MODEL. They appointed George secretary. Change the verbs into the passive form.




125. It has been seen (Sec. VI.) that certain verbs (transitive) require the addition of one or more words to complete the sense. Any verb or adjective may take one or more additional words co denote some circumstance of place, time, cause, or manner.

These additions constitute the adverb ial element.

(a.) Such additions are not, like the object, indispensable to Bomplete the sense.

126. The alverb' il element, in its simplest state, is expressed by a class of words called Adverbs.

Note Let the pupil stucy Lerson XII., in the Appendix.


127. The predicate may be limited by adverbs of place; as, “Come hither;“I see him yonder."

128. Adverbs of place are used to denote three relations, - at a place, (Where?)from a place, (Whence ?) - to a place, (Whither ?)

NOTE. Whither and whence are now seldom used


129. The predicate may be limited by adverbs denoting time; as, “He went yesterday.

130. The time denoted by the adverb is always simultaneous with that of the event. Hence, in relation to the time of the speaker, (78, a.) an adverb may denote a time present, past, or future ; as, “We are now walking;” “We walked yesterday;” “We shall walk hereafter."

(a.) Some adverbs have no referenci to either of the three divisions of time. Hence they denote time absolute; as, always, whenever.

131. Adverbs of time denote either a point, dum ration, or frequency of time, answering the questions, When? How long? How often?


132. The predicate may be limited :y adverbs of cause ; as, Why did he lea re ?"

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